Verse 10: But (Matt. 24:43; Luke 12:39; 1 Thess. 5:2; Rev. 3:3; 16:15) the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which (Ps. 102:26; Is. 51:6; Matt. 24:35; Mark 13:31; Rom. 8:20; Heb. 1:11; Rev. 20:11; 21:1) the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.
[But shall come the day of the lord (that last day, in which Christ shall judge men [Grotius, similarly Estius, Menochius, Gerhard, Gomar]; an earnest of which shall be those Judgments against the Jews, Luke 17:24; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Philippians 1:10 [Grotius]) as, etc., ἥξει δὲ ἡ ἡμέρα Κυρίου ὡς κλέπτης ἐν νυκτί] As a thief comes in the night (Beza, etc.), that is, unforeseen and unexpected (Menochius, thus Beza, Estius, Piscator, Mede); suddenly, Matthew 24:43; Luke 12:39; 1 Thessalonians 5:2 (Grotius).
But the day of the Lord; the day of judgment is here called the day of the Lord by way of eminence, as the great day, Jude 6, and the great day of God Almighty, Revelation 16:14, and the day of the Lord Jesus, 1 Corinthians 1:8; 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Philippians 1:6, 10. Will come as a thief in the night; as a thief comes suddenly and unexpectedly, when he thinks all in the house are most secure.
[In which the heavens with great violence, etc., ἐν ᾗ οἱ οὐρανοὶ ῥοιζηδὸν παρελεύσονται] Stridently (or, with a high-pitched sound [Pe., Beza, Piscator, Illyricus]; or, in the manner of a storm [Erasmus, Tigurinus]; with great violence [Vulgate, Grotius]; with a violent sound [Estius]: In the Glossa ῥοῖζος [is] fury [Grotius, thus Gerhard], with a high-pitched sound or hissing [Gerhard]: Also the Scholiasts of Home interpret it as ὁρμήν/onrush [Grotius]: It is used of the impetus of spirit, Bel and the Dragon 1:36; of a chariot, 2 Maccabees 9:7; of a river, Ezekiel 47:5; and of winds, or of arrows, or of flying birds, Wisdom of Solomon 5:11, 12; Homer’s Iliad π´; Plutarch’s Concerning the Hearing of Poems: And ῥοιζεῖν is to hiss with a high-pitched sound [Gerhard]: Others: swiftly [Castalio, thus Hammond], suddenly [Syriac], immediately [Arabic]: The latter better agrees with the similitude of thieves, than the former with a loud noise, which thieves do not willingly emit: Phavorinus [interprets] ῥοίζει as διώκει, to impel, ὁρμᾷ, to set in motion, τρέχει, to run; and ῥοιζηδὸν as σφοδρῶς/violently [Hammond]) they shall pass, or shall pass over (Montanus, Beza, Erasmus, etc.), or, shall perish (Castalio). The Sky and Ether shall perish, because their appearance and form shall be changed. Things appear to be absent, say the Lawyers, even these things of which the body remains, but the form has been changed: where body is used in the place of matter. Concerning the word παρέρχεσθαι, to pass, see Matthew 5:18 (Grotius); 24:35; Luke 16:17; Revelation 21:1 (Gerhard). The Hebrews use עָבַר in the same sense, as in Psalm 37:36 and elsewhere. אָבַד is also put for this, Psalm 102:26 (Grotius).
In the which the heavens; viz. those that are visible, in distinction from the empyreal heaven, or place of glorified spirits. Shall pass away; either wholly, so as to cease to be; or rather, as to their present being and condition, so as to cease to be what they now are, and to give place to the new heaven, Revelation 21:1. The same word is used, Matthew 24:35; Luke 16:17. With a great noise; either swiftly and violently, or with such a noise as is usually caused by such violent and speedy motions.
[The elements, etc., στοιχεῖα δὲ καυσούμενα λυθήσονται] Indeed, the elements, burning (or, having ignited with heat [Estius]: This word is found in Dioscorides [Grotius]) shall be unbound (Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, shall be melted and dispersed (Gerhard, thus Mede). Λύειν signifies to destroy, as in John 2:19; Acts 27:41; 1 John 3:8 (Gerhard). Λύεσθαι here, which Euripides called διακρίνεσθαι, to separate, is to perish from its prior form (Grotius). The sense: with fire applied they shall be melted: for what here is λυθήσονται, they shall be unbound, is in verse 12 τηκήσεται, they shall melt. Now, melting is done for purification. Add that the Septuagint translates the word צָרַף, to refine, to try, by the word πυρόω, to burn or melt with fire, in Psalm 12 and elsewhere. It is a Metaphor taken from metals, which are melted with fire so that they might be purified (Mede’s Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophesie of Saint Peter 760). By στοιχεῖα/elements here he understands, either, 1. Air, Water, and Earth, which perished in the waters of the Flood: not fire. For how will fire consume fire, and that completely (Estius)? On the other hand, 1. the language of στοιχείων/elements in Sacred Scripture is not wont to be taken in a philosophical sense, neither is it able thus to be taken here. For the Hebraic division of the World into Heaven and Earth is here expressed, and στοιχεῖα, the elements, are distinguished from both. Moreover, in that division of the Hebrews, Earth includes Water, just as Heaven includes Air. Thus we have the three elements of the Philosophers. The fourth is Fire, which is a thing burning, not to be burned (Mede’s Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophesie of Saint Peter 758). Or, 2. Stars and Water: for a special mention of Earth follows. Compare Wisdom of Solomon 19:18 (Grotius). What the στοιχεῖα might be here is to be learned from the Antithesis: for to the word στοιχεῖα answers τὰ ἔργα, the works, in the earth. Therefore, as ἔργα here are the hosts of the earth, or the masses of creatures pertaining to the earth, so also the hosts of heaven, Genesis 2:1, are able to be called στοιχεῖα, with the Hellenists here, as is often the case, bending a Greek word unto a signification similar to their own tongue. And in this sense the word is used by Justin Martyr, Theodoret, Theophilus, Polycrates. [Whose words see in Mede.] And the word στοιχείων, in Wisdom of Solomon 7:17-19, Ramban, with Schickard as witness, renders מַזָּלוֹת, which word signifies the Planets, Signs, or Constellations of heaven. And what is צָבָא to the Hebrews is στείχω, that is, to march in military order; and στίχος, or στοίχος, is military order. Now, as the heaven is threefold, Empyreal, Starry, and Aerial: so also are the hosts of each, of the First, Angles and blessed Spirits; of the second, Stars and Planets; of the third are either visible, like Clouds, Meteors, Birds, or invisible, like Demons, Ephesians 2:2; 6:12. These last are here treated: and Demons, although they are not to be consumed by this fire, yet by it they are to be driven from their aerial dwellings, and cast down to hell. But if one might take this passage in the Prophetic style, Heaven here is able to denote the highest part of the Political Sphere, the Hosts of which are Idols, Kings, Princes, etc.; but Earth denotes the common sort of men: in which sense heaven and earth are taken in Isaiah 34:2, 4, 5; Jeremiah 4:23; Haggai 2:6, 7, 21, 22. Thus also Matthew 24:29. Why not also in this place, where a Prophecy is transcribed, might they be able to be taken? Now, the sense is thus: The whole world of the impious, the highest and the lowest, Princes and common people, men and beasts, shall be consumed (Mede’s Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophesie of Saint Peter 759, etc.).
[The earth, etc., καὶ γῆ καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ ἔργα κατακαήσεται] And the earth and what works are in it (ἔργα/works here means מַלְאֲכוֹת/works/occupations/ property, under which name are also comprehended Animals, as in Genesis 33:14, and other things which are possessed by men, like Trees and Plants: Thus—labors of oxen in the writings of the Poets [Grotius]: He understand here works, either, 1. of nature, such as mountains, rocks, metals [Tirinus], plants, beasts, etc. [certain interpreters in Estius, thus a great many in Gerhard]; or, 2. of art [Tirinus], such as buildings, cities, citadels, etc. [other interpreters in Estius, Gerhard, Menochius]; or, 3. of sins, or earthly acts, which is favored by the Antithesis, holy conversation, in the following versr, and the righteousness of the new earth, etc. [Estius]: It is evident that the whole system of the world is treated here, with all its parts and contents [Gerhard]) shall be burned up (Beza, Piscator, Grotius, etc.). For this is κατακαίεσθαι in Exodus 3:2; Isaiah 43:2; 64:2; Jeremiah 49:2; etc. (Grotius). This fire shall not burn the entire earth, but it exterior parts, which serve the uses of men, and which, infected by the sins of men, shall require purging (Estius). But Peter speaks here absolutely concerning the whole earth, and heaven, etc. (Gerhard). Now, here he understands the aerial heavens (Tirinus, thus Estius, Menochius), but not the ethereal, as is readily suggested, both by their most excellent nature and immense mass; and, because it is not able to be proven that those are stained by the sin of man or are cursed, or are inhabited by any of the hosts of God (Mede’s Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophesie of Saint Peter 760). But it is expressly said in Psalm 102:26 that the entire heaven is going to perish, that is, the entire space of atmosphere between the heavenly boides and the earth. And in this passage all the elements shall perish, so that they speak to no purpose who except from this πανολεθρίᾳ, total destruction the upper region of the atmosphere, like Barradius and Estius (Gerhard). [It is to be inquired here, Whether the destruction of the world is going to be substantial, or only accidental, or with respect to qualities?] Now, since this is not an article of faith, it is permitted to the learned and honest to differ concerning it (Laurentius out of Augustine, similarly Gerhard). The substantial destruction of the world is affirmed by Clement of Rome and Hillary (Laurentius, Vorstius), likewise Luther, Melanchthon, Brentius, Bucer, Beroaldus (Vorstius), Meisner, Salmeron, etc. (Laurentius) [who are followed by Vorstius, Gerhard, etc.]. The arguments for this opinion are, 1. The emphatic words of Scripture, by which this destruction is described (Gerhard). For the world, heaven and earth, are said to pass away, Isaiah 51:6, so shaken that they are moved, Hebrews 12:26, not to remain, Hebrews 13:14, not to be any longer, Revelation 10:6, 7; 21:1; etc., to end, Matthew 28:20, to perish, Psalm 102:26, 27, to be loosened, to be dissolved, to be burned up, in this passage, to pass, or to pass by, here and in 1 John 2:17 (Vorstius), and in Luke 21:33 (Gerhard). But the verb, παρελεύσονται, it shall pass, according to the Hebraism signifies any change of a thing, or transition into another state, and answers to the verb עָבַר, to pass over; it no more denotes obliteration in this destruction through fire than the word ἀπώλετο, it perished, when the speech was concerning the destruction through water (Mede’s Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophesie of Saint Peter 761). 2. The purpose of God, creating the world with that end which is described in Genesis 1. Now, this end or use must cease with this animal and earthly life of man: for then we shall not need nourishment, clothing, crops, plants, beasts, etc., which hence shall be to no purpose. But God does not make anything in vain. 3. The wisdom of God, which always proceeds from the less perfect to the more perfect, for example, from shadows to the substance of the thing, from earthly to heavenly and spiritual things (Vorstius). [These things concerning the first opinion.] An accidental destruction of the world is affirmed by Irenæus, Justin Martyr, Cyril, Chrysostom, Augustine, Basil, etc., whom Vossius cites in Theses for Disputation “Concerning the End of the World”. These are followed by Calvin, Piscator, Pareus, Vossius, Lombard, Aquinas, Cajetan, Pererius, Toletus, Hemmingsen, etc. (Laurentius) [who are followed by Laurentius, Estius, Mede, etc.]. The arguments for this opinion are, 1. Some passages of Scripture, like Psalm 102:28; Isaiah 30:26 (Laurentius, certain interpreters in Vorstius), and especially Romans 8:19, etc. (Laurentius out of Vossius). But in that place only the liberation of the creature from the present abuse of men is treated, which is able to consist with the substantial destruction of the world (Vorstius). [See what things were said there.] 2. The destruction of the world by water was only with respect to qualities; therefore, such shall be that by fire (certain interpreters in Vorstius). But the reason is unequal, for by the former devastation an end was not imposed on this entire animal life (Vorstius). 3. The reason for this destruction of the world is so that it might be liberated from the curse, Genesis 3:17. But this is not to be referred to the substance of the earth, but only to qualities, etc. (certain interpreters in Vorstius). But the true cause of this destruction is that at that time there shall be no further use of this world, since it has only been designed for animal and terrestrial life. For the curse pertains to the earth alone, which hence is to be renovated alone (Vorstius). 4. Then there would be no place either for blessed or damned men (certain interpreters in Vorstius). But at that time there shall be a new earth, but one plainly dissimilar to this our earth, inasmuch as it shall be entirely heavenly and spiritual (Vorstius). But that new creation of the new earth has no foundation in Scripture, and is altogether superfluous (Laurentius). Others: It is not here treated, as it is commonly thought, of the end of the world; but of the astonishing Destruction of the Jewish nation, which is sometimes called the world, as in Isaiah 10:23, compared with Romans 9:28; Isaiah 13:5, 9; etc., or, which is the same thing, heaven and earth, Isaiah 51:15, 16; Haggai 2:6, 21; or, if the heavens here be understood as the ethereal, and Planets, etc., they shall answer to the Sun, Moon, and Stars, Matthew 24:29, and shall aptly express the City and Temple, and the civil and Ecclesiastical state, of the Jews, and the governors of both, as the common people are designated by the earth, etc. Now, in this manner is described this judgment of God, both, because it was quite dreadful and most grievous, which sort the Prophets are wont to denote by fire and burning; and, also on account of that fire kindled by the Romans and the Zealots, by which in a wonderful manner the City, Temple, etc. burned, so that not even Titus himself, although more than willing, was able to restrain the conflagration (Hammond).
The elements, in a natural sense, as integral parts of the universe, air, water, earth. Shall melt with fervent heat; so 2 Peter 3:12, where another word is used in the Greek, which properly signifies melting, or being on fire, or burning, shall be dissolved or destroyed. So the word signifies, John 2:19; 1 John 3:8. The earth also; the habitable part of the world. Though the earth, as a part of the world, be included in the elements before mentioned, yet here it may be taken with respect to its inhabitants, and the things contained in it. And the works that are therein shall be burned up; not only artificial, men’s works, but natural, all that variety of creatures, animate and inanimate, wherewith God hath stored this lower world for the present use of man; and so all those delectable things in which carnal men seek their happiness.
 Ῥοιζηδόν is an adverb, derived from the verbal root, ῥοιζέω, to make a confused noise.
 Bel and the Dragon 1:36: “Then the angel of the Lord took him by the crown, and bare him by the hair of his head, and through the vehemency (τῷ ῥοίζῳ) of his spirit set him in Babylon over the den.”
 2 Maccabees 9:7: “Howbeit he nothing at all ceased from his bragging, but still was filled with pride, breathing out fire in his rage against the Jews, and commanding to haste the journey: but it came to pass that he fell down from his chariot, carried violently (ῥοίζῳ); so that having a sore fall, all the members of his body were much pained.”
 Ezekiel 47:5: “Afterward he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not pass over: for the waters were risen, waters to swim in, the rushing of a torrent (ῥοῖζος χειμάρρου, in the Septuagint) that could not be passed over.”
 Wisdom of Solomon 5:11, 12: “Or as when a bird hath flown through the air, there is no token of her way to be found, but the light air being beaten with the stroke of her wings and parted with the violent noise (βίᾳ ῥοίζου) and motion of them, is passed through, and therein afterwards no sign where she went is to be found; Or like as when an arrow is shot at a mark, it parteth the air, which immediately cometh together again, so that a man cannot know where it went through…”
 Iliad 16:358-361: “And the great Aias was ever fain to cast his spear at Hector…but he in his cunning of war…ever watched the whirring (ῥοῖζον) of arrows and the hurtling of spears.”
 Πῶς δεῖ τὸν νέον ποιημάτων ἀκούειν.
 Matthew 5:18: “For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass (παρέλθῃ), one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass (παρέλθῃ) from the law, till all be fulfilled.”
 Matthew 24:35: “Heaven and earth shall pass away (παρελεύσονται), but my words shall not pass away (παρέλθωσι).”
 Luke 16:17: “And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass (παρελθεῖν), than one tittle of the law to fail.”
 Revelation 21:1: “And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away (παρῆλθε); and there was no more sea.”
 Psalm 37:36: “Yet he passed away (וַיַּעֲבֹר; καὶ παρῆλθον, in the Septuagint), and, lo, he was not: yea, I sought him, but he could not be found.”
 Psalm 102:26a: “They shall perish (יֹאבֵדוּ), but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment…”
 De Materia Medica 2:134.
 John 2:19: “Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy (λύσατε) this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”
 Acts 27:41: “And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmoveable, but the hinder part was broken (ἐλύετο) with the violence of the waves.”
 1 John 3:8b: “For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy (λύσῃ) the works of the devil.”
 2 Peter 3:12: “Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved (πυρούμενοι λυθήσονται), and the elements burning with great heat shall melt (καυσούμενα τήκεται)?”
 Psalm 12:6: “The words of the Lord are pure words: as silver tried (צָרוּף; πεπυρωμένον, in the Septuagint) in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.”
 Wisdom of Solomon 19:18-21: “For the elements (τὰ στοιχεῖα) were changed in themselves by a kind of harmony, like as in a psaltery notes change the name of the tune, and yet are always sounds; which may well be perceived by the sight of the things that have been done. For earthly things were turned into watery, and the things, that before swam in the water, now went upon the ground. The fire had power in the water, forgetting his own virtue: and the water forgat his own quenching nature. On the other side, the flames wasted not the flesh of the corruptible living things, though they walked therein; neither melted they the icy kind of heavenly meat that was of nature apt to melt.”
 Genesis 2:1: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them (צְבָאָם, from צָבָא/tsaba).”
 Dialogue with Trypho 23; Apology 2.
 Apologia ad Autolycum 1. Theophilus (second century) was converted to Christianity from paganism, and he was ordained as Bishop of Antioch circa 168.
 Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History 5:24. Polycrates of Ephesus (second century) was a Christian bishop at Ephesus.
 Wisdom of Solomon 7:17-19: “For he hath given me certain knowledge of the things that are, namely, to know how the world was made, and the operation of the elements (στοιχείων): The beginning, ending, and midst of the times: the alterations of the turning of the sun, and the change of seasons: The circuits of years, and the positions of stars…”
 Moshe ben Nehman Gerondi, or Nahmanides (1194-1270), was a medieval Spanish rabbi, a philosopher, a Kabbalist, and a Biblical commentator. His commentary on the Torah is characterized by his own careful philological work, an uncritical acceptance of the teachings of the rabbis of the Mishnah and Talmud, and mysticism.
 William Schickard (d. 1635) was a man of diverse interests, which interests carried him through a multiplicity of vocations. He was a Lutheran minister, a Professor of Hebrew, a Professor of Astronomy, and an inventor.
 See 2 Kings 23:5: “And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets (וְלַמַּזָּלוֹת), and to all the host of heaven.”
 Genesis 33:14: “Let my lord, I pray thee, pass over before his servant: and I will lead on softly, according as the cattle (הַמְּלָאכָה, that is, the property with which one is occupied) that goeth before me and the children be able to endure, until I come unto my lord unto Seir.”
 Exodus 3:2: “And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed (אֻכָּל; κατεκαίετο, in the Septuagint).”
 Isaiah 43:2b: “…when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned (תִכָּוֶה; κατακαυθῇς, in the Septuagint); neither shall the flame kindle (תִבְעַר; κατακαύσει, in the Septuagint) upon thee.”
 Isaiah 64:2: “As when the melting fire burneth, the fire causeth to boil (תִּבְעֶה; κατακαύσει, in the Septuagint) the waters, to make thy name known to thine adversaries, that the nations may tremble at thy presence!”
 Jeremiah 49:2b: “…and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned (תִּצַּתְנָה; κατακαυθήσονται, in the Septuagint) with fire…”
 Sebastião Barradas (1543-1615) was Portuguese Jesuit. He was highly regarded as a preacher, and served as Professor of Scripture at Coimbra and Évora. He published to commentaries: Commentaria in Concordiam et Hitoriam Evangelicam and Itinerarium Filiorum Israel ex Ægypto in Terram Repromissionis.
 Jacob Laurentius (1585-1644) was a Dutch Reformed minister. He wrote Epistola Jacobi, Perpetuo Commentario Explicata.
 Clement of Rome (died c. 100) was an early bishop of Rome.
 Hillary, Bishop of Poitiers (d. 368), was, among the Latin Fathers, one of the chief defenders of the Nicean theology against Arianism.
 John Brentius (1499-1570) was a pastor at Hall, and then at Stuttgard. He was a reformer, and his views were very much like those of Luther. He was a powerful preacher, and his commentaries, on almost all of the Bible, preserve much of the substance of his preaching.
 Martin Bucer (1491-1551) was an early Protestant reformer, based in Strasbourg. He labored for the unity of Protestants.
 Matthieu Brouard (1520-1576) was a Reformed scholar. He served as Professor of Hebrew at Orlean (1562-1568), Professor of Chronology at Sedan (1573-1574), and Professor of Philosophy at Geneva (1574-1576).
 Alfonso Salmeron (1515-1585) was a Spanish Jesuit and biblical scholar. He wrote Præludia in Apocalypsin.
 Basil the Great was a fourth century Church Father and stalwart defender of Nicean Trinitarianism.
 Gerhard Johann Vossius (1577-1649) was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian. In 1619, his Historia Pelagiana brought him into suspicion of Arminianism.
 Theses Disputandæ “de Fine Mundi”.
 David Pareus (1548-1622) was a Calvinist, serving the Reformed Church as a minister, churchman, and professor. He wrote a commentary on the whole Bible, and it was held in high estimation among the Reformed. His Commentarius in Epistolam ad Romanos was burned publicly at Oxford and Cambridge in 1622 by order of the Privy Council of James I because of his comments on Romans 13 in which he upholds the right of resistance to tyranny.
 Peter Lombard (c. 1096-c. 1164), although of relatively humble birth, became a renowned theologian in Paris. His Four Books of Sentences served as a standard theological text at medieval universities.
 Benedictus Pererius (1535-1610) was a Spanish Jesuit. In addition to his Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim Tomi Quattuor, in which he addresses many of the great difficulties in Genesis, he wrote one hundred and eighty-eight dissertations on Romans (Disputationes in Epistolam ad Romanos), one hundred and eighty-three on Revelation, and twenty-three demonstrating that Mohammed was not the Antichrist of Daniel and Revelation.
 Francisco de Toledo (1532-1596) was a Spanish Jesuit. He served as professor at the Roman College, and was the first Jesuit to be made Cardinal. He wrote prolifically in the fields of philosophy, theology, and exegesis.
 Nicolaus Hemmingius (1513-1600) was a Danish Lutheran theologian. He studied under Melanchthon, and went on to write prolifically in the fields of theology and exegesis, including commentaries of the Epistles of Peter.