Deuteronomy 6:10-15: Warning against Forgetting God

Verse 10:  And it shall be, when the LORD thy God shall have brought thee into the land which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great and goodly cities, (Josh. 24:13; Ps. 105:44) which thou buildedst not…

[And when He has introduced, etc., וְהָיָה וגו״]  Now, when this will have happened (Junius and Tremellius).  I translate it, moreover.  Verbatim:  and it shall happen, that is, it ought to be done:  what ought to be done? namely, that which is subjoined in verse 12, beware lest thou forget, etc.  Thus often to the verb הָיָה, to be, posited absolutely, is subjoined a particular verb by which that general is declared (Piscator).


Verse 11:  And houses full of all good things, which thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou diggedst not, vineyards and olive trees, which thou plantedst not; (Deut. 8:10, etc.) when thou shalt have eaten and be full…

[Olive-yards]  זֵיתִים signifies this when it is subjoined to the name of vineyard;[1] otherwise it signifies olives (Piscator).


Verse 12:  Then beware lest thou forget the LORD, which brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage (Heb. bondmen, or, servants[2]).


Verse 13:  Thou shalt (Deut. 10:12, 20; 13:4; Matt. 4:10; Luke 4:8) fear the LORD thy God, and serve him, and (Ps. 63:11; Is. 45:23; 65:16; Jer. 4:2; 5:7; 12:16) shalt swear by his name.

[Thou shalt swear]  If there is an oath (Menochius); for a necessary cause (Lyra, Estius).  When thou shalt wish to enter into a covenant with someone, or, when thou shalt be compelled by the Magistrate to swear (Fagius, Vatablus); then it is to be sworn by God alone (Estius).  Here, this is to be understood, and not by the name of an idol (Vatablus, Fagius out of Ibn Ezra); which, since it is nothing, concerning nothing is it able to testify and to do faithfully (Vatablus).  But think not that an oath in the name of God is here commanded for any light matter:  for this passage is to be understood only of a solemn oath (Vatablus, Fagius).

Swear by his name:  When thou hast a call and just cause to swear.  By his name, understand only, as Deuteronomy 5:2, not by idols, or any creatures.


Verse 14:  Ye shall not (Deut. 8:19; 11:28; Jer. 25:6) go after other gods, (Deut. 13:7) of the gods of the people which are round about you…


Verse 15:  (For [Ex. 20:5; Deut. 4:24] the LORD thy God is a jealous God among you) (Deut. 7:4; 11:17) lest the anger of the LORD thy God be kindled against thee, and destroy thee from off the face of the earth.

Among you, Heb. in the midst of you,[3] to see and observe all your ways and your turnings aside to other gods.

[1] Hebrew:  כְּרָמִים.

[2] Hebrew:  עֲבָדִים.

[3] Hebrew:  בְּקִרְבֶּךָ.

Deuteronomy 6:8, 9: Memorials of the Catechetical Instruction

Verse 8:  (Ex. 13:9, 16; Deut. 11:18; Prov. 3:3; 6:21; 7:3) And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

[And thou shalt bind, etc.]  The crasser Jews took these things literally; but they are better taken parabolically (Menochius, Tirinus, Bonfrerius).  For who would believe that Christ wore these things on his forehead? (Bonfrerius).  The sense:  Thou shalt always have a present memory of my commandments, as if thou shouldest have them inscribed upon frontlets, bracelets, and lintels (Tirinus, Vatablus).  Or, thou shalt make of these bracelets and frontlets, so that thou might be ever mindful (Vatablus).

[A sign on thine hand]  Men, when they desire to remember something, are wont to bind a scarlet thread on their finger (Oleaster).  [See the annotations on Exodus 13:16.]

[And they shall be moved[1]]  See whether it should have been written, they shall not be moved:  for the Greek is ἀσάλευτον/immovable (Grotius).  Immobile (Ainsworth).

[Hebrew:  לְטֹטָפֹת]  [They render it variously.]  For frontlets (Vatablus, Samaritan Text), that is, plates suspended upon the forehead.  This does not satisfy; for, 1.  Such a plate was not able to be seen with the eyes.  2.  The word is plural, and then there would be two plates, although they themselves were only one.  3.  טוֹטָפוֹת/totaphot ought to be placed between the eyes; but a plate was above them (Oleaster).  Others:  looking glasses, or mirrors (Oleaster); they shall be to you for glasses (Grotius).  For these are in pairs, and are placed between the eyes, and they themselves are seen, and all other things by them (Oleaster).  But concerning this word see Exodus 13:16 (Malvenda).  It appears to signify the same thing as elsewhere (namely, in Isaiah 3:21,[2] 22) is jewellery of the nose, that is, things overhanging the nose.  And those pieces of jewellery appear (from a comparison of this passage) to have been suspended above the nose, so that they might remind of some other matter.  So that the sense of this passage might be; Just as women are wont to suspend jewellery on the forehead between the eyes, so that they might be reminded of some other matter:  so also retain ye the precepts of my Law in recent memory (Piscator).

For a sign upon thine hand, etc.:  Thou shalt give all diligence, and use all means, to keep them in thy remembrance, as men ofttimes bind something upon their hands, or put it before their eyes, to prevent forgetfulness of a thing which they much desire to remember:  compare Proverbs 3:3; 6:21; 7:3.  See the notes on Exodus 13:16.


Verse 9:  (Deut. 11:20; Is. 57:8) And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.

[On the lintel, עַל־מְזוּזֹת]  On the posts (Pagnine).  On the sides and entries of the house; so that daily anyone who enters the house might see them and be reminded (Vatablus).

[1] Here, it appears that טוֹטָפוֹת/frontlets is being related to טוט, to take away.

[2] Isaiah 3:21:  “The rings, and nose jewels (וְנִזְמֵי הָאָף)…”  נֶזֶם signifies ring.

1 Peter 5:1-4: Elders are Exhorted to Feed the Flock of Christ conscientiously

Verse 1:  The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also (Philem. 9) an elder, and (Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 5:32; 10:39) a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also (Rom. 8:17, 18; Rev. 1:9) a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed…

[The elders]  Either, 1.  with respect to age (Menochius out of Lapide, Gomar), as the Antithesis of the younger in verse 5 suggests (Gomar), as the word is taken in Luke 15:25; John 8:9; Acts 2:17; 1 Timothy 5:1, etc. (Gerhard):  or, 2.  with respect to office and dignity (Gerhard, Estius, Menochius out of Lapide), as the language of feeding conveys; whom he thus calls, because in age, or in mature prudence, they ought to excel the others (Gerhard).

[Πρεσβυτέρους]  He understands, either, 1.  Bishops alone (Estius, thus Hammond); or, 2.  all ministers of the word (Gerhard), pastors and governors of manners (Piscator, similarly Beza, Gomar).  He understands also the Elders of the assembly κοπιῶντας ἐν λόγῳ, laboring in the word,[1] and the others joined with them for government (Grotius); or, all Priests, whether they be minor and common, or major, that is, Bishops (Menochius out of Lapide).

[A fellow-elder, ὁ συμπρεσβύτερος]  A fellow-presbyter (Valla, Vatablus, Zegers, Estius, Menochius).  A presbyter together (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, a co-bishop (Estius):  set in the same office with you (Gerhard).

The elders which are among you I exhort; viz. those that were such, not so much by age as by office, as appears by his exhorting them to feed the flock, verse 2; he means the ordinary ministers of the churches among the believing Jews.  Who am also an elder:  elder is a general name, comprehending under it even apostles themselves, who were elders, though every elder were not an apostle.

[A witness of Christ’s sufferings]  Both, 1.  in word (Menochius, Estius), by which he preached Christ’s cross and death (Estius), of which Peter was an eyewitness (Tirinus).  Peter saw Him bound:[2]  Then, what the History does not relate, but is plausible, hearing that He was crucified, he desired to be a witness of this also, but at a distance and in the crowd.  The Apostles are eminently characterized by the name of witnesses, Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32 (Grotius).  And, 2.  in the work itself (Gerhard, Estius, Menochius), by which he was testifying that Christ is patient (Estius), with many afflictions born for Him (Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard), by which he was representing the sufferings of Christ in his own person also (Gerhard).  Compare Matthew 10:17, 18.  This sense is supported by the Antithesis of the glory of Christ (Gerhard, Estius).  Peter animates them by his own example, lest they should cease from duty out of fear of persecutions (Estius).

[And, etc., ὁ καὶ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κοινωνός]  And also of the glory to be brought to light (or, which shall be revealed [Erasmus, thus the Vulgate, Vatablus]:  Thus Romans 8:18:  Now we have a right, but the matter itself lies hidden [Grotius]; that is, of everlasting glory [Menochius, similarly Estius], which shall be revealed in the coming of the Lord [Estius]) a sharer, or, a partaker (Beza, Piscator, Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), understanding, going to be.  Thus κοινωνοὶ τῆς παρακλήσεως, partakers of the consolation, 2 Corinthians 1:7[3] (Grotius); or, understanding, I have been, namely, in the transfiguration of the Lord[4] (certain interpreters in Estius, Menochius, Hammond):  concerning which it is spoken in 2 Peter 1:16, 17 (Gerhard).

And a witness; either, 1.  In his doctrine, in which he held forth Christ’s sufferings, whereof he had been an eyewitness, in which respect the apostles are often called witnesses, Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 2:32.  Or, 2.  In his example, in that he in suffering so much for Christ, did give an ample testimony to the reality of Christ’s sufferings, and that Christ had indeed suffered:  or, both may well be comprehended.  The glory that shall be revealed; viz. at Christ’s last coming, 1 Peter 1:5; 4:13; Romans 8:17, 18.


Verse 2:  (John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28) Feed the flock of God which is among you (or, as much as in you is[5]), taking the oversight thereof, (1 Cor. 9:17) not by constraint, but willingly; (1 Tim. 3:3, 8; Tit. 1:7) not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind…

[Feed ye[6]]  That is, rule ye (Grotius, Camerarius, Menochius), as appears out of Matthew 2:6;[7] John 21:15-17;[8] Acts 20:28.[9]  Thus the Hebrew רָעָה, to shepherd or feed, is applied to Kings, as in 2 Samuel 5:2;[10] 7:7;[11] Psalm 78:72;[12] but what things here follow sufficiently show that Royal government is not here understood, but that which is exercised by persuasion, not by force (Grotius).  This word comprehends all the care and government of a pastor/ shepherd (Estius).  Christ had commanded this to Peter also, John 21:15 (Grotius, Gerhard).  He takes the language of feeding out of the Old Testament, Jeremiah 3:15; 23:1, etc.; Ezekiel 34:2, 23; Micah 5:4 (Gerhard).

[Which, etc., τὸ ἐν ὑμῖν ποίμνιον]  As much as in you is (Erasmus, Tigurinus, Calvin).  This does not satisfy (Estius, Gerhard):  for then he would have said τὸ καθ᾿ ὑμᾶς, or, as in Romans 12:18, τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as much as lieth in you (Gerhard).  Which is in your hands (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator, Gerhard), that is, which is committed to your trust:  or, which depends upon you, as in Sophocles,[13] ἐν σοί ἔσμεν, we are in thee, in the place of, we depend upon thee (Beza):  or, which is with you (Gerhard), that is, with whom ye are one body, one church (Gerhard, Estius).  Which is in your place (Grotius).  Which in you (or, in your presence [Estius, Gerhard]) is (Vulgate).  Thus in the preceding verse, which are among you.[14]  And in Acts 20:28.[15]  And, as the flock is said to be in the pastor, so contrariwise the pastor in the flock, Acts 20:28, …in which He hath set, etc.  By which it is signified that there ought to be the closest conjunction of pastor and flock (Estius).

Feed; teach and rule, Matthew 2:6; John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28.  The flock of God; the church.  Which is among you; which is with you, or committed to your charge; intimating that the flock not being their own, they were to give an account of it to him that had set them over it.

[Providing for, ἐπισκοποῦντες]  Applying oneself (Erasmus, Gerhard, Estius).  Superintending (Estius out of Jerome, Menochius, Augustine in Valla).  Looking out for (Zegers).  Taking care (Vatablus, Piscator).  Being free for the inspection (Beza), understanding, of that (Vatablus, Beza, Piscator).  Bishoping (Valla).  Acting as a Bishop (Erasmus).  פְּקִידִים/overseers.[16]  Thus Presbyters are also called ἐπίσκοποι/overseers/bishops, Acts 20:28, which name by excellence adheres to the Chief man of the assembly (Grotius).  There is an allusion to the name of Bishop; that is to say, Answer to your name; do that which ye are called (Estius, Gerhard).

Taking the oversight thereof; or, being bishops, or acting as bishops over it, i.e. superintending, inspecting, and watching over it with all care, Acts 20:28-29.

[Not, etc., μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς, ἀλλ᾽ ἑκουσίως]  Not by compulsion (or, by force [Syriac], as unwilling [Castalio]:  The same as ἄκων/unwilling in 1 Corinthians 9:17;[17] that is to say, be ye not grieved as if by an imposed burden:  Thus Thucydides,[18] ἀναγκαστοὶ ἐκβάντες, when unwilling they went forth [Grotius]:  Not as of duty [Erasmus on verse 3], or of necessity [Grotius, Gerhard], slowly and lifelessly, perfunctorily or negligently, inasmuch as the consequent is here understood from the antecedent [Gerhard]:  not out of sadness, as in 2 Corinthians 9:7,[19] as if unwilling, as they are wont to be, who frequently and easily complain of the annoyances of their pastoral responsibility:  which is illiberal of soul [Estius]), but freely (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator), or, willingly (Castalio, Syriac, thus the Arabic, Montanus).  As willing (Erasmus, Tigurinus).  Out of affection (Erasmus).  Do ye what belongs to your office with a cheerful, or eager, spirit, בִּנְדָבָה, with voluntariness, Psalm 54:6[20] (Grotius).  The same as ἑκὼν, one willing, in 1 Corinthians 9:17.  Thus ἑκουσίως/willingly in Exodus 36:2;[21] Hebrews 10:26,[22] and κατὰ ἑκούσιον, of free will, in Philemon 14[23] (Gerhard).

Not by constraint; not merely because ye must:  what men do out of compulsion, they do more slightly and perfunctorily, as those that would not do it if they could help it:  see the like expression, 2 Corinthians 9:7.  But willingly; cheerfully and freely, as Exodus 36:2; Psalm 54:6:  compare 1 Corinthians 9:17.

[Neither, etc., μηδὲ αἰσχροκερδῶς]  Not in an unseemly manner (that is, not with a wanton and avaricious soul [Estius]) desiring, or pursuing, gain (Beza, Piscator, Estius).  Of which sort is that pastor in Zechariah 11:16.  Not so that ye might turn this function into an occasion for gain.  You have the same in 1 Timothy 3:3, 8; Titus 1:7.  Add 1 Timothy 6:8, 9 (Grotius).

Not for filthy lucre; not out of covetousness, or a design of making a gain of the work; it being a shameful thing for a shepherd to feed the sheep out of love to the fleece:  see Titus 1:7; 1 Timothy 3:3, 8.

[But, etc., ἀλλὰ προθύμως]  But with a right spirit, that is, optimally affected toward the people (Grotius):  or, ready, or eager (Menochius, Tirinus, Beza, Piscator, Erasmus, Vatablus), not unto his own advantage, but that of the sheep (Tirinus).

But of a ready mind; out of a good affection to the welfare of the flock, in opposition to the private gain before mentioned.  He doth not do his work freely, and of a ready mind, who is either driven to it by necessity, or drawn by covetousness.


Verse 3:  Neither as (Ezek. 34:4; Matt. 20:25, 26; 1 Cor. 3:9; 2 Cor. 1:24) being lords over (or, over-ruling[24]) (Ps. 33:12; 74:2) God’s heritage, but (Phil. 3:17; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12; Tit. 2:7) being ensamples to the flock.

[Neither, etc., μηδ᾽ ὡς κατακυριεύοντες τῶν κλήρων]  Neither as over-ruling, or exercising dominion (that is, ruling imperiously [Menochius, thus Tirinus], arrogantly [Tirinus], with ostentation of power and with terror [Estius]; unto thine own, not the flock’s, advantage [Hammond]; after the manner of kings ruling according to one’s own pleasure, as we said on Matthew 20:25, and Concerning the Law of War and Peace 2:22:14 [Grotius]) with respect to the clergy (Pagnine, Montanus, Beza, Piscator), or, upon, or over against, the clergy (Erasmus, Vatablus, Estius).  He calls here the clergy, either, 1.  the Order of Clerics, over whom Bishops are in charge (Menochius), Presbyters, Deacons, etc. (Estius); or, 2.  the flock, as it is next explained (Estius, thus Gerhard), the Church (Menochius), individual assemblies of the faithful (Piscator); particular congregations or parishes (Tirinus), or portions of the flock, which fell to individual bishops for feeding (Gerhard, Estius out of Cyprian):  flocks which fell to them by lot for government (Vatablus).  The reason for this appellation is twofold (Gerhard); 1.  because of old the people of Israel were called κλῆρος, either the patrimony, or inheritance, of God, Deuteronomy 4:20;[25] 9:29.[26]  Now the Christian people (Grotius, thus Gerhard), who fall to God, as it were, by lot (Vatablus); or, who are no less dear to God than an inheritance which falls to someone by lot (Piscator); the individual parts of which, as it is wont to be done ἐν ὁμογενέσι, in those of the same race, partake of the same name (Grotius).  2.  Because those portions of the flock fell to the Bishops, as it were, by lot, like portions of land which fell to individuals for a possession (Estius, Gerhard); which are called lots in Judges 1:3;[27] 20:9[28] (Gerhard).  Not a Kingdom, but a cure, was committed to Presbyters (Beza).

Neither as being lords; not exercising any such lordship or dominion over the people, as temporal lords and magistrates exercise over their subjects, Matthew 20:25, 26, etc.; Luke 22:25:  compare 2 Corinthians 1:24.  Over God’s heritage; the Lord’s clergy, the same as flock before; the Greek word is plural, and so it signifies the several churches or flocks which were under the charge of the several elders or pastors.  The church of Israel is often called God’s inheritance, which as it were fell to him by lot, (as the Greek word signifies,) and which was as dear to him as men’s inheritances are to them:  see Deuteronomy 4:20; 9:29; 32:9;[29] Psalm 33:12;[30] 74:2;[31] 78:71.[32]  Accordingly now the Christian church, succeeding it, is called God’s inheritance, and the word κλῆρος/clerus is no where in the New Testament peculiarly ascribed to ministers of the gospel.  This title given here to the Lord’s people, implies a reason why the elders should not lord it over them, viz. because they are still the Lord’s inheritance, and not their own; God having not given them a kingdom but a care, and still retaining his right to his people.

[But, etc., ἀλλὰ τύποι γινόμενοι τοῦ ποιμνίου]  But examples, or exemplars (as the word τύποι is taken in Exodus 25:40;[33] Philippians 3:17;[34] 1 Thessalonians 1:7;[35] 2 Thessalonians 3:9;[36] 1 Timothy 4:12;[37] Titus 2:7[38] [Grotius]; or patterns [Erasmus, Valla, Vatablus]) made (or, in such a way that ye be [Erasmus, thus Beza, Piscator]) of the flock (Montanus, Erasmus, etc.).  In Christian life and holiness (Estius, Menochius).  Teach ye those things which ye yourselves also do, otherwise than the Scribes and Pharisees, Matthew 23:4.  Latinus Pacatus,[39] It is most persuasively commanded by example.  Cicero concerning the Senate, this order with vice vacated; let it be a model for others[40] (Grotius).

But being ensamples to the flock; in holiness of life, practising before their eyes what you preach to their ears, Philippians 3:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Titus 2:7.


Verse 4:  And when (Heb. 13:20) the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive (1 Cor. 9:25; 2 Tim. 4:8; Jam. 1:12) a crown of glory (1 Pet. 1:4) that fadeth not away.

[When He appears]  On the day of judgment (Menochius, thus Piscator), as in Colossians 3:4 (Grotius).

[The Prince of pastors[41]]  That is, Christ (Estius, Menochius, Piscator), who is the good shepherd, John 10:11 (Menochius), the great shepherd, Hebrews 13:20.  We have the word ἀρχιποίμην in 2 Kings 3:4[42] (Grotius).

And when the chief Shepherd; the Lord Jesus Christ, the only Prince of pastors, called the great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20, as here the chief Shepherd, not only for his supereminent dignity over all other pastors, but because of the power he hath over them, they being all subject to his authority, receiving their charge from him, and exercising their office in his name, and being accountable to him for their administrations.  Shall appear:  see 1 Peter 1:7, 13; 4:13.

[Ye shall receive, etc., κομιεῖσθε τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον]  Κομίζεσθαι, to carry off, is used elegantly of a Prize, as in 1 Peter 1:9;[43] Hebrews 10:36;[44] 11:39;[45] στέφανον δόξης, a crown of glory, Proverbs 16:31;[46] Jeremiah 13:18;[47] Ezekiel 16:12.[48]  Thus were called those crowns which were received during festival times, or in the highest delight.  Now, Peter elegantly adds ἀμαράντινον/unfading; for, among the crowns that were given to the deserving among the Greeks and other nations were στέφανοι ἀμαράντινοι, unfading crowns, with Philostratus as a witness;[49] Pliny in his Natural History 20 concerning Amaranth, its hightest nature is in its name, so called because it does not fade.[50]  Hence this Allegory is derived, at the same time having regard to Psalm 1:3.  See also 1 Peter 1:4.  You have the contrary in Isaiah 40:7; James 1:10, 11; 1 Peter 1:24 (Grotius).

Ye shall receive; or, carry away, viz. from Christ, who, as the Judge, shall award it to you.  A crown of glory; either, a glorious crown; or, that glory which shall be as a crown to you.  It is called a crown of righteousness, 2 Timothy 4:8; a crown of life, James 1:12.  That fadeth not away; in opposition to those crowns which were given to conquerors in war, and in public games, which were made of perishable flowers or herbs:  see 1 Peter 1:4; 1 Corinthians 9:25.

[1] 1 Timothy 5:17.

[2] See Matthew 26:56-58; Mark 14:50, 53, 54; Luke 22:54.

[3] 2 Corinthians 1:7:  “And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers (κοινωνοί) of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation (τῆς παρακλήσεως).”

[4] Matthew 17:1-9; Mark 9:2-10; Luke 9:28-36.

[5] Greek:  τὸ ἐν ὑμῖν ποίμνιον.

[6] Greek:  ποιμάνατε.  Ποιμαίνω signifies to shepherd, to rule or guide.

[7] Matthew 2:6:  “And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda:  for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (ποιμανεῖ) my people Israel.”

[8] John 21:15-17:  “So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these?  He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee.  He saith unto him, Feed (βόσκε) my lambs.  He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?  He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee.  He saith unto him, Feed (ποίμαινε) my sheep.  He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?  Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me?  And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee.  Jesus saith unto him, Feed (βόσκε) my sheep.”

[9] Acts 20:28:  “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed (ποιμαίνειν) the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.”

[10] 2 Samuel 5:2:  “Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel:  and the Lord said to thee, Thou shalt feed (תִרְעֶה; σὺ ποιμανεῖς, in the Septuagint) my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel.”

[11] 2 Samuel 7:7:  “In all the places wherein I have walked with all the children of Israel spake I a word with any of the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to feed (לִרְעוֹת; ποιμαίνειν, in the Septuagint) my people Israel, saying, Why build ye not me an house of cedar?”

[12] Psalm 78:72:  “So he fed them (וַיִּרְעֵם; καὶ ἐποίμανεν αὐτοὺς, in the Septuagint) according to the integrity of his heart; and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands.”

[13] Sophocles (c. 495-406) was a Greek playwright.  Of his one hundred and twenty-three plays, only seven tragedies survive.

[14] 1 Peter 5:1a:  “The elders which are among you (πρεσβυτέρους τοὺς ἐν ὑμῖν) I exhort…”

[15] Acts 20:28:  “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which (ἐν ᾧ) the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.”

[16] For example, Nehemiah 11:9:  “And Joel the son of Zichri was their overseer (פָּקִיד):  and Judah the son of Senuah was second over the city.”

[17] 1 Corinthians 9:17:  “For if I do this thing as one willing (ἑκὼν), I have a reward:   if as one unwilling (ἄκων), a dispensation of the gospel is committed unto me.”

[18] Thucydides (c. 460-c. 400 BC) was a Greek historian, author of the History of the Peloponnesian War.

[19] 2 Corinthians 9:7:  “Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly (μὴ ἐκ λύπης, not out of sorrow), or of necessity:  for God loveth a cheerful giver.”

[20] Psalm 54:6:  “With voluntariness (בִּנְדָבָה), I will sacrifice unto thee:  I will praise thy name, O Lord; for it is good.”

[21] Exodus 36:2:  “And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the Lord had put wisdom, even every one whose heart incited (נְשָׂאוֹ לִבּוֹ; τοὺς ἑκουσίως βουλομένους, those purposing willingly, in the Septuagint) to come unto the work to do it…”

[22] Hebrews 10:26:  “For if we sin wilfully (ἑκουσίως) after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins…”

[23] Philemon 14:  “But without thy mind would I do nothing; that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity (κατὰ ἀνάγκην), but willingly (κατὰ ἑκούσιον).”

[24] Greek:  κατακυριεύοντες.

[25] Deuteronomy 4:20:  “But the Lord hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance (נַחֲלָה; ἔγκληρον, in the Septuagint), as ye are this day.”

[26] Deuteronomy 9:29:  “Yet they are thy people and thine inheritance (וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ; καὶ κλῆρός σου, in the Septuagint), which thou broughtest out by thy mighty power and by thy stretched out arm.”

[27] Judges 1:3a:  “And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot (בְגוֹרָלִי; ἐν τῷ κλήρῳ μου, in the Septuagint), that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot (בְּגוֹרָלֶךָ; ἐν τῷ κλήρῳ σου, in the Septuagint).”

[28] Judges 20:9:  “But now this shall be the thing which we will do to Gibeah; we will go up by lot (בְּגוֹרָל; ἐν κλήρῳ, in the Septuagint) against it…”

[29] Deuteronomy 32:9:  “For the LORD’S portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance (נַחֲלָתוֹ; κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint).”

[30] Psalm 33:12:  “Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance (לְנַחֲלָה לוֹ; εἰς κληρονομίαν ἑαυτῷ, in the Septuagint).”

[31] Psalm 74:2:  “Remember thy congregation, which thou hast purchased of old; the rod of thine inheritance (נַחֲלָתֶךָ; κληρονομίας σου, in the Septuagint), which thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein thou hast dwelt.”

[32] Psalm 78:71:  “From following the ewes great with young he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance (נַחֲלָתוֹ; τὴν κληρονομίαν αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint).”

[33] Exodus 25:40:  “And look that thou make them after their pattern (בְּתַבְנִיתָם; κατὰ τὸν τύπον, in the Septuagint), which was shewed thee in the mount.”

[34] Philippians 3:17:  “Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk so as ye have us for an ensample (τύπον).”

[35] 1 Thessalonians 1:7:  “So that ye were ensamples (τύπους) to all that believe in Macedonia and Achaia.”

[36] 2 Thessalonians 3:9:  “Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample (τύπον) unto you to follow us.”

[37] 1 Timothy 4:12:  “Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example (τύπος) of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.”

[38] Titus 2:7:  “In all things shewing thyself a pattern (τύπον) of good works:  in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity…”

[39] Latinus Pacatus Drepanius (flourished as the end of the fourth century) was a Latin rhetorician and poet.  His panegyric of Theodosius I survives.

[40] De Legibus 3:3.

[41] Greek:  ἀρχιποίμενος.

[42] 2 Kings 3:4:  “And Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster (נֹקֵד; ἀρχιποίμην, in Symmachus), and rendered unto the king of Israel an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool.”

[43] 1 Peter 1:9:  “Receiving (κομιζόμενοι) the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.”

[44] Hebrews 10:36:  “For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive (κομίσησθε) the promise.”

[45] Hebrews 11:39:  “And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received (ἐκομίσαντο) not the promise…”

[46] Proverbs 16:31:  “The hoary head is a crown of glory (עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת; στέφανος καυχήσεως, a crown of boasting, in the Septuagint), if it be found in the way of righteousness.”

[47] Jeremiah 13:18:  “Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down:  for your principalities shall come down, even the crown of your glory (עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאַרְתְּכֶם; στέφανος δόξης ὑμῶν, in the Septuagint).”

[48] Ezekiel 16:12:  “And I put a jewel on thy forehead, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of beauty (וַעֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת; καὶ στέφανον καυχήσεως, and a crown of boasting, in the Septuagint) upon thine head.”

[49] Heroicus 19.  Philostratus “the Athenian” (c. 170-c. 250) was a Greek sophist.  Little is known about him.

[50] Amaranth, an herb, received its name because it was unfading.

New Volume: Poole’s Defense of the Deity of the Spirit

At long last, thanks to the work of Michael Seal, the first volume in the “Literary Labors of the Reverend Matthew Poole” series is available.  Blasphemer Slaine with the Sword of the Spirit is Poole’s defense of the Deity of the Holy Spirit, written for the edification of the common man.

From the back cover:  “John Bidle’s “XII Arguments Drawn out of the Scripture; wherein the commonly Received Opinion, Touching the Deity of the Holy Spirit, Is clearly and fully Refuted” (1647) was answered by several Reformed theologians and scholars, both continental and British.  These responses were full, demonstrative, and clear; but they were written largely for academics.  It fell to a young parish minister, Matthew Poole, not yet thirty years of age, to provide a concise and popular response, for the edification of the common man.  Poole’s “Blasphemer Slaine with the Sword of the Spirit” remains one of the best popular defenses of the Deity of the Holy Spirit in the English language.”

The volume is available at

Soli Deo Gloria.

1 Peter 5 Outline

The elders are exhorted to feed the flock of Christ conscientiously, looking to the chief Shepherd for a reward, 1-4.  The younger are required to submit to the elder, and all to practise humility toward each other, 5, with resignation to God, 6, 7, to be sober, watchful, and stedfast in the faith, resisting the devil, 8, 9.  The Epistle is concluded with a prayer and benediction, 10-14.

1 Peter 4:16-19: Motives of Comfort under Pesecution, Part 3

Verse 16:  Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; (Acts 5:41) but let him glorify God on this behalf.

[But if[1]]  That is, he suffers, or is afflicted (Piscator, Estius), either privately, or, by the public power (Estius).

[As a Christian]  Concerning the origin of this name you have Acts 11:26 (Grotius).

Yet if any man suffer as a Christian; if his Christianity be his only crime, and the cause of his sufferings.

[Let him not be ashamed]  Let him not regard it as shame or ignominy for himself (Estius).

Let him not be ashamed:  see 2 Timothy 2:12.

[In, etc., ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ]  In this part (Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Piscator, etc.).  As far as this matter is concerned, as in 2 Corinthians 3:10;[2] 9:3;[3] Colossians 2:16.[4]  In a manuscript is the Latin expression, ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ, in isto nomine, in that name.  Neither does the Syriac read otherwise (Grotius).  In this name (Estius out of the Vulgate).  Because of this (Menochius), that he suffers on account of Christ (Erasmus, thus Estius).

But let him glorify God on this behalf; i.e. on the account of his sufferings; let him bless God for keeping him from suffering as an evildoer, and for counting him worthy to suffer for Christ’s sake, Acts 5:41, as well as for giving him patience, and courage under sufferings.


Verse 17:  For the time is come (Is. 10:12; Jer. 25:29; 49:12; Ezek. 9:6; Mal. 3:5) that judgment must begin at the house of God:  and (Luke 23:31) if it first begin at us, (Luke 10:12, 14) what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?

[The time, etc., ὅτι ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ Θεοῦ]  The time (or, a time of this sort [Castalio], or, the time opportune, or predetermined [Beza, Gerhard, Menochius, Tirinus], understanding is [Erasmus, Piscator, etc.], or, comes [Beza]:  Such a time, both the present life [Menochius, similarly Gerhard], in which the pious are compelled to suffer in accordance with the appointment of God, so that God might be able to spare them in the future life [Gerhard]; and, the time of the beginning of Christianity, with the hatred of the Jews and unbelievers burning against it at that time [Menochius]; or, the time foretold by Christ, Matthew 24:9 [Grotius, thus Estius]; Luke 21:21; John 16:2 [certain interpreters in Gerhard, Estius]:  Peter here has regard unto various passages of the Old Testament, like Isaiah 10:12; Jeremiah 25:15, etc; 49:12; Ezekiel 9:6 [Gerhard]) that judgment (that is, trial [Menochius], punishment [Estius, Menochius, thus Piscator], chastening [Piscator], tribulation accompanying salvation [Menochius]:  Κρίμα is properly the judgment of condemnation, or punishment; but here it is Metaphorically undeserved affliction [Vorstius]:  Others:  Κρίμα in this place, as in Romans 5:16, is plainly מִשְׁפָּט/judgment, the ordinance of God, that is, concerning the sending of adversities, as what precedes shows; namely, for the purging of some, and for the trial of others and the setting forth of them as an example [Grotius]) begin at the house of God (Piscator, etc.), that is, with God’s domestics, sons, and servants (Piscator); or, at the Church and its members (Gerhard, thus Estius), in accordance with the expression in 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:6 (Gerhard).  That is to say, the time is imminent in which Christians will suffer most grievous evils (Grotius).

For the time is come; or season, viz. that which is fixed by God:  the afflictions that befall God’s people come in the time appointed, and so are never unseasonable.  Or this may imply, that what the prophets spoke in their time, Isaiah 10:12; Jeremiah 25:29, doth especially agree to gospel times, viz. that judgment begins at the house of God.  Judgment; viz. temporary, and for good, in opposition to the destructive judgment he implies in the latter part of the verse; he means all those afflictions God brings upon his children for their correction, trial, instruction, mortification, 1 Corinthians 11:31, 32.  Must begin at the house of God; the church of God, and the members of it, called here his house, as 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:6, and typified by the material house or temple of God under the Old Testament.

[If…first, etc.]  If we be first to bear evils (Grotius).

[What (that is, how miserable [Piscator] shall the end be, etc.]  That is, the conclusion (Beza, Piscator, similarly Estius).  It signifies terrible judgment, and torments never to be ended (Estius).  He treats of the Jews, and foretells the destruction of that nation (Grotius, thus Hammond).  You have τὸ τέλος, the end, in a similar sense in Matthew 24:14.[5]  The passage in Daniel 9:27 is in view, in which is כָּלָה, complete destruction, συντέλεια/consummation[6] (Drusius, Gerhard).

What shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?  How miserable, how dreadful will be the end of all those that would not obey the gospel!  Implying, that they shall be in a much worse condition if God take them in hand.  If he spare not his children, much less will he his enemies.  If the one sip of the cup of God’s wrath, the other shall wring out the dregs, and drink them, Psalm 75:8.


Verse 18:  (Prov. 11:31; Luke 23:31) And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?

[And if the righteous (that is, the harmless [Gerhard], pious [Beza], who desire righteousness [Beza, Gerhard]) hardly, etc., εἰ ὁ δίκαιος μόλις σῴζεται]  These words are taken from the Greek of Proverbs 11:31[7] (Grotius).  Hardly (or, scarcely [Castalio]) he be saved (Beza, Piscator, thus Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), that is, he arrives at salvation (Estius).  Hardly, either, 1.  because of the frailty of the flesh and the dangers of temptations (certain interpreters in Estius), on account of which there must be doubt for him concerning his salvation (certain interpreters in Vorstius); which does not satisfy (Vorstius):  or, 2.  because of pressures (Estius):  hardly, that is, with difficulty (Vorstius), not without great labor and effort (Vorstius, thus Menochius, Gerhard), on account of the strait and rugged way, Matthew 7:14 (Vorstius), through many penances (Menochius), afflictions, troubles, persecutions (Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard).  Μόλις here signifies not without adversities.  Thus μόλις πῶς in Xenophon, with difficulty.  Μόλις ἐπαίρουσι τὰ βλέφαρα, with difficulty they lift the eyes, in Galen.[8]  The Syriac here has למחסן, with force.  Thus μόλις and μετὰ πόνου are posited as things equivalent in Wisdom of Solomon 9:16.[9]  And μόλις is in a similar sense in Isocrates[10] (Grotius).  Thus μόλις in Acts 14:18[11] and 27:7.[12]  Μόλις is the same as μόγις, with toil, from μόγος/toil, which signifies πόνον/labor, μόχθον/toil, κακοπάθειαν/strain (Gerhard).

Scarcely be saved; with much labour and difficulty, through many tribulations, Acts 14:22, as going in the narrow way, and entering in at the strait gate, Matthew 7:13, 14.

[The impious and the sinner[13] (it extends more broadly than the preceding, not believing, etc. [Estius]:  Guilty, criminal, ὑπόδικος, liable to trial:  who sins securely, contumaciously, and against conscience:  These words are synonymous, as in Genesis 13:13;[14] although others thus distinguish them, ἀσεβὴς is an infidel, ἁμαρτωλὸς a bad Christian [Gerhard]:  Others:  ἀσεβὴς, impious toward God, ἁμαρτωλὸς, offensive toward men, as in Romans 5:8;[15] Galatians 2:15[16] [Grotius]:  But, because both are opposed to righteous, they are rather synonyms [Gerhard]:  You have ἀσεβὴς and ἁμαρτωλὸς conjointly also in 1 Timothy 1:9[17] [Grotius]), where shall they appear? ποῦ φανεῖται]  That is to say, nowhere, namely, in the house of God, that is, heaven (Piscator).  Where shall they go? what place shall receive them (Menochius)?  Or, they shall not dare to appear, or, they shall not be able to stand in the judgment, Psalm 1:5 (Gerhard).  Where shall he be found? shall he not be found in the greatest evils?  This opinion is very much like unto this in Rabbi Salomon[18] on Numbers 10, when God…performs judgment upon the righteous, He is praised:  for, if He does this in their case, how much more in the case of the impious?  See also Jeremiah 25:29 and Luke 23:31 (Grotius).

The ungodly and the sinner; unbelievers and impenitent sinners of all sorts; both words signify the same, in opposition to the righteous before mentioned.  Appear; he shall not be able to stand in God’s judgment against the sentence of condemnation then to be pronounced, Psalm 1:5:  q.d. If the righteous scarcely be saved, the wicked shall certainly perish.


Verse 19:  Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God (Ps. 31:5; Luke 23:46; 2 Tim. 1:12) commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.

[That suffer]  Πάσχειν here is to be agitated by adversaries (Grotius, similarly Beza), as in 1 Peter 2:19, 20, 23; 3:14, 17 (Grotius).

Let them that suffer; viz. any manner of affliction or persecution for righteousness’ sake.

[According to the will of God]  That is, what happens to us is brought in by the will of God, from which all our afflictions proceed (Estius):  or, with God thus dispensing, as in 1 Peter 3:17.  He does not treat here of a certain general permission, but of the special decree of God, by which He calls the pious to the cross by the example of Christ (Grotius):  Those suffering for Christ and righteousness, and that patiently and bravely, conforming their will to the divine (Menochius):  Who have deserved nothing from men, yet are punished by the secret judgment of God (Beza).

According to the will of God; according to that will of God, whereby he hath appointed them to suffer such things, 1 Peter 3:17; 1 Thessalonians 3:3.

[To a faithful, etc., ὡς πιστῷ κτίστῃ παρατιθέσθωσαν τὰς ψυχὰς ἑαυτῶν ἐν ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ]  As (or, before Him as [Beza], or, to Him as [Dieu out of the Syriac and Geneva]:  An Ellipsis of the Pronoun αὐτὸς/He, which sort is found in Hebrews 9:19, λαβὼν, having taken, in the place of αὐτὸς λαβὼν, he having taken, that is, that very Moses, by whom the Law had been spoken to the people, sprinkled:  That supplement is also able to be omitted, if a construction be admitted, κτίστῃ ὡς πιστῷ παρατιθέσθωσαν, let them commit to the creator as faithful [Dieu]) before a faithful builder (that is, God, who is also creator [Grotius], and therefore He has a right in us [Grotius, similarly Gerhard], neither will He repudiate His own work, Wisdom of Solomon 11:24:[19]  He has regard to Ecclesiastes 12:7 [Gerhard]; thereupon He is faithful; and therefore He shall stand to the promises, and shall repay the evils tolerated with the greatest goods [Grotius]) let them deposit (or, let them commit, as a deposit into the hand of God, as in Luke 23:46 [Beza], or, let them commend [Piscator, Vulgate] unto His guardianship and custody [Estius], both, so that He might furnish strength for suffering [Menochius, thus Tirinus]; and, so that He might watch over the obtaining of the victory [Tirinus], so that, if death itself should be thrust upon them [Estius], they might meet that last and difficult struggle of life without danger to salvation [Menochius]:  or, let them entrust to the decision of God [Grotius]) their souls (surviving when the body is destroyed in death, Matthew 10:28:  He also alludes to Luke 23:46 [Estius, thus Gerhard]; or, souls, that is, themselves, as we said on Matthew 10:39,[20] themselves whole and entire, how great soever they be [Grotius]) for well doing (Erasmus, Piscator, etc.), or, with a zeal for well doing, as in 1 Peter 2:15, so that, deterred by no severity of the cross, let them persevere in good works (Beza); with the tolerance of ills conjoining the study of virtues (Gerhard); amassing prayers with good deeds, that they might obtain a certain/fixed salvation (Menochius); and let them not weary in well doing.[21]  We had already several times this word ἀγαθοποιεῖν, to do well, in this sense, 1 Peter 2:14, 15, 20; 3:6, 17 (Grotius); or, in good deeds (Vulgate), in, or with, beneficence (Erasmus, Estius), with which they pursue even their persecutors, by rendering unto them good for evil,[22] and praying for them,[23] as Christ did:[24]  or, in good works; for God does not accept this deposit of souls from sinners, but from the just, who first commend themselves to God through good works (Estius).

Commit; commend into his hands, or lay up, or intrust with him as a depositum, Psalm 31:5; 2 Timothy 1:12.  The keeping of their souls; as the most precious things while they live, and most to be cared for when they die; that they may be kept from sin under afflictions, and from perishing in death:  or rather, their souls here includes their bodies, and so committing their souls is committing their whole selves to God.  In well-doing; not being deterred from well-doing by the evils they suffer, but by persevering in holiness notwithstanding their afflictions, making it appear to the last, that they do not suffer as evildoers.  As unto a faithful Creator; one who, as Creator, is able to keep what they commit to him; and being faithful to his promises, certainly will do it.

[1] Any man suffer has been supplied in the Authorized Version.

[2] 2 Corinthians 3:10:  “For even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect (ἐν τούτῳ τῷ μέρει), by reason of the glory that excelleth.”

[3] 2 Corinthians 9:3:  “Yet have I sent the brethren, lest our boasting of you should be in vain in this behalf (ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ); that, as I said, ye may be ready…”

[4] Colossians 2:16:  “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect (ἐν μέρει) of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days…”

[5] Matthew 24:14:  “And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end (τὸ τέλος) come.”

[6] Daniel 9:27:  “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week:  and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation (כָּלָה; συντελείας, in the Septuagint), and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.”

[7] The entire verse is taken almost verbatim from the Septuagint rendering of Proverbs 11:31.

[8] Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129-200 AD) was an innovative Greek physician.

[9] Wisdom of Solomon 9:16:  “And hardly (μόλις) do we guess aright at things that are upon earth, and with labour (μετὰ πόνου) do we find the things that are before us:  but the things that are in heaven who hath searched out?”

[10] Isocrates (436-338 BC) was one of the most influential rhetoricians of his day.

[11] Acts 14:18:  “And with these sayings scarce (μόλις) restrained they the people, that they had not done sacrifice unto them.”

[12] Acts 27:7:  “And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce (μόλις) were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against Salmone…”

[13] Greek:  ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς.

[14] Genesis 13:13:  “But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners (רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים; πονηροὶ καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ, in the Septuagint) before the Lord exceedingly.”

[15] Romans 5:8:  “But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners (ἁμαρτωλῶν), Christ died for us.”

[16] Galatians 2:15:  “We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners (ἁμαρτωλοί) of the Gentiles…”

[17] 1 Timothy 1:9:  “Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners (ἀσεβέσιν καὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς), for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers…”

[18] The details of the life of Rabbi Salomon Jarchi (Solomon Jarchi ben Isaac) have been obscured by the mists of time.  It is relatively safe to associate him with the eleventh century.  He commented on the whole of the Hebrew Bible, and the principal value of his commentary is its preservation of traditional Jewish interpretation.  He also authored the first comprehensive commentary on the Talmud.

[19] Wisdom of Solomon 11:24:  “For thou lovest all the things that are, and abhorrest nothing which thou hast made:  for never wouldest thou have made any thing, if thou hadst hated it.”

[20] Matthew 10:39:  “He that findeth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν, soul) shall lose it:  and he that loseth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν, soul) for my sake shall find it.”

[21] Galatians 6:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:13.

[22] Luke 6:27; Romans 12:20, 21.

[23] Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14; 1 Peter 3:9.

[24] Luke 23:34.

1 Peter 4:14, 15: Motives of Comfort under Pesecution, Part 2

Verse 14:  (Matt. 5:11; 2 Cor. 12:10; Jam. 1:12; 1 Pet. 2:19, 20; 3:14) If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you:  (1 Pet. 2:12; 3:16) on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.

[In the name of Christ]  That is, on account of Christ’s name (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard), or, profession (Piscator, similarly Estius); or, for Christ’s sake, as in Matthew 5:11 (Grotius, Gerhard).  See also 1 Peter 3:14 (Grotius).

[Since, etc., ὅτι τὸ τῆς δόξης καὶ τὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ Πνεῦμα ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶς ἀναπαύεται]  The τῆς δόξης, of glory, is able to be read, either, 1.  separately; or, 2.  so that this, just as well as that Θεοῦ, of God, might be referred to the following Πνεῦμα/Spirit (Erasmus).  Some codices after τῆς δόξης, of glory, insert καὶ δυνάμεως, and power[1] (Gerhard, thus Grotius).  [Hence they vary:]  Since glory (or, what is of glory [Erasmus, Zegers, thus Montanus]; τὸ τῆς δόξης, what is of glory, means the same thing as ἡ δόξα, glory [certain interpreters in Beza]:  Or, both of glory [Pagnine], that of glory [Piscator], both that of glory [Beza], or, glorious [Beza out of the Syriac, Grotius]) and of God (or, that of God [Montanus, Beza, Piscator]) Spirit (namely, the Holy Spirit [Estius], or rather, His gifts, just as the spirit of understanding, of counsel, etc., Isaiah 11:2:  But I understand here the Spirit of adoption,[2] who is called the spirit of glory by Antithesis with the ignominy of the cross, and because of the glory with which He adorns the faithful [Beza]; or, because He is the author of our glorification [Estius, Gerhard]:  and the spirit of power, that is, very powerful and efficacious:  It is certainly a great power, to speak with tongues, to heal the diseased, to cast out demons, and to predict the future:  And the greatest honor will be to those among impartial men:  But if such is the earnest, how much and of what sort shall be the full price itself [Grotius]?) upon you rests (Erasmus, etc.), that is, graciously dwells (Gerhard, similarly Menochius, Estius); in evils He will not desert you, but remains with you, that is, שכן, to dwell or rest, whence שכינה/ Shechinah, the Divine Presence.[3]  And he says ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶς, upon you, just as the same Spirit is said ἐπέρχεσθαι, to come upon,[4] Luke 1:35;[5] Acts 1:8.[6]  Thus שָׁכַן עָלָיו, it abode thereon, in Exodus 40:35.  Therefore, ye have great cause why ye ought to rejoice, in the midst of ills (Grotius); neither are ye able not to be blessed (Gerhard).  That glory answers to שכינה/Shechinah, and that that signifies that illustrious ἐπιφάνειαν/appearing of Christ through incarnation, it has been previously observed.  Wherefore, τὸ τῆς δόξης, what is of glory, is the state of Christ on earth, to whom the Spirit of God is aptly joined (since the incarnate Christ was God blessed forever[7]):  that is, the same economy that was applied to Christ acting on earth; so that the sense might be, In this manner ye are made similar to Christ; your state is the same, and your Spirit, which was Christ’s, is the same, and hence ye are blessed (Hammond).

Happy are ye; viz. because of the Spirit’s dwelling in you, which is both the means and evidence of your happiness.  The spirit of glory and of God; i.e. the glorious Spirit of God, or that Spirit of God which is likewise a Spirit of glory, as being not only glorious in himself, but a glory to them in whom he dwells, and the cause of their future glorification.  This he adds in counterbalance to the reproaches they suffered for the name of Christ; q.d. It is a greater glory to you to have the Spirit of Christ dwelling in you, (whereof your patient bearing reproaches and persecutions is an argument,) than all the calumnies and obloquies wherewith your enemies load you can be a shame to you.  Resteth upon you:  in allusion to Isaiah 11:2; dwells in you, and shall abide with you for ever, John 14:16, not leaving you in your sufferings.

[On their part, etc., κατὰ μὲν αὐτοὺς βλασφημεῖται, κατὰ δὲ ὑμᾶς δοξάζεται]  These things are not found in the Vulgate, nor in the Syriac (Estius, Gerhard), nor in the Arabic, nor in a Manuscript[8] (Grotius).  But they are found in all the Greek Codices (Beza, Gerhard), except one; and in Cyprian (Beza), and in the commentaries of the Greeks, as Œcumenius testifies (Gerhard).  With respect to those (or, by those [Castalio], or, as far as those are concerned [Piscator]:  Who, as far as they are concerned [Beza, Piscator]:  Who, either, 1.  Christ [certain interpreters in Gerhard]; or, 2.  the Spirit [Gerhard, Vorstius]) He is indeed assailed with curses (for the abuses brought against the pious overflow unto the Spirit of God Himself, by whose guidance and impulse the pious have embraced the Christian religion, which they claim to be apostasy, heresy, etc. [Gerhard]; or, is blasphemed [Beza]; or, curses are hurled upon you; so that this word, as also the following, might be taken impersonally [Piscator]), with respect to you, or, by you (Castalio), or, but as far as ye are concerned [Beza, Piscator]) He is glorified.  Namely, because by the power of the Holy Spirit, ye continue constant, etc. (Gerhard).

On their part he; either Christ, or rather the Spirit.  Is evil spoken of; the reproaches your enemies cast upon you, reach that Spirit himself that dwells in you, when they revile that good confession into which the Spirit led you, deride the consolations he gives you, and speak evil of your persons, who are the temples in which he dwells.  But on your part he is glorified; viz. by your patience and constancy in your sufferings, which shows forth the power of that Spirit which resteth upon you, in that he works so mightily in you, as to enable you to bear what without the assistance of his grace were intolerable.


Verse 15:  But (1 Pet. 2:20) let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, (1 Thess. 4:11; 1 Tim. 5:13) or as a busybody in other men’s matters.

[No one, etc., μὴ γάρ τις ὑμῶν πασχέτω ὡς φονεὺς]  For (but γάρ/ for here is in the place of οὖν/therefore, as in Exodus 25:40 [Grotius]) let not anyone of you suffer (that is, be afflicted, or, be hurt with punishment, as in Philippians 1:29 [Beza]) anything as a murderer (Beza, etc.), that is, who unjustly snatches away life from a man.  You have the word φονεὺς/murderer in Acts 3:14; 7:52; 28:4; etc.  There is a certain cheerfulness in suffering for a good cause.  The sense is the same as in 1 Peter 2:20 (Grotius).

[Or as a thief]  Who unjustly seizes that which belongs to another.  See 1 Corinthians 6:10 (Grotius).

But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief:  keep clear of those crimes which may expose you to suffering by the hand of justice, and carry yourselves so innocently, that you may never suffer from men but unjustly.

[Or, etc., ἢ κακοποιὸς]  Or as an evildoer (Beza, Piscator), or, a criminal, guilty of any shameful act (Beza):  who harms his neighbor (Gerhard).  By this general term he designates those who in any manner offend against the public laws, like Perjurers, Forgers, Adulterers.  See John 18:30;[9] 1 Peter 2:12, 14;[10] 3:16[11] (Grotius).

Or as an evildoer; either this is a general term, denoting them that offend against any public law; or, it may signify those that are guilty of any offence against the laws, though less than murder or theft.

[Or, etc., ἢ ὡς ἀλλοτριοεπίσκοπος]  That is, ἀλλοτρίων ἐπίσκοπος, an overseer of what belongs to others, or, ἀλλότριος ἐπίσκοπος, an alien overseer, who takes for himself another’s administration, as Budæus translates it (Gerhard).  Or as a spy (Montanus, Arabic, Zegers), or, an inspector (Tigurinus, Pagnine, Piscator, Vatablus), an observer (Grotius out of Tertullian), a supervisor (Erasmus), one curious (Erasmus, Illyricus), of others (or, of another [Grotius out of Tertullian], alien[12] [Arabic], of other men’s matters [Erasmus, Illyricus, Pagnine, Piscator]).  By this name is denoted a persistent investigator, and the same talking incessantly (Grotius), περίεργος, a busybody, concerning which see 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 2 Thessalonians 3:11;[13] and he is either idle, which sort were punished even among the Gentiles; or, even seditious, of which sort at that time were the Zealots,[14] etc. (Hammond); such an observer who errs by unjustly thrusting himself into the affairs of others, so that it might be a Synecdoche (Gomar); who curiously inquires into the actions of his neighbors, and wishes to be their anxious critic and judge; who without a calling curiously busies himself concerning the duties and matters of others; or, who searches out the secrets of others, etc.  That is, such bounds of the office committed to them by God they transgress, into disputes and quarrels they easily fall, and troublesome they become (Gerhard).  [Others render it otherwise:]  Or as one having an appetite for another’s (Castalio, Beza, similarly the Vulgate, Vatablus, Estius), that is, with passion (Estius); that is, who passionately covets the property of others, and takes it when he is able (Estius, similarly Menochius).

Or as a busybody in other men’s matters; either a covetous person, that looks with an evil eye upon what others have, and is ready to catch it as he can; or rather, one that goes beyond the bounds of his own calling, and invades the callings of others, pragmatically intruding into their business, and making himself a judge of those things which belong not to him.  Some nations are said to have punished those that were busy through idleness, impertinently diligent in other men’s matters, and negligent of their own.  However, if this pragmaticalness did not expose the Christians to the laws of the Gentiles, yet it might make them odious, and expose them to their reproaches.

[1] Thus Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus.

[2] See Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5, 6.

[3] That is, the visible glory of God dwelling upon the Tabernacle and first Temple.

[4] Note the prefix, ἐπί/upon.

[5] Luke 1:35a:  “And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee (ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σὲ), and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee…”

[6] Acts 1:8a:  “But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you (ἐπελθόντος—ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶς)…”

[7] Romans 9:5.

[8] Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus.

[9] John 18:30:  “They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor (κακοποιός), we would not have delivered him up unto thee.”

[10] 1 Peter 2:12-14:  “Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles:  that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers (κακοποιῶν), they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.  Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake:  whether it be to the king, as supreme; Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers (κακοποιῶν), and for the praise of them that do well.”

[11] 1 Peter 3:16:  “Having a good conscience; that, whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers (κακοποιῶν), they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.”

[12] That is, an alien supervisor.

[13] 2 Thessalonians 3:11:  “For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies (περιεργαζομένους).”

[14] Zealotry was a first century Jewish political movement, seeking liberation from Roman rule.

1 Peter 4:12, 13: Motives of Comfort under Pesecution, Part 1

Verse 12:  Beloved, think it not strange concerning (1 Cor. 3:13; 1 Pet. 1:7) the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you…

[Do not, etc., μὴ ξενίζεσθε τῇ ἐν ὑμῖν πυρώσει πρὸς πειρασμὸν ὑμῖν γινομένῃ]  Be not a stranger (or, do not marvel, or do not be astounded [Erasmus, Tigurinus, Grotius out of Cyprian, Tremellius out of the Syriac, Drusius, Zegers, Estius, Menochius], as in verse 4[1] [Estius, Grotius], or, be not troubled:  For what Aristotle says, μὴ ταραττέσθω δέ τις, but be not disturbed at anything, his Interpreters express by the word ξενίζεσθαι [Casaubon]; or, be not agitated [Vatablus, Erasmus, Estius], as by a thing new and unusual [Erasmus, Estius, thus Beza, Menochius], and horrible [Estius]; or, do not, as strangers, or aliens, be dismayed [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator]; or, do not be offended as by a strange thing [Illyricus, Piscator]) by that (namely, which is [Beza, Piscator, etc.], or, which is a thing [Erasmus, Illyricus, thus Castalio]) in you (or, in us [Pagnine, Piscator], or, belonging to you [Castalio]) ignition[2] (or, in the heat [Vulgate]; or, in the burning [Estius, Menochius, thus Erasmus]; τῇ/the/that in the place of ἐπὶ τῇ, on the basis of that [Grotius]; on account of the burning [Estius]; or, by that trial by fire [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator, thus Erasmus]:  He calls πύρωσιν/burning adversities [Grotius, thus Castalio, Menochius], or grievous afflictions, which are wont to be compared to fire [Estius, thus Gerhard, Hammond], as in Psalm 17:3;[3] 66:10;[4] Isaiah 48:10;[5] etc. [Gerhard], on account of the similar effect [Grotius], trouble, that is, to the flesh, etc. [Gerhard, similarly Hammond]:  either, because, just as metals are tried by flame, so also are men by adversities:  which trial here and elsewhere is called πειρασμός, a trial or temptation:[6]  See Proverbs 27:21;[7] Jeremiah 9:7;[8] Judith 8:25:[9]  A similar sense in Daniel 11:35[10] [Grotius]:  or, when ye are tried by fire [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Vatablus], that is, when ye endure grievous persecutions for the sake of Christ [Gerhard, similarly Estius]) for a trial (or, testing [Tremellius out of the Syriac]) for you (or, of you [Erasmus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Beza, Piscator]) brought about[11] (Montanus), or, it is done (Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), or, it happens (Castalio).  Take here πειρασμὸν/trial as in James 1:2,[12] 12[13] (Grotius).  He mitigates the anguish of the burning by teaching that it is not unto destruction, but unto testing and purification (Estius); unto the exercise of virture and constancy (Menochius); unto the trial of faith and love (Gomar).

Think it not strange; be not offended or troubled at persecution, as at a thing unusual or never heard of; it implies that they should reckon upon it beforehand, that they might not be surprised with it when it comes.  The same word is used, 1 Peter 4:4.  Concerning the fiery trial; the heat or burning, whereby he means great afflictions, especially those that are for righteousness’s sake, as appears, 1 Peter 4:14, which are often compared to fire, as being alike painful and grievous to them as fire is to men’s bodies; and because men are tried by them as metals are by fire, Psalm 66:10; Isaiah 48:10.  Which is to try you:  this he adds as the reason why they should not think strange of persecutions, viz. because they were sent by God, not for their destruction, but for the trial and exercise of their graces.

[As if some new thing, etc.]  Or, as if some unexpected thing has happened to you (Grotius); that is to say, It is no new thing that the pious are tried and vexed by evils (Menochius).


Verse 13:  (Acts 5:41; Jam. 1:2) But rejoice, inasmuch as (Rom. 8:17; 2 Cor. 1:7; 4:10; Phil. 3:10; Col. 1:24; 2 Tim. 2:12; 1 Pet. 5:1, 10; Rev. 1:9) ye are partakers of Christ’s sufferings; (1 Pet. 1:5, 6) that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy.

[But, etc., ἀλλὰ καθὸ κοινωνεῖτε τοῖς τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθήμασι, χαίρετε]  Καθὸ, inasmuch as, is here the same as καθότι/because in Luke 1:7;[14] 19:9[15] (Grotius).  But (or, nay more [Beza, Piscator]) in this, that (or, to what extent, or, after that [Estius], or, so far as [Erasmus]) ye are sharers of the afflictions (that is, of the cross and sufferings [Estius, thus Menochius]) of Christ (that is, what sort Christ endured to the full [Piscator]:  Κοινωνεῖν παθήμασι Χριστοῦ, to partake in the sufferings of Christ, here, as in also 2 Corinthians 1:7, is συμπάσχειν Χριστῷ, to suffer with Christ, Romans 8:17, that is, to suffer in order to render a testimony to the doctrine of Christ, for which cause Christ also suffered [Grotius]), rejoice ye.  Thuss Matthew 5:12 (Piscator).  Add Acts 5:41; 10:34; James 1:2 (Grotius).

But rejoice; be so far from being offended at your sufferings, as rather to reckon that there is great matter of rejoicing in them; their being trials makes them tolerable, but your being in them partakers of Christ’s sufferings makes them comfortable.  Inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ’s sufferings; i.e. ye suffer, 1.  As Christ did, for the confession of the truth, and so ye are such kind of sufferers as Christ was.  2.  As members of Christ, ye suffer those evils which are laid out for those that belong to Christ, 1 Thessalonians 3:3.  3.  Ye are hereby conformed to Christ your Head.  4.  Ye partake of the influence of what Christ suffered, for the sanctification of your sufferings:  see Philippians 3:10.

[That, in the revelation, etc.]  Concerning which see 1 Peter 1:7, 13; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 1:7.  See also Luke 17:30.  They rejoice, even those who anticipate with a certain hope great joys.  Christ already indeed has glory, but it does not appear to all, as it shall appear on the last day (Grotius).

That, when his glory shall be revealed; viz. at his second coming, 1 Peter 1:7; Colossians 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:7.  Ye may be glad also with exceeding joy; a joy without any the least mixture of pain or grief.  The rejoicing of the saints here is mixed with pain and heaviness, but shall be pure hereafter; they rejoice in hope now, but in enjoyment then.

[1] 1 Peter 4:4:  “Wherein they think it strange (ξενίζονται) that ye run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you…”

[2] Τῇ ἐν ὑμῖν πυρώσει, the/that-in-you-burning.

[3] Psalm 17:3:  “Thou hast proved mine heart; thou hast visited me in the night; thou hast tried me (צְרַפְתַּנִי, thou hast refined or smelted me; ἐπύρωσάς με, thou hast burned me, in the Septuagint), and shalt find nothing; I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress.”

[4] Psalm 66:10:  “For thou, O God, hast proved us:  thou hast tried us (צְרַפְתָּנוּ, thou hast refined or smelted us; ἐπύρωσας ἡμᾶς, thou hast burned us, in the Septuagint), as silver is tried (כִּצְרָף־כָּסֶף, as to refine or smelt silver; ὡς πυροῦται τὸ ἀργύριον, as silver is refined, in the Septuagint).”

[5] Isaiah 48:10:  “Behold, I have refined thee (צְרַפְתִּיךָ), but not with silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction.”

[6] 1 Peter 4:12a:  “Beloved, think it not strange concerning the burning among you which is for a trial (πειρασμὸν) of you…”

[7] Proverbs 27:21:  “As the fining pot for silver, and the furnace (וְכוּר; καὶ—πύρωσις, in the Septuagint) for gold; so is a man to his praise.”

[8] Jeremiah 9:7:  “Therefore thus saith the Lord of hosts, Behold, I will melt them (צוֹרְפָם; πυρώσω αὐτοὺς, in the Septuagint), and try them; for how shall I do for the daughter of my people?”

[9] Judith 8:25:  “Moreover let us give thanks to the Lord our God, which trieth (πειράζει) us, even as he did our fathers.”

[10] Daniel 11:35:  “And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try (לִצְרוֹף; τοῦ πυρῶσαι, in Theodotion) them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end:  because it is yet for a time appointed.”

[11] Perfect passive participle, referring back to burning; that is, the burning brought about for the trial of you.

[12] James 1:2:  “My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations (πειρασμοῖς)…”

[13] James 1:12:  “Blessed is the man that endureth temptation (πειρασμόν):  for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.”

[14] Luke 1:7:  “And they had no child, because (καθότι) that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years.”

[15] Luke 19:9:  “And Jesus said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as (καθότι) he also is a son of Abraham.”

Deuteronomy 6:4-7: A Catachetical Summary of the Christian Faith and Ethics

Verse 4:  (Is. 42:8; Mark 12:29, 32; John 17:3; 1 Cor. 8:4, 6) Hear, O Israel:  The LORD our God is one LORD…

[Hear, O Israel]  The last letter in שְׁמַע/hear,[1] and also in אֶחָד/one,[2] are larger (Malvenda, Ainsworth).  That is the ninth, this the tenth, larger letter in the Bible (Malvenda).  It excites attention (Ainsworth).  The Jews read these words daily, morning and evening, in accordance with a most ancient tradition, neither do they esteem anything in the Law of equal obligation (Fagius, Munster).  Concerning this they boast in the Book of Prayers,[3] We are blessed, who morning and evening say…Hear, O Israel, etc. (Dieu).

[He is one]  Thus Sophocles, Εἷς, ταῖς ἀληθείαισιν, εἷς ἐστιν θεὸς, Ὃς οὐρανόν τ᾿ ἔτευξε καὶ γαῖαν μακρὰν, Πόντου τε χαροπὸν οἶδμα, καὶ ἀνέμων βίας.  Θνητοὶ δὲ πολυκερδείᾳ πλανώμενοι Ἱδρυσάμεθα πημάτων παρὰ ψυχὴν Θεῶν ἄγαλμ᾿ ἐκ λιθίνων, ἢ ξύλων, ἢ χαλκέων, Ἢ χρυσοτεύκτων, ἢ ἐλεφαντίνων τύπους.  Θυσίας δὲ τούτοις καὶ κενὰς πανηγύρεις Νέμοντες, οὕτως εὐσεβεῖν νομίζομεν, that is, There is in reality one God, who made heaven and earth, etc.  But we mortals, deceived by craft (that is, of certain men), set up…images of gods…and we, presenting sacrifices and vain assemblies to these, in this manner repute ourselves to be pious:  Clement’s[4] Exhortation.  Orpheus, after Theogony, thus sings his recantation, —μοῦνον δὲ ἐσόρα κόσμοιο ἄνακτα Ἀθάνατον·  and, Εἷς ἐστ᾿ αὐτογενὴς, ἑνὸς ἔκγονα πάντα τέτυκται, that is, There is one immortal king of the world, existing of Himself, and from Him are all things (Gataker).  Hence the name of God is אֶחָד/ ECHAD/One, Isaiah 66:17[5] and Job 31:15.[6]  From the word אֶחָד/Echad God was called Ahad by the Syrians, and Adad by the Assyrians, was, as Macrobius testifies in his Saturnalia[7] 1:23, was the greatest god of the Assyrians (Lapide).

One in essence, and the only object of our worship.


Verse 5:  And (Deut. 10:12; Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27) thou shalt love the LORD thy God (2 Kings 23:25) with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

[Thou shalt love]  See what things are on Matthew 22:37.  Some worship God out of a fear of punishment; others, on account of the reward promised in the Law; the best, out of love, so that, for that reason, Abraham was called the friend of God, Isaiah 41:8[8] (Grotius, thus the Hebrews in Munster).  In three ways God admonished Israel to worship Him:  1.  By fear both of the present age and of gehenna; 2.  By the hope of reward.  And these reasons are not the foundation of the worship of God, because the principal motive unto which they (who regard those things) apply themselves is their own advantage.  3.  By love, as in this place (Fagius).

Thou shalt love the Lord:  Now he shows another spring or principle of sincere obedience to God, even hearty love to God, which will make his work and service easy; and that the fear he mentioned before, verse 2, was such as would consist with love to God, and not that slavish fear and honour which produceth hatred.

[Heart…soul…strength]  The words are several, but they appear to signify the same thing (Menochius, Tirinus out of Bonfrerius and Lapide).  Now, this threefold repetition is made for a greater energy and inculcation (Lapide).  [Others distinguish them, but not in one way.]

[Heart, בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ]  Heart signifies, either, 1.  the intellect, or cogitations (Oleaster, Ainsworth).  From the heart cogitations proceed, etc., Matthew 15 (Oleaster).  To the heart is ascribed wisdom, 1 Kings 3:9, 11, 12; Proverbs 2:2, 10 (Ainsworth); that is to say, thou shalt love Him according to all thy cogitation; that is, always think of him, when thou art unoccupied (Oleaster).  Or, rather, 2.  the will (Menochius, Bonfrerius, Oleaster).  The heart is the origin of that which a man does, whether it be good, or bad (Fagius out of the Hebrews).

[Out of thy whole soul, נַפְשְׁךָ]  They understand, either, 1.  the will and affections, Deuteronomy 21:14;[9] 24:15;[10] 12:20, 21 (Ainsworth, similarly Vatablus):  or, 2.  the sensitive appetite (Tirinus out of Bonfrerius, Lyra); desire (Oleaster):  or, 3.  life, that is to say, Fear not to expose for Him thy soul, that is, corporal life (Hebrews in Munster).  Even if God withdraw thy soul; thus the Talmudists[11] (Dieu on verse 11).

[Strength, וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ[12]In all thy very[13] (Oleaster, Malvenda), thy valor, or, strength; for מְאֹד is a substantive, which is used adverbially by an ellipsis of the preposition ב/in, which is prefixed to it in Exodus 1:7[14] (Piscator).  In all thy vehemence (Montanus), or, virtue (Septuagint, Munster), all strength (Junius and Tremellius, Ainsworth, similarly Pagnine, Tigurinus, Vatablus), all thy solicitude (Arabic), substance (Chaldean), possession (Syriac), that is to say, Make rather a loss of all thy goods, than turn from the love of God (Hebrews in Munster).  Others understand the executive faculty (Lyra, Bonfrerius, Tirinus).  In all thy multitude, that is, inferior resources (Oleaster), and substance.  The whole Law is comprehended in this, that thou love God out of thy whole heart, whole soul, etc. (Hebrews in Munster).


Verse 6:  And (Deut. 11:18; 32:46; Ps. 37:31; 40:8; 119:11, 98; Prov. 3:3; Is. 51:7) these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart…

[In thine heart]  In thy mind, or memory (Vatablus).

In thine heart:  i.e. In thy mind to remember them, and meditate upon them, and in thy affection to love and pursue them.


Verse 7:  And (Deut. 4:9; 11:19; Ps. 78:4-6; Eph. 6:4) thou shalt teach (Heb. whet, or, sharpen[15]) them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.

[Thou shalt narrate those things (thus the Arabic), וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם]  [They render it variously.]  And thou shalt make sharp those things (Vatablus, Malvenda, Ainsworth, Fagius).  It indicates the study and diligence with which the precepts of God ought to be inculcated in children, and that clearly and plainly (Fagius):  on account of their tender age and lesser abilities, Ecclesiastes 10:10 (Gataker).  Most accurately and with the utmost accommodation (Malvenda).  Often, vehemently, and diligently (Ainsworth).  The metaphor is taken either from the sword, which, while it is being sharpened, is oftimes thrust upon the whetstone (Vatablus); or, from soldiers, who sharpen their weapons, so that they might more easily penetrate, whence they render it, and thou shalt with sharpness thrust through (Malvenda out of Junius).  You could render it, thou shalt thrust in, thou shalt bury, those things, inasmuch as sharp things are easily thrust in (Malvenda).  Others:  and thou shalt forge.  חָדַד in Hebrew signifies to sharpen; in Arabic, to forge:  also שָׁנַן, as it signifies to sharpen in Hebrew and in Arabic, so also in Arabic it signifies to forge, because iron is sharpened by forging.  The sense:  with repeated blows, as it were, of admonition, thou shalt implant and apply my precepts; just as, with repeated blows of a hammer, iron is sharpened (Dieu).  Others:  and thou shalt repeat those things (Pagnine, Montanus, Oleaster, Syriac, Kimchi in Fagius), thou shalt inculcate (Samaritan Text, Tigurinus), thou shalt deliver (Chaldean), thou shalt prescribe (Septuagint), thou shalt recount (Munster, Ainsworth).  It is able to be translated, and dentabis, thou shalt gnaw, those things, that is, thou shalt turn them over between thy dentes/teeth, thou shalt speak of them assiduously:  or, thou shalt chew them with thy teeth; thou shalt place in the mouth things pre-digested for thy children (Malvenda).

Teach them diligently, Heb. whet, or sharpen them, so as they may pierce deep into their hearts.  This metaphor signifies the manner of instructing them, that it is to be done diligently, earnestly, frequently, discreetly, and dexterously.

[Sitting, etc.]  That is, at home and abroad, at night and by day (Vatablus).

[1] The first word of the verse.

[2] The last word in the verse.

[3] The Siddur has a long and complex history.  The Jews relate that the oldest parts of the Siddur can be traced to the Mosaic age, the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4, etc.), and the priestly blessing (Numbers 6:24-26); and that a set of eighteen blessings was added in the time of Ezra by the Great Synagogue.  However, the wording of the blessing was left variable, until the Middle Ages, when editions of the Siddur began to be formalized and codified.

[4] That is, Clement of Alexandria.

[5] Isaiah 66:17:  “They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one (אֶחָד/one, masculine [Kethib]; אַחַת/one, feminine [Qere]) in the midst, eating swine’s flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the Lord.”

[6] Job 31:15:  “Did not he that made me in the womb make him? and did not one (אֶחָד) fashion us in the womb?”

[7] Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius (395-423) was a Latin grammarian; he finds his principal value in his preservation of the quotations of earlier writers, which quotations would be otherwise lost.  Macrobius wrote Saturnalia, an account of discussion held at the house of Vettius Agorius Prætextatus during the festival of Saturnalia about Roman festivals and worship, etc.; he also wrote a commentary on Cicero’s Dream of Scipio.

[8] See also James 2:23.

[9] Deuteronomy 21:14a:  “And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will (לְנַפְשָׁהּ, according to her soul); but thou shalt not sell her at all for money…”

[10] Deuteronomy 24:15:  “At his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart (נַפְשׁוֹ, his soul) upon it:  lest he cry against thee unto the Lord, and it be sin unto thee.”

[11] Babylonian Talmud Pesachim 2.

[12] מְאֹד signifies abundance or force; it is frequently translated abverbially, very.

[13] A woodenly literalistic rendering.

[14] Exodus 1:7:  “And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty (בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד, or, with might, might); and the land was filled with them.”

[15] Hebrew:  וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם.

1 Peter 4:10, 11: Peter Exhorts to the Right Use of Spiritual Gifts

Verse 10:  (Rom. 12:6; 1 Cor. 4:7) As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, (Matt. 24:45; 25:14, 21; Luke 12:42; 1 Cor. 4:1, 2; Tit. 1:7) as good stewards of (1 Cor. 12:4; Eph. 4:11) the manifold grace of God.

[Just as each has received (namely, from God [Estius, Piscator]) grace, etc., χάρισμα, εἰς ἑαυτοὺς αὐτὸ διακονοῦντες]  A gift (that is, a talent[1] [Menochius], any faculty [Estius]:  Under the name of grace received in a general way, he here understands not only the gifts of the Spirit, but also of the Body, and of the Faculties, as what follows shows:  Compare Romans 12:6, 7 [Grotius]; understanding thus [Beza, Piscator, etc.]), one unto another (or, mutually among yourselves [Erasmus]; for the utility of your neighbors [Menochius]; for the common use, as members of one body[2] [Estius]) ministering that (Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, etc.), that is, laying out in ministry (Estius).  Διακονεῖν, to minister, in the next verse is taken specifically; here, as in 1 Peter 1:12, it is general (Grotius), and emphatic, denoting service/ministry; so that he might indicate that because of those gifts no one ought to lift himself above others, or to affect dominion over others, but willingly to set himself as the servant of others (Gerhard); but with humility and modesty to make use of them for the benefit of others (Gerhard, thus Estius).

As every man hath received the gift; any gift, office, faculty, or ability, whereby he may be serviceable to the good of others, all which are received of God, 1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 4:7.  Minister the same one to another; dispense and communicate modestly and humbly, not lifting himself up above others upon the account of his gifts, but remembering he hath received them, and is a steward to dispense them.

[As good stewards[3] (that is to say, ye are not lords of those gifts, but ministers of God, that ye might make use of them according to His will [Estius]:  What sort of οἰκονόμος/steward he might be, see 1 Corinthians 4:1, 2; Titus 1:7 [Grotius]) of the manifold[4] (or, diverse [Beza, Piscator, Estius out of Jerome, etc.]) grace of God]  That is, of the gifts of God, which are various and numerous (Estius, similarly Menochius, Piscator).  Χάρις/grace here is taken Metonymically for χάρισματα, gifts of grace (Gerhard), and ποικίλης χάριτος, manifold grace, is taken just as ποικίλαις δυνάμεσι, manifold powers/abilities, in Hebrews 2:4[5] (Grotius).  Let not each one appropriate his gifts for himself, nor hide his gifts in the ground, but expend usefully upon others (Estius).

As good stewards; and therefore faithful in distributing his Lord’s goods.  Of the manifold grace of God:  by grace he means the same as by gift before; and so by manifold grace, the various gifts given to them of God, 1 Corinthians 12:4-6.


Verse 11:  (Jer. 23:22) If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; (Rom. 12:6-8; 1 Cor. 3:10) if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth:  that (Eph. 5:20; 1 Pet. 2:5) God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, (1 Tim. 6:16; 1 Pet. 5:11; Rev. 1:6) to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever.  Amen.

[If anyone speaks (namely, for the instruction of his neighbors [Zegers]:  if he preaches the word of God in the Church:  A Synecdoche of kind [Piscator], who teaches the people, ὁ κοπιῶν ἐν λόγῳ, who labors in the word, as in 1 Timothy 5:17 [Grotius]:  By χάρισματα, gifts of grace, in the preceding verse he understands both gifts and functions in the Church, as it is gathered from the parallel passages, Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 12:4-6:  Now, he here sets forth two sorts of these, under which, nevertheless, after the manner of the Hebrews he also comprehends others, the one of speech, the other of ministry or action:  Therefore, under the word λαλεῖν, to speak, he includes, both, the very function of teaching, and the vocation unto the performance of this office in the Church; and, the gifts necessary for that, concerning which see 1 Corinthians 12:8, 10 [Gerhard]:  understand, let him speak[6] [Beza out of the Syriac, Piscator, Estius, Gerhard, Vorstius, etc.]) as, etc., ὡς λόγια Θεοῦ]  Which you have in Acts 7:38;[7] Romans 3:2;[8] Hebrews 5:12;[9] Numbers 24:4;[10] in the Psalms quite frequently[11] (Grotius).  As the utterances (or, speeches [Tremellius out of the Syriac, Arabic], oracles [Castalio]) of God (Erasmus, Pagnine, Montanus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, either, 1.  concerning God and divine things (certain interpreters in Estius); or, 2.  of God as author, or rather, as the one speaking; that is is say, which God speaks, whose Minister and Vicar in this function he is (Estius):  that is to say, Let him teach the Gospel, not as the word of man, but as the word of God (Grotius), reverently and holily (certain interpreters in Estius, thus Piscator); regarding it to be, not theirs, but God’s (certain interpreters in Estius).  Bit I think that here is regarded, not so much the form and manner, but rather the matter, of preaching, from a comparison with Romans 12:6 (Gerhard).  Let him not teach human fictions, nor anything not agreeable to the word of Gos (Estius, thus Gerhard), nor useless questions (Estius); but only the divine oracles (Gerhard).

If any man speak; viz. authoritatively, and by way of office, as a public teacher in the church; though this may be accommodated to private Christians in their charitative instructions of others, yet it seems especially meant of teaching officers.  Let him speak as the oracles of God:  this relates not only to the manner of speaking, that it be with faith in that word the preacher speaketh, and a due reverence of it, but to the matter likewise, that he preach nothing but the pure word of God, and do not obtrude upon the hearers the fancies, figments, or traditions of men, instead of the oracles of God.

[If anyone ministers]  This pertains, either, 1.  to all Christians; that is to say, Whoever ministers to his neighbor with any gift given to him from heaven (certain interpreters in Gerhard):  or, 2.  to the Ecclesiastical ministry (Estius, Gerhard); either, of whatever degree and order, or function (Estius, similarly Menochius); or, that of the Deacons (Gerhard), [to whom belonged] the Care of the poor, Acts 6:2 (Grotius, similarly Piscator, Gerhard), or the sick; for he distinguishes these from the ministers of the word (Piscator); or, also of others who either were administering the Sacraments, or were regulating manners, or were inspecting the state of the Church (Gerhard).

If any man minister:  this may be understood either, 1.  More particularly of the work of deacons, Acts 6, who were to serve tables, Acts 6:2, distribute the alms of the church, and take care of the poor; or, 2.  More generally of any ministry in the church, distinct from that of teaching, (of which he spake before,) as the dispensing of sacraments, exercise of discipline, etc.

[As, etc., ὡς ἐξ ἰσχύος ἧς χορηγεῖ ὁ Θεός]  Let him minister as of the power which (or, strength which [Beza, Piscator]) God supplies (Erasmus, Beza, etc.), that is, either, 1.  according to the strength of the body.  For young men were wont to be chosen unto διακονίας/diakonias, the ministrations,[12] who would be able easily to meet the demands of it (Grotius).  Or, 2.  humbly and modestly, seeking the prudence, strength, and success of action from God, neither let them attempt anything beyond their strength (certain interpreters in Gerhard); let them esteem nothing as their own, neither let them think themselves to be anything other than the instrument of God (Calvin).  Or, 3.  the sense:  let him discharge the work enjoined upon him (Estius), not remissly or languidly (Gerhard); but holily, sincerely, faithfully (Estius, similarly Menochius), vigorously, stenuously, and with spirit (Menochius), with all the strength (Gerhard); as knowing that he is the minister of God, and that he is conducted, governed, and protected by Him (Menochius), and so that it might appear that God is powerfully at work in his ministry (Erasmus), and so that what follows might happen (Gerhard).  Or, 4.  so that the authority might be in the hand of God, not in the hand of man (Erasmus).

Let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; i.e. not remissly and coldly, but diligently and strenuously, and with his might, as far as God enables him; this being to do it faithfully, which is especially required in a steward, 1 Corinthians 4:2.

[That in all (namely, your gifts [Gerhard], and actions, according to 1 Corinthians 10:31 [Gerhard, thus Estius]) God may be honored (from whom we have all that we are, are able to do, and actually do [Estius]) through Jesus]  Who distributes these gifts (Gerhard, thus Menochius), Ephesians 4:8, etc. (Gerhard), by whose merit we have them (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard), both, so that we might do good, and, so that the good things which we do might be referred to the glory of God (Estius, Gerhard), and might be acceptable to God (Gerhard).  [The sense:]  So that all who see your actions might praise God, for through Jesus Christ He has produced such virtues in men (Grotius).

[To whom (both Christ, and God [Menochius, thus Piscator]) is (or, be [Estius]) glory, etc.]  A similar acclamation pertaining to Christ is found in 2 Timothy 4:18.  Δόξα/glory and κράτος/dominion are wont to be conjoined, as in 1 Peter 5:11; Revelation 1:6; 5:13, and conjointly, τὸ κράτος τῆς δόξης, the power of His glory, Colossians 1:11; so τιμὴ καὶ κράτος, honor and power, 1 Timothy 6:16; κράτος καὶ ἐξουσία, dominion and power, Jude 25 (Grotius).

That God in all things may be glorified; in all your gifts, and the communications of them:  q.d. God doth not adorn you with his gifts so as to bereave himself of his glory, but that you should give him the honour of them.  Through Jesus Christ; from whom ye have received the gifts, Ephesians 4:8, and by whom you are enabled to glorify God; and by whom alone what ye do can be accepted of God.  See Ephesians 3:21.

[1] Matthew 25:14-30.

[2] See Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 12:12, 18; Ephesians 4:25.

[3] Greek:  καλοὶ οἰκονόμοι.

[4] Greek:  ποικίλης.

[5] Hebrews 2:4:  “God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles (ποικίλαις δυνάμεσιν), and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?”

[6] A gloss not found in the text.

[7] Acts 7:38:  “This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers:  who received the lively oracles (λόγια) to give unto us…”

[8] Romans 3:2:  “Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God (τὰ λόγια τοῦ Θεοῦ).”

[9] Hebrews 5:12:  “For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God (τῶν λογίων τοῦ Θεοῦ); and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.”

[10] Numbers 24:4:  “He hath said, which heard the words of God (אִמְרֵי־אֵל; λόγια θεοῦ, in the Septuagint), which saw the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open…”

[11] For example, Psalm 12:6:  “The words of the Lord (אִמֲרוֹת יְהוָה; τὰ λόγια κυρίου, in the Septuagint) are pure words:  as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.”

[12] See Acts 5:6, 10.