Verse 3: And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, (Judg. 3:3) and to the Hivite under (Josh. 13:11) Hermon (Gen. 31:49) in the land of Mizpeh.
[The Canaanites also on the east and west (similarly all interpreters)] (Supply, who were dwelling) on the east, etc. (Vatablus). They that were dwelling near Jordan (that is, on the East) and near the Sea (which denotes the West) were properly called Canaanites: Numbers 13:29 (Masius, Drusius).
The Canaanites properly so called lived part of them on the east near Jordan, and part on the west near the sea, and both are here united.
[The Hivite also that was dwelling near the foot of Hermon] He adds this, lest one should think that the Gibeonites (who also were Hivites) had joined themselves with those enemies (Masius). That Hivites were dwelling on mount Hermon is evident from Judges 3:3 (Masius, Serarius). Now, Hermon is twofold: one is on this side of Jordan, near mount Gilboa; the other is on the other side of Jordan, over against mount Libanus toward the West, which elsewhere is called Baal-Hermon, and Sirion, and Senir. He speaks here of the latter (Bonfrerius, Masius, Serarius). The Hivites are called Kadmonim, or Kadmonites, that is, Easterners, because they occupied mount Hermon, which was the eastern most part of the land of Canaan; whence Hermon is held as the East, and Tabor as the West, Psalm 89:12. And hence the wife of Cadmus is called Harmonia, or Hermione. It is no longer obscure why the Kadmonites are pretended to have been changed into serpents; for they were Hivites, and חויא is serpent to the Syrians (Bochart’s Sacred Geography “Canaan” 1:19:487).
The Hivite under Hermon; that dwelt under Mount Hermon in the north of Canaan, whereby they are differenced from those Hivites who lived in Gibeon; of which before.
[In the land of Maspha, בְּאֶ֖רֶץ הַמִּצְפָּֽה׃] In the land of Mizpeh (Munster, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Montanus, Jonathan, similarly Junius and Tremellius). Now, Mizpeh was fourfold: 1. in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:38; 2. in the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:26; 3. that of the Moabites, 1 Samuel 22:3; 4. that which is conjoined with Gilead, concerning which Genesis 31:49; Judges 10:17 (or Judges 11:29 [Serarius]). And he speaks of that one (Junius). In the region of Mizpeh, that is, a watch-tower: for it is a region situated at the entry of Libanus above Jordan, where scouts were located (Junius). In the land of watch-towers (Syriac); in a more elevated region (Arabic).
Mizpeh; that Mizpeh which was in the northern part of Gilead; of which Genesis 31:49; Judges 11:29. But there were other cities called by that name, which signifying a watching-place, might be easily applied to several places of good prospect. Besides this, there is one Mizpeh of Judah, Joshua 15:38; another of Benjamin, Joshua 18:26; a third in Moab, 1 Samuel 22:3.
 Hebrew: הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ מִמִּזְרָ֣ח וּמִיָּ֔ם וְהָאֱמֹרִ֧י וְהַחִתִּ֛י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֥י וְהַיְבוּסִ֖י בָּהָ֑ר וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ תַּ֣חַת חֶרְמ֔וֹן בְּאֶ֖רֶץ הַמִּצְפָּֽה׃
 See Joshua 9:3, 7.
 See Judges 3:3.
 See Deuteronomy 3:9; Psalm 29:6.
 See 1 Chronicles 5:23; Song of Solomon 4:8; Ezekiel 27:5.
 Genesis 15:19: “The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (הַקַּדְמֹנִי)…” קַדְמֹנִי/Kamonite is related to קֶדֶם/east.
 Cadmus, in Greek mythology, was from Phœnicia. Upon the counsel of Athena, Cadmus killed a dragon and sowed its teeth into the earth, which brought forth the Spartes, a fierce people, who killed one another until only five remained. These five survivors helped Cadmus to build Thebes; but the dragon was sacred to the gods, and they cursed Cadmus for its death. With the establishment of the government of Thebes, Zeus gave Harmonia to be Cadmus’ bride, but misfortune clung to them. Cadmus, lamenting the attachment of the gods to the serpent, wished for the life of a serpent, and he and his wife were changed.
 חויא has a phonetic similarity to חִוִּי/Hivite.
 מִצְפָּה/Mizpeh is related to the verbal root צָפָה, to look out.