Verse 9: But ye are (Deut. 10:15; 1 Pet. 1:2) a chosen generation, (Ex. 19:5, 6; Rev. 1:6; 5:10) a royal priesthood, (John 17:19; 1 Cor. 3:17; 2 Tim. 1:9) an holy nation, (Deut. 4:20; 7:6; 14:2; 26:18, 19; Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:14; Tit. 2:14) a peculiar people (or, a purchased people); that ye should shew forth the praises (or, virtues) of him who hath called you out of (Acts 26:18; Eph. 5:8; Col. 1:13; 1 Thess. 5:4, 5) darkness into his marvellous light…
[But ye (Christians [Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard]: The Particles, ye, we, are properly referred, indeed to all in the case of commandments, but to the elect in the cases of consolations and encomiums [James Cappel]: understanding, are [Beza, Piscator]) an elect race] He calls them a race on account of regeneration (Estius, thus Gerhard); elect, because they were chosen by God (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard), that they might be members of the Church (Menochius), and unto eternal life (Gerhard, similarly Estius). The these he places over against reprobates, verses 7 and 8 (Beza). See 1 Peter 1:2; you have γένος ἐκλεκτὸν, elect race, in Isaiah 43:20 (Grotius), that is, a select people (Hammond). Peter returns to magnify the dignity and felicity of the pious (Gerhard out of Estius), which he had begun to set forth in verse 4 (Gerhard).
But ye; ye believers, in opposition to those reprobates that are disobedient to the word. He shows that those dignities and privileges, which were mentioned by Moses as belonging to their forefathers, did much more belong to them; and that they had the real exhibition in Christ, of those good things whereof their fathers had but a taste, and which the rest of the Jews had lost by their unbelief. Are a chosen generation; a people chosen of God, not only out of the world, but from among the rest of your own nation, and not only to an external adoption, and outward privileges, (as the whole body of the nation was,) but to eternal salvation.
[A royal Priesthood] He cites the words of Exodus 19:6 (Menochius, thus Estius), according to the Septuagint version. In the Hebrew it is, a kingdom sacerdotal, or of priests (Estius, thus Drusius). The sense: a multitude of Kings and Priests (Cameron). Take ἱεράτευμα/priesthood as in verse 5. But βασίλειον/royal is added here, so that Christians might be understood thus to be made Priests through Christ, even while at the same time they are Kings after the pattern of Christ; not as the Israelites, concerning which this was said in Exodus 19:6 on account of the Paschal right, and on account of the liberty common to all and the magnificent victories; but because they offer those things to God concerning which we have already previously spoken, and because they are free from vinces, and overcome the Flesh, the World, and the Devil. For that saying is able verily to be applied to a Christian man, A king is he, who fears nothing: A king is he, who desires nothing; and what Cicero says, it belongs to Kings to serve no lust. The sense is the same in Revelation 1:6 and 5:10 (Grotius). They are called Priests with respect to God, because they are consecrated to the worship of God: Kings, with respect to others, because they are lords over life, over death, over all their enemies (Cameron): or, because they are masters of their affections (certain interpreters in Estius, similarly Menochius): or rather, because they are sons and heirs of God, co-heirs of Christ, set to reign with Him eternally; or, to such an extent they are members of Christ the King and Priest (Estius). He alludes to the ancient custom, in which the Priesthood was joined to the royal power (Tirinus).
A royal priesthood; or, kingdom of priests. He called them an holy priesthood, verse 5, now he calls them a royal priesthood, to show that they were made not only spiritual priests, but spiritual kings; which privilege they had not as Jews, but as believers, who are all of them as priests in respect of God, to whom they are consecrated, and to whom they offer up spiritual sacrifices; so kings in respect both of their enemies, over whom they are victorious, and of the kingdom they are hereafter to inherit.
[An holy nation] 1 Peter 1:15; with the language taken from Deuteronomy 7:6 and 14:2 (Grotius). So called on account of holiness, not external and legal, like the Israelites, but internal and true (Estius, Gerhard). A nation dedicated to God (Menochius).
An holy nation; Moses calls your fathers an holy people, Deuteronomy 7:6, in respect of their separation from the impurities of the Gentiles, their dedication to God, and the many laws God gave them, obliging them to external and ceremonial purity, whereby they were admonished of internal and real holiness; but ye are a holy nation in respect of that true and inward holiness itself, whereof that ceremonial holiness was but a signification. He seems particularly to allude to Isaiah 62:12.
[A people, etc., λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν] That is, περιποιητὸς/peculiar (Beza). The same as the Hebrew סְגֻלָּה, a treasure, or κειμήλιον, a treasure or property, which is reckoned as valuable and diligently guarded (Gerhard, Hammond); which word the Septuagint translators render περιούσιος (Gerhard), in Exodus 19:5 (Grotius). But Theodotion and Symmachus render it ἐξαίρετος/chosen/choice (Gerhard), and in Malachi 3:17 εἰς περιποίησιν, for a possession (Hammond, Grotius). Περιποίησις means the same thing as σωτηρία/preservation/salvation, as in Hebrews 10:39 (Hammond). See also Ephesians 1:14 (Gerhard). [Thus they translate it:] A people (or, society [Tremellius out of the Syriac]) peculiar (Arabic), or, redeemed (Tremellius out of the Syriac), who come into profit, adopted and engrafted into the people of God (Erasmus). Or, for a claim (Montanus); of acquisition, or of a claim (Estius), or, of possession (Estius out of Jerome); for an acquisition (Piscator, Illyricus, Hammond), or, possession (Hammond), that is, which falls to God for an acquisition or possession (Piscator): acquired (Tigurinus, Castalio, Vatablus, Zegers, Menochius), by the blood of Christ (Estius, Menochius); or, whom God claims for Himself as His own (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator). Whom He redeems from the power of the Devil, and made His chosen property out of all sorts of men (Estius). Or, for salvation, as in Hebrews 10:39 (Grotius, Hammond); that is to say, whom God shall save both from the ruin threatening Apostates, and forever (Hammond).
A peculiar people: Exodus 19:5, it is a peculiar treasure; so the same word is rendered, a special people, Deuteronomy 7:6, and, a peculiar people, Deuteronomy 14:2; the word used by the Septuagint implying as much; but Malachi 3:17, where we render it jewels, the Septuagint translators use the same word which Peter doth here, which is as much as, a people of acquisition, or which God hath acquired to himself for his peculiar possession or treasure. God had rescued the Israelites from their Egyptian bondage, and taken them to be his peculiar people above all others, and claimed a right to them, and counted them precious, as having redeemed them with a strong hand, and got possession of them at the expense of so much power, and so many miracles. This deliverance of theirs was the type of Christ’s delivering the church from the tyranny of Satan, the spiritual Pharaoh, and the world, the spiritual Egypt, and a state of sin, the worst bondage; upon the account whereof God’s people are called a peculiar people, or a people thus acquired, Titus 2:14, and a purchased possession, Ephesians 1:14, where the same word is likewise used.
[That, etc., ὅπως τὰς ἀρετὰς, etc.] That the virtues (namely, opposite to vices [Estius, Gerhard], wisdom, righteousness, goodness, etc. [Estius, thus Menochius, Gerhard, Piscator]: For he does not say δυνάμεις/powers, but ἀρετὰς/praises/virtues/excellencies, which is a rare word in the Scriptures [Estius]: But virtue is not proper to God, says Aristotle, and Eustratius on Nicomachean Ethics 9, therefore ἀρετὴ/virtue here is the same as δύναμις/ power: Thus the virtue of the Gods, in the place of the power, occurs here and there, as in Plautus, etc. [Casaubon]: Others: that the excellent things done [Menochius]; that the benefits [Æthiopic]; that the praises [Tremellius out of the Syriac, thus Camerarius], that is, the laudable things done [Camerarius]: The language of ἀρετῆς sometimes signifies honest habits, as in Philippians 4:8: But, when it is used of God, as here, it corresponds to the word הוֹד /splendor, as in Habakkuk 3:3; Zechariah 6:13, or to the word תְּהִלָּה/praise, as in Isaiah 42:8, 12; 43:21; 63:7: In which places it is, as here, in the plural ἀρετὰς, in the signification of potency [Grotius]) we might declare of Him, who has called you (with an efficacious calling, and according to His purpose, Romans 8:28 [Estius]: God it is who has called us, Romans 9:12, 24; 1 Corinthians 7:15; Galatians 1:6, 15; 5:8; etc. [Grotius]) out of darkness (of ignorance [Gerhard, Gomar, Piscator], errors [Gerhard], vices [Gomar, Gerhard], Ephesians 5:11; of misery and death temporal, and eternal [Gerhard]: The time before the Gospel is called σκότος/darkness, Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79; John 3:19; Acts 26:18; Romans 13:12; Ephesians 5:8; etc. [Grotius]) into His marvelous light (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, of the knowledge of God and of holiness: compare Acts 26:18 (Piscator, Gomar): or, of the Christian faith and Gospel (Menochius, similarly Estius out of Cajetan), which is called a light as true, John 1:9; 1 John 2:8, so also marvelous, here and in Revelation 15:1, to denote its excellence (Grotius): or, because it is the knowledge of those things which we are able to attain neither with senses, nor with the mind, 1 Corinthians 2:8 (Estius). But the contrast shows that by the name of light here is understood the grace and blessing of God, the consolation of the Holy Spirit, the hope of eternal life, and thus all the benefits of Christ. This light he calls marvelous, both, because it marvelously illumines the mind to consider the marvels of the Law, Psalm 119:18, and, because it is worthy of admiration and praise, that God has called us unto that, etc. (Gerhard). The Gospel itself and the life agreeing with it [are called] φῶς/light, as it is seen in the same passages [previously produced out of Grotius], and in Romans 13:12; Colossians 1:12. This is the mystical sense of the passage in Isaiah 42:6, 7; Job 37:21 (Grotius).
That ye should show forth, etc.: this notes the end of all these privileges vouchsafed them, viz. that they should glorify God in the enjoyment of them. He seems to refer to Isaiah 43:7, 21: This people have I formed for myself, (or acquired, as the Septuagint translators hath it,) they shall show forth my praise. Show forth; publish and declare, both in words and deeds, that others may be excited to glorify God in the like manner. The praises of him; or virtues, that wisdom, power, goodness, righteousness, truth etc., which God hath manifested in his vouchsafements to you, and in the acknowledgment of which he may be glorified. Who hath called you; by an effectual calling, according to his purpose, Romans 8:28. Out of darkness; the darkness of ignorance, unbelief, sin, and misery. The time before the publication of the gospel, was a time of darkness, Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79. Into his marvellous light; the light of knowledge, faith, holiness, comfort: see Ephesians 5:8. It is called marvellous, because men see what they never saw before, wonderful things out of God’s law, Psalm 119:18; and because it is a marvellous thing, that they who sat in so gross darkness should be translated into so glorious a light.
 Greek: λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν.
 Greek: τὰς ἀρετὰς.
 Isaiah 43:20b: “…because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen (עַמִּי בְחִירִי; τὸ γένος μου τὸ ἐκλεκτόν, in the Septuagint).”
 Exodus 19:6: “And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests (ממְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים; βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα, in the Septuagint), and an holy nation.”
 Seneca’s Thyestes 2.
 De Re Publica 1:34.
 See Romans 8:17.
 See Genesis 14:18.
 Greek: ἔθνος ἅγιον.
 Deuteronomy 7:6: “For thou art an holy people (עַם קָדוֹשׁ; λαὸς ἅγιος, in the Septuagint) unto the Lord thy God: the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth.”
 Deuteronomy 14:2: “For thou art an holy people (עַם קָדוֹשׁ; λαὸς ἅγιος, in the Septuagint) unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth.”
 Περιποίησις is related to the verbal root περιποιέω, to preserve or acquire for oneself.
 Exodus 19:5: “Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure (סְגֻלָּה; λαὸς περιούσιος, a people peculiar, or of possession, in the Septuagint) unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine…”
 Theodotion was a linguist and convert to Judaism, who translated the Hebrew Scripture into Greek in the middle of the second century AD. His translation appears to be an attempt to bring the Septuagint into conformity with the Hebrew text.
 Symmachus (second century) produced a Greek translation of the Old Testament, which survives only in fragments. Symmachus’ work is characterized by an apparent concern to render faithfully the Hebrew original, to provide a rendering consistent with the rabbinic exegesis of his time, and to set forth the translation in simple, pure, and elegant Septuagint-style Greek.
 Malachi 3:17: “And they shall be mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in that day when I make up my jewels (סְגֻלָּה; εἰς περιποίησιν, in the Septuagint); and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth him.”
 Hebrews 10:39: “But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving (εἰς περιποίησιν) of the soul.”
 Ephesians 1:14: “Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession (εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως), unto the praise of his glory.”
 Hebrew: סְגֻלָּה.
 Greek: λαὸν περιούσιον.
 Hebrew: סְגֻלָּה.
 Greek: περιποίησιν.
 Eustratius of Nicea (c. 1050-1120) was Bishop of Nicea. He wrote commentaries on portions of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and Nicomachean Ethics.
 Aulularia 166. Titus Maccius Plautus (254-184 BC) was a Roman playwright. Only twenty-one of his nearly one hundred and thirty comedies survive.
 Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614) began his career as Professor of Greek at Geneva and finished his career as a prebendary of Westminster and Canterbury. He was a learned critic, and he produced annotated editions of Greek and Latin authors, as well as Notæ in Novum Testamentum. He was among those that sought a reunion between the Protestant and Roman churches.
 Philippians 4:8: “Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue (ἀρετὴ), and if there be any praise, think on these things.”
 Habakkuk 3:3b: “His glory (הוֹדוֹ; ἡ ἀρετὴ αὐτου, in the Septuagint) covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.”
 Zechariah 6:13a: “Even he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory (הוֹד; ἀρετὴν, in the Septuagint), and shall sit and rule upon his throne…”
 Isaiah 42:8: “I am the Lord: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise (וּתְהִלָּתִי; οὐδὲ τὰς ἀρετάς μου, in the Septuagint) to graven images.”
 Isaiah 42:12: “Let them give glory unto the Lord, and his praise (וּתְהִלָּתוֹ; τὰς ἀρετὰς αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint) declare in the islands.”
 Isaiah 43:21: “This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise (תְּהִלָּתִי; τὰς ἀρετάς μου, in the Septuagint).”
 Isaiah 63:7a: “I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord, and the praises (תְּהִלֹּת; τὰς ἀρετὰς, in the Septuagint) of the Lord…”
 1 Peter 2:9b: “…that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous (θαυμαστὸν) light…”
 Revelation 15:1a: “And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous (θαυμαστόν), seven angels having the seven last plagues…”