Verse 19: By which also he went and (1 Pet. 1:12; 4:6) preached unto the spirits (Is. 42:7; 49:9; 61:1) in prison…
[In which, etc., ἐν ᾧ καὶ τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασι πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν] No passage in the New Testament is held to be more obscure (Beza, thus Gomar, etc.). That ἐν ᾧ, in that, is to be taken causally, as in Romans 8:3, because of which, on the grounds, for which reason (Œcumenius in Gerhard). Which also would be able to be accommodated to this, if it be here treated of the descent of Christ into hell. But in this sense the Greeks quite frequently make use of ἐφ᾽ ᾧ, as in Romans 5:12; 2 Corinthians 5:4. [Therefore, all the rest render it otherwise:] In the place of πνεύμασι/spirits some read πνεύματι/spirit. Thus Brugensis (Gerhard), and many [Latin] Codices and manuscripts (Estius). But all the Greek codices read πνεύμασι/ spirits (Gerhard, thus Estius), and also the Syriac, and the Greek and Latin Fathers (Estius), Cyril, Œcumenius, Augustine, Ruffinus (Gerhard). [Thus they render the passage:] In which (that is, spirit [Menochius, Zegers, Gerhard, Grotius, thus Beza, Piscator]: or, through which [Beza, Piscator]; or, according to which, or, with respect to which [Piscator]: Through which power, that is, the very same by which He was vivified [Beza]) et/also (or, etiam/also [Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.]) to those (who, understanding, were [Erasmus, Tigurinus, Castalio, Vatablus, Vulgate, Arabic, Calvin]; or, were shut up [Syriac in Estius], which some Codices add here; but this is omitted by both the better Latin Codices, and all the Greek Codices save one, which appears to have been accommodated to the Latin Codices [Estius, similarly Gerhard]: or, οὖσι/being [Camerarius, Beza, Gerhard], who, understanding, are [Beza, Piscator, Gerhard]: For Peter does not have regard to the time in which it was preached to them, but in which he himself wrote [Beza]) in custody (or, prison [Erasmus, Castalio, Beza, Piscator, etc.], or, watch, as the word is often taken among the Greeks [Calvin]) having set out (or, when He had come [Tirinus], or, setting out, or, bringing Himself [Vatablus], or, proceeding, not from the body, or, from the earth; but as from heaven [Beza], after the resurrection [Vatablus]: or, coming to, as in Mark 3:13; 16:13; Luke 14:10; 23:33, πορευθεὶς/proceeding in the place of παρελθὼν, passing by or approaching, after the manner of the Hebrews, which we explained on Matthew 4:3; Mark 8:11 [Beza]) He preached (Montanus, Pagnine, Piscator, etc.). The whole question is, to whom and what did Christ preach (Estius). [This they explain in diverse ways:] 1. Christ descended into hell, and there by His preaching He converted and liberated some (certain interpreters in Estius). Which is false (Estius out of Bede, Gerhard out of Augustine and Epiphanius and others, Beza). For the whole Scripture declares that immediately after death judgement follows. And why would Peter mention this, or restrict it to the times of Noah (Beza)? 2. Christ according to His soul descended into hell, unto those who were either in the Limbo of the fathers, or in Purgatory, and preached to them; that is, He proclaimed Himself to be the Redeemer, and to have come for this, that He might free them from punishments and prison, and carry them together with Himself unto the heavenlies (Estius, similarly Lapide and Bellarmine and others in Gerhard). But it is objected, 1. that by spirit in this place is understood, not the soul, but the Deity of Christ, as it was proven on the preceeding verse (Beza, similarly Gerhard). And, that that spirit, through which Christ is here said to have gone forth to preach, is not the soul of Christ, could be gathered, 1. from the article, which Peter in the preceding verse set before the word πνεύματι/spirit, but not likewise before σαρκὶ/flesh, not without reason, but with deliberate intention: for he was evidently contemplating flesh according to the nature common to all flesh, which is to be weak, and liable to mortification or death; but the Spirit according to its proper nature, namely, Divine, in which alone is there the power of vivifying: and, 2. from this, that through that same Spirit Christ is said to have revived. Now, when anyone is said to have revived, either negatively, when life is not taken away from him, as in 1 Samuel 27:9; 2 Samuel 8:2; or, properly and positively, when life, which has not yet been had or has been lost, is implanted, Christ was vivified in the latter manner, not the former, that is, by resurrection; just as He is also said to have been put to death, not Metaphorically, but truly and properly, that is, to have been afflicted with death. Wherefore also to Christ’s death is never opposed the preservation of His soul in life, but always the resurrection, or His life following the resurrection, as in Romans 6:10; 14:9; 2 Corinthians 5:15; 13:4; etc. (Placæus). 2. In those passages the Papists maintain only the faithful to be (Gerhard); but here he treats only of the disobedient, as the following verse shows (Gerhard, thus Beza). Objection: Indeed, in the beginning they did not believe; but afterwards, when they saw the flood, they repented (Tirinus, thus Estius, Menochius). Response: This is not found in the context, but is rather repugnant to it, for eight only are said to have been saved, but the rest to have perished; which nevertheless could be taken generally and indefinitely, not separately and individually (Beza, similarly Calvin). Peter teaches that they were rebels at the time when the longsuffering of God waited. Is it possible, therefore, that the obedient escaped at a time when the longsuffering of God was not waiting? And, as he calls these rebels, so he shuts them up in prison, which is the place of rebels (Placæus). And if any of those had repented, he would not have called them ἀπειθεῖς/disobedient. Therefore, he treats not of those here (Gerhard). 3. There is no mention here of liberation, but only of preaching. 4. Nowhere in Scripture is prison used as a place in which blessed Spirits were enclosed (Beza). [Thus the second opinion.] 3. Christ, not by His real presence, the imagination of which Peter removes when he names the spirit, but by the manifestation of His grace, came unto the souls of the Old Testament pious, which he here locates ἐν φυλακῇ, that is, either, in the watch, in which vigils are kept, that it might signify that those souls were intent upon the hope of the promised salvation, as if considering it from distance; or, in prison, because to those souls the anxiety of expectation was, as it were, a prison, as was also their anxious desire after the death of Christ. It is objected that he recalls here not the faithful, but the unbelieving alone. Responses: 1. That he also treats of the faithful is evident from 1 Peter 4:6, in which this very thing is repeated, and that of the faithful. 2. He only makes mention of the unbelieving here, that he might address this most grievous trial, that the unbelieving occupied nearly the entire world, etc. Thus, says he, formerly the pious were nearly overspread by the multitude of the unbelieving, yet it did no harm to them, but they are made safe by the power of God. Thus he comforts the pious of his age, lest because of their own fewness they have a broken, or downcast, spirit (Calvin). But it is objected, 1. that he does not here treat of some mixture of the unbelieving and the faithful, but he calls those very Spirits, located absolutely ἐν φυλακῇ, in prison, and without distinction, unbelievers (Gerhard); 2. that the use of a watch and of vigils is not to look out for, but to guard and to watch, lest an enemy undertake an ambush (Estius, Gerhard). [These things concerning the third opinion.] 4. By spirits in prison he understands unbelieving Gentiles (Hessels in Gerhard, thus Vorstius, Grotius, Hammond), which he describes here as benighted, bound (Hessels), destitute of the hope of salvation; sitting, as it were, in the shadow of death, or, in Hell, or in the place of death and damnation, which here, as in Revelation 20:7 also, is called a prison. For these are those dead, to whom the Gospel was preached in 1 Peter 4:6, and who heard the voice of Christ, John 5:25. Compare also Luke 1:79; Ephesians 2:1, etc.; Colossians 2:13 (Vorstius); likewise Isaiah 42:7; 49:9 (Hessels). Therefore, Christ is called spirit, going forth to these in spirit (Vorstius), after He ascended into heaven, as next in verse 22; John 14:2, 3, 12, 28; 16:28 (Grotius), not indeed in His own person, but in His Apostles, by the power of the Holy Spirit (Vorstius). Or, πορευθεὶς, having gone forth, here is expletive, like ἐλθὼν, having come, in Ephesians 2:17. By spirit he understands that Divine power, by which He was raised from the dead, and by which His enemies, unless they repent, He will destroy, as He did formerly (Hammond). And to these He is said to have preached, inasmuch as the Apostles did it in His name and power, 2 Corinthians 5:20; Acts 13:47; Romans 15:16; Galatians 2:8; Ephesians 2:17 (Grotius). This exposition is favored as by the style, so also by the scope, of the Apostle. For he wishes to place before our eyes Christ’s highest glory, brought forth by death, and the fruit of that, which he teaches to have flowed effectually unto the most abandoned nations; which benefit he magnifies by Antithesis with the times of Noah, in which the same Nations, but taken in general, were called in vain unto repentance and salvation. What, therefore, immediately follows, that those spirits were formerly disobedient, is to be understood, not of the same spirits numerically, but of the same race of spirits, or men: that is to say, In a former time indeed the Nations of the whole world were called in vain through Noah, but now through the preaching of Christ they are not called in vain; inasmuch as many men everywhere are saved through the Baptism of Christ, but formerly only a very few were saved in that Ark (Vorstius). Peter here noted two sorts of men, that is, those that inflict persecution, and those that suffer it; and he shows that the latter are more blessed than the former, and that by an example taken from the times of Noah; that they, although they flourish for a time, yet only briefly, unless they repent, shall be utterly destroyed, while the pious are saved in the Ark, as it were (Hammond). Now, because Peter desired to add a similitude from the times of Noah, so that he might show how much better the matter succeeds now through Christ, than formerly through Noah, he takes the words from that history. For God says in Genesis 6:3, לא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם, my spirit shall not strive with man, where the Greeks have, οὐ μὴ καταμείνῃ, or οὐ καταμενεῖ, τὸ πνεῦμά μου, etc., my Spirit abides not, or shall not abide, etc.; but, if we follow the propriety of the words, it says, it shall not be, as kept in a sheath, so my Spirit in man: that is, the spirit shall not be useless which I gave to him (Wisdom of Solomon 12:1), like a sword in its sheath, which accomplishes nothing of that for which it was made. Φυλακή is wont to be used of a prison, as in Genesis 40:3, 4, 7; 41:10; Isaiah 42:7; Jeremiah 32:2, 8, 12; 33:1; Ezekiel 19:9, etc. Now, the Sheath is, as it were, the prison of the sword. To the Chaldeans נדנה is a sheath. In the same manner the Chaldeans call the body of a man, in Daniel 7:15, and often in the Talmudists. Thus also Tertullian, the flesh is the sheath of the breath of God, in his book Concerning the Resurrection of the Flesh (Grotius). That יָדוֹן in Genesis 6:3 others translate He shall not dispute, or contend, as if it were from דון, although it is actually from נָדָן/sheath, 1 Chronicles 21:27, and is to be rendered, He shall remain as a sword in its sheath. Thus also all the Ancients take it, and translate it, He shall dwell (Syriac, Arabic), He shall remain (Charldean, Septuagint, Vulgate). Hence also נָדָן is used of both a sheath, 1 Chronicles 21:27, and a body, Daniel 7:15, for both are repositiories, the former of the sword, the latter of the soul; now, רוּחִי, my spirit, is used of the spirit that God placed in man, Genesis 2:7, which is…a particle of divine breath. The sense is, therefore, that in man shall not longer remain my spirit, which lies hidden in them as in a sheath, useless for my worship, and immersed in carnalities; that is, I shall no longer allow those men to live, as he properly speaks in Genesis 6:7, 13. This he accommodates here to unbelieving Jews, and Gnostics soon to be destroyed (Hammond). But to this interpretation many things are objected, 1. that flesh and spirit here are opposed as two parts pertaining to the nature and constitution of Christ, to whom, as to one person, they are attributed; 2. that Scripture, although it sometimes calls living and whole men souls (Placæus), never calls them spirits (Placæus, thus Gerhard); 3. that men rebellious and unbelieving, concerning which it is evident that he treats here, Scripture nowhere calls spirits; neither does it call men spiritual, except in contrast to the flesh, Romans 8:7; Galatians 5:17, and natural men, 1 Corinthians 2:14, 15. 4. What men then does he here call spirits? Believers? why then does he not describe them except by prison and rebellion? Infidels persevering in unbelief? Did the Apostles then preach to those alone? And why does he say that they were formerly rebellious, who were at that time such (Placæus)? 5. Those, to whom the gospel is preached, were rebels ποτε/formerly, in the time of Noah (Placæus, similarly Gerhard, Hammond): whence it is manifest that those were not the nations in the time of Christ (Hammond). Objection: Peter here understand the nations as one people, or a body compounded from a long series of many generation, to which he attributes those things which were proper to some of its members; even rebellion, by reason of those parties that perished in the flood, but also conversion, by reason of those parties whom the preaching of the Apostles convert to God. Just as in Romans 11, it is said that to the same Jews, who were at that time rebels, it is granted that mercy would pass upon them after so many ages (certain interpreters in Placæus). Response: Before the flood there was no distinction between Jews and gentiles; at that time there was no people of the gentiles over against the people of the Jews: then all those disobeying were destroyed, and not from any of those has anyone derived the origin of the gentiles. How then were those able to come together into one with the gentiles of the Apostolic age, which, no less than the Jews, were descended from those eight souls which were saved on the ark, and are in this place set over against those disobeying? Finally, Peter does not so join those disobedient into one body with the faithful of his own age, that he teaches that they constituted not now a different people, but a different world, 2 Peter 2:5; 3:6 (Placæus). [These things concerning the fourth opinion.] 5. By spirits he here understands the unbelieving in the time of Noah (Beza, similarly Junius, Gomar, Gerhard, Piscator, Placæus, Hammond), whom he calls spirits because, when he was writing, they were not whole men, but souls separated from their bodies; which Scripture is wont to call spirits, as in Psalm 31:5; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Matthew 27:50; John 19:30; Acts 7:59; etc., but not souls: For by that name rather it signifies either the men themselves, as in Genesis 46:15, 26; Acts 7:14; 1 Peter 3:20; or even their corpses, as in Leviticus 19:28; 21:1, 11; Numbers 6:6, 11; 9:6 (Placæus). He he used spirits rather than souls because of Antanaclasis (Piscator, Gerhard), because he had made mention of the Spirit in the preceding verse. Concerning these he says τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ, who in prison, indefinitely and indeterminately (Gerhard); where is to be supplied, not were, as if they were in prison at the time of the preaching (Beza), but are, that is, at this time in which Peter is writing (Beza, thus Placæus, similarly Scaliger, Piscator). For that ποτε/formerly/sometime Peter joins, not with the words ἐν φυλακῇ, in prison, but with ἀπειθήσασί, having been disobedient, in this manner, τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασι, ἀπειθήσασί ποτε, to the spirits in prison, having been formerly disobedient, not obscurely distinguishing the times in which they are in prison, and had been rebels; and teaching that their rebellion preceded, and that their casting into prison followed (Placæus). The sense: a part of whom is now in prison, namely, as many as did not repent, for it is gathered out of 1 Peter 4:6 that some repented (Piscator): the rest are said to be kept, shut up in prison, just like the Devils are said to be kept, bound in chains of darkness, 2 Peter 2:4, unto judgment, with horror expecting the final sentence of judge (Beza). Prison in this place signifies hell, as in Revelation 20:7 (Gomar, thus Piscator, Gerhard, Beza), whence the Syriac rendered it by Sheol (Gerhard out of Beza), by which word is signified sometimes the grave, sometimes hell, as in Luke 16:23; Acts 2:27 (Beza). Compare Matthew 5:25; 18:30; Luke 12:58 (Gerhard). Christ is said to have proceeded unto these, not by a change of place, but by a certain singular testimony of His presence by His revelation and operation (Junius); just as יְהוָה/Jehovah, God, which was Christ there, is said to have descended, Genesis 18:21; Exodus 3:8. He is said also to have preached to these, even indeed by His Spirit, that is, by that very one, through which He was vivified in the preceding verse (Beza), that is, by His Divine nature (Gomar, Estius, Junius, Beza, Piscator, Gerhard); by that Spirit who is said to have preached in the Prophets, 1 Peter 1:11 (Beza); and here He preached, that is, through Noah, etc. (Junius, Beza, etc.). This going forth and preaching Peter attributes to Christ, as to the principium which produced that action; but to the Spirit as the principium by which, or through which, He produced that action (Placæus). For Christ at that time was not yet man, when He preached to those spirits through Noah (Piscator). This interpretation is confirmed by the scope of the passage (Gomar, Estius, similarly Beza, Placæus): which is to confirm the exhortation unto holiness of life, both in matter prosperous, and also (even indeed especially [Beza]) in matters adverse (Gomar, similarly Beza), or in those most grievous afflictions, which at that time were very much threatening the faithful (Beza). Now, he exhorts unto the sanctification of the name of God and patience, by the model and example which Christ displayed; both, 1. immediately in His own person (Junius), or when He was made flesh, and in it suffered, the just for the unjust, verse 18 (Junius, similarly Beza, Gomar); and, 2. mediately (Junius), before the incarnation (Gomar), thence from the beginning of the world (Gomar, thus Junius); in Noah and His other servants, whom He instructed by His Spirit, that is, He directed by His divine power, that they might furnished an example of holiness and patience no matter how depraved the age (Junius); at which time Christ taught holiness, both in speech, and in action, when He patiently endured the disobedient for a long time, and at last severely punished them, and on the other hand protected the obedient (Gomar). He wished to show that the same is the nature and condition of Christ, head and members, and has been so perpetually, and that Christ was the head of the Church, as today, even so in those most ancient and difficult times; and by an eminent miracle He liberated that Church entire, having been most grievously tried; which was also a type of our salvation (Beza). The Scope of the Apostle is to persuade the faithful to be willing for Christ’s sake to suffer persecutions however grievous, and that according to the example of Christ, who, says he, suffered, that is, death, the just for the unjust, the guilt, the enemies of God, so that He might lead us to God. Now, since the fewness of believers and the multitude of rebels was able to trouble the faithful, and since it was unbecoming that the obedient should appear to suffer from the disobedient, the Apostle goes to meet this, and teaches that there was formerly a prelude to this matter, even indeed from Christ Himself; who, by which Spirit He was vivified having going forth, even to those spirits who are now detained in prison, preached, although formerly they were disobedient, etc. In which He exhibited to us an illustrious type of that which is done in this time, etc. To the rebels in the time of Noah overwhelmed by the flood on account of the despised preaching of Noah answer the rebels in this entire time in which the Gospel is preached, whom the flood of divine anger overwhelms and destroys. On the other hand, to those few preserved in the water answer the faithful, who compared to the unbelieving are few, to be preserved through the death and resurrection of Christ. From this passage it is gathered that Christ was in the time of Noah, for He is said to have preached then (Placæus).
By which also; by which Spirit, mentioned in the end of the former verse, i.e. by, or in, his Divine nature, the same by which he was quickened. He; Christ. This notes the person that went and preached, as the former doth the nature in which, and so shows that what is here spoken of the person of Christ, is to be understood of him according to his Divine nature. Went; or, came, viz. from heaven, by an anthropopathy, by which figure God is often in Scripture said to go forth, Isaiah 26:21, to come down, Micah 1:3, and go down, Genesis 18:21; Exodus 3:8; which two latter places are best understood of the Second Person. This therefore here notes in Christ not a change of place, but a special operation, and testification of his presence. And preached; viz. by Noah, inspired by him, that he might be a preacher of righteousness, to warn a wicked generation of approaching judgment, and exhort them to repentance. Unto the spirits; souls of men departed, which are frequently called spirits, Ecclesiastes 12:7; Acts 7:59; Hebrews 12:23. In prison; i.e. in hell, so it is taken, Proverbs 27:20; compare with Matthew 5:25; Luke 12:58, where prison is mentioned as a type or representation of hell; and the Syriac renders the word by Sheol, which signifies sometimes the grave and sometimes hell. See the like expression, 2 Peter 2:4, 5; Jude 6.
 Romans 8:3: “For what the law could not do, in that (ἐν ᾧ) it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh…”
 Romans 5:12: “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that (ἐφ᾽ ᾧ) all have sinned…”
 2 Corinthians 5:4: “For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that (ἐφ᾽ ᾧ οὐ) we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life.”
 Ruffinus was a fourth century churchman, a friend of Jerome turned foe, a commentator, and a monastery builder.
 Mark 3:13: “And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him whom he would: and they came (ἀπῆλθον, they departed) unto him.”
 Mark 16:13: “And they, going (ἀπελθόντες/departing), told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.”
 Luke 14:10a: “But when thou art bidden, going (πορευθεὶς/proceeding), sit down in the lowest room…”
 Luke 23:33: “And when they were come (ἀπῆλθον, they departed) to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.”
 Matthew 4:3: “And, coming (προσελθὼν) to him, the tempter said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.”
 Mark 8:11: “And the Pharisees came forth (ἐξῆλθον), and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him.”
 The profound erudition of Epiphanius (c. 310-403) led to his installation as Bishop of Salamis. He was something of a heresy hunter, combating Apollinaris, the disciples of Origen, and even at one point Chrysostom.
 See, for example, Hebrews 9:27; 2 Corinthians 5; Luke 16:19-31.
 Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) entered the Order of the Jesuits in his late teens. Bellarmine became one of the great theologians of his era, a Cardinal, and, after his death, a Doctor of the Church.
 1 Peter 3:18b: “…being put to death in the flesh (σαρκὶ), but quickened by the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι)…”
 1 Samuel 27:9: “And David smote the land, and did not preserve alive (וְלֹא יְחַיֶּה; חָיָה, in the Piel conjugation, signifies to preserve alive) man or woman, and took away the sheep, and the oxen, and the asses, and the camels, and the apparel, and returned, and came to Achish.”
 2 Samuel 8:2a: “And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive (לְהַחֲיוֹת; חָיָה, in the Hiphil conjugation, signifies to preserve alive).”
 1 Peter 3:20a: “Which sometime were disobedient (ἀπειθήσασί), when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah…”
 That is, a grammatical filler.
 Ephesians 2:17: “And, having come (ἐλθὼν), He preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.”
 Wisdom of Solomon 12: 1: “For thine incorruptible Spirit is in all things.”
 Genesis 40:3, 4, 7: “And he put them in ward (ἐν φυλακῇ, in the Septuagint) in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound. And the captain of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them: and they continued a season in ward (ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ, in the Septuagint)…. And he asked Pharaoh’s officers that were with him in the ward (ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ, in the Septuagint) of his lord’s house, saying, Wherefore look ye so sadly to day?”
 Genesis 41:10: “Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in ward (ἐν φυλακῇ, in the Septuagint) in the captain of the guard’s house, both me and the chief baker…”
 Isaiah 42:7: “To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house (ἐξ οἴκου φυλακῆς, in the Septuagint).”
 Jeremiah 32:2, 8a, 12: “For then the king of Babylon’s army besieged Jerusalem: and Jeremiah the prophet was shut up in the court of the prison (ἐν αὐλῇ τῆς φυλακῆς, in the Septuagint), which was in the king of Judah’s house…. So Hanameel mine uncle’s son came to me in the court of the prison (εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῆς φυλακῆς, in the Septuagint) according to the word of the Lord… And I gave the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, in the sight of Hanameel mine uncle’s son, and in the presence of the witnesses that subscribed the book of the purchase, before all the Jews that sat in the court of the prison (ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ τῆς φυλακῆς, in the Septuagint).”
 Jeremiah 33:1: “Moreover the word of the Lord came unto Jeremiah the second time, while he was yet shut up in the court of the prison (ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ τῆς φυλακῆς, in the Septuagint), saying…”
 Ezekiel 19:9: “And they put him in ward in chains, and brought him to the king of Babylon: they brought him into holds (εἰς φυλακήν, in the Septuagint), that his voice should no more be heard upon the mountains of Israel.”
 Daniel 7:15: “I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body (נִדְנֶה/ sheath), and the visions of my head troubled me.”
 For example, Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 108a, and Genesis Rabbah 26.
 De Resurrectione Carnis.
 1 Peter 3:20a: “Which sometime (ποτε) were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing …”
 Leviticus 19:29: “Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead (לָנֶפֶשׁ, for a soul), nor print any marks upon you: I am the Lord.”
 Leviticus 21:1: “And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them, There shall none be defiled for the dead (לָנֶפֶשׁ, for a soul) among his people…”
 Leviticus 21:11: “Neither shall he go in to any dead body (כָּל־נַפְשֹׁת מֵת, all dead souls), nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother…”
 Numbers 6:6: “All the days that he separateth himself unto the Lord he shall come at no dead body (נֶפֶשׁ מֵת, dead soul).”
 Numbers 6:11: “And the priest shall offer the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering, and make an atonement for him, for that he sinned by the dead (הַנָּפֶשׁ, the soul), and shall hallow his head that same day.”
 Numbers 9:6a: “And there were certain men, who were defiled by the dead body (לְנֶפֶשׁ, for a soul) of a man, that they could not keep the passover on that day…”
 That is, the stylistic repetition of a word, but with different meanings.
 Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609) was a skilled linguist and developed into one of the most learned men of his age. During the course of his studies and travels, he became a Protestant and suffered exile with the Huguenots. He was offered a professorship at Leiden (1593), a position which he eventually accepted and in which he remained until his death.
 Ἅιδης/Hades is the most common Septuagint rendering of שְׁאוֹל/Sheol.
 Luke 16:23: “And in hell (τῷ ᾅδῃ, Hades) he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.”
 Acts 2:27: “Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell (ᾅδου), neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.”