1 Peter 2:24: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 5

Verse 24:  (Is. 53:4-6, 11; Matt. 8:17; Heb. 9:28) Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on (or, to[1]) the tree, (Rom. 6:2, 11; 7:6) that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness:  (Is. 53:5) by whose stripes ye were healed.

[Who, etc., ὃς τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον]  Who our sins (that is, the punishments of our sins [Menochius, thus Estius, Gomar]) Himself (that is, by Himself [Estius, Gerhard], Hebrews 1:3, or, in His own person, not through the sacrifice of another [Gerhard]; [but] by the offering of Himself, so that He might be at the same time both Priest and sacrificial victim [Beza]:  The little word αὐτὸς/Himself, הוּא, carries great emphasis:  for which reason it is repeated so many times in Isaiah 53:4, 5, 7, 11, 12,[2] and it sends us back to Genesis 3:15, where הוּא/ αὐτὸς[3]/He/Himself shall crush, etc. [Gerhard]) bore (or, took away [Castalio, Vorstius], or carried [Vorstius, Grotius], which the things following show; just as we observed the same word to be taken in Hebrew 9:28:[4]  In the same sence, αἴρει ἁμαρτίαν, He takes away sin, John 1:29; and נָשָׂא, to bear, and סָבַל, to carry, in Isaiah 53:4, where the Greeks have φέρει, He bears:[5]  Thus He killed our sins, just as those that are fixed to a cross are wont to be killed:  A similar sort of speech in Colossians 2:14:  See also Romans 6:6; Galatians 2:20; 5:24:  Now, there is a μετάληψις/metalepsis[6] here:  For Christ, although He was crucified, did not properly bear away our sins, but provided the means by which they might be born away:  For the Cross of Christ is the foundation of preaching; and preaching is the foundation of repentance; and repentance bears away sins [Grotius]:  [These things Grotius has, like many other things drawn from the school of Socinus:  who was changed greatly by him! who in that extraordinary little book, in which he strenuously defends this very doctrine concerning the Satisfaction of Christ,[7] has these things, among others, that, that ἀναφέρειν signifies to bear away, neither the particle ἀνὰ/upward allows, nor does any Greek author thus make use:  To which argument and others of this sort, why would not Grotius in his Annotations give satisfaction to his prudent reader, who is left guessing, while Grotius proceeds unto other Translations of this word?]  Ἀνήνεγκεν, that is, ἄνωσε ἤνεγκεν [Piscator, Gerhard]; He bore up [Beza, Piscator, Hammond, Gerhard], that is, those things imposed upon Him upon the altar of the cross [Beza, similarly Hammond]; or, He carried [Arabic]; or, He made to ascend [Tremellius out of the Syriac]:  Ἀναφέρομαι is to lift upwards, or unto the altar, as in Matthew 17:1;[8] Mark 9:2;[9] Luke 24:51[10] [Gerhard]:  Therefore, there is an allusion, 1.  to the sacrifices of the Old Testament, concerning which ἀναφέρειν is used in Hebrews 7:27[11] [Gerhard, thus Beza]; James 2:21;[12] 2.  to the cross, on which Christ offered Himself; 3.  to the place in Isaiah 53:4, where the Septuagint has, our sins for us He carries [Gerhard]) in His own body (which he understands synecdochically of Christ’s entire human nature, consisting of body and soul; for His soul also labored [Gerhard, thus Piscator], indeed especially so [Piscator], Isaiah 53:10-12 [Gerhard]:  Now, mention is made of the body on account of the tree, or cross, to which He was fixed [Piscator, thus Gerhard], and because the sufferings of His body were more apparent to the eyes [Gerhard]; or, by a Hebraism, by His own body, that is, by the crucifixion of His body [Vorstius]) upon the tree (Montanus), that is, the cross (Beza, Piscator, Estius).

Who his own self; not by offering any other sacrifice, (as the Levitical priests did,) but by that of himself.  Bare our sins; or, took up, or lifted up, in allusion to the sacrifices of the Old Testament, the same word being used of them, Hebrews 7:27; James 2:21.  As the sins of the offerer were typically laid upon the sacrifice, which, being substituted in his place, was likewise slain in his stead; so Christ standing in our room, took upon him the guilt of our sins, and bare their punishment, Isaiah 53:4, etc.  The Lord laid on him our iniquities, and he willingly took them up; and by bearing their curse, took away our guilt.  Or, it may have respect to the cross, on which Christ being lifted up, (John 3:14, 15; 12:32,) took up our sins with him, and expiated their guilt by undergoing that death which was due to us for them.  In his own body; this doth not exclude his soul but is rather to be understood, by a synecdoche, of his whole human nature, and we have the sufferings of his soul mentioned, Isaiah 53:10, 12; John 12:27; but mention is made of his body, because the sufferings of that were most visible.  On the tree; on the cross.

[That, etc., ἵνα, ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀπογενόμενοι, τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζήσωμεν]  That is, ἀποθανόντες/dying, as it is in Romans 6:10[13] (Piscator).  Ἀπογίνομαι here is, either, 1.  to be taken out of the midst, that is to say, to fail (Piscator, Gerhard), or, to perish; which agrees to a remarkable extent with the abolition of the old man, from which begins our ἀναγέννησις/regeneration (Beza); that it might be opposed to γίνεσθαι, to become (Piscator, Gerhard), and to to live, as the following Antithesis shows (Gerhard, similarly Estius).  Or, 2.  to be put outside,[14] that is, to be excluded and separated (Beza, similarly Estius out of Ambrose[15]), or, to become far off (Grotius).  [Thus they render the words:]  that, to sins having died, or being dead (or, wearing out [Estius], dying out, as if now we would cease to be [Erasmus]:  He understands this, either, 1.  of justification, that is to say, that having been freed from the guilt and punishment of sin:  which is favored by the following words:  Or, 2.  of sanctification [Gomar]; that is to say, that having been freed from the dominion of sin,[16] and now having nothing further to do with sin [Estius]:  That with with state of sin left behind, and with past sins effaced [Menochius]:  That having been separated from sins [Arabic], or having been made far distant [Grotius]:  He signifies that this power is entailed in the death of Christ, that He might mortify our flesh [Calvin]), we should live to righteousness (Beza, Piscator, Pagnine, Erasmus, etc.), that is, we should practice works of righteousness (Estius, Gerhard).  It is the same thing as to live to God, Romans 6:10, 11 (Grotius, Piscator); Galatians 2:19; as to do righteousness, 1 John 3:7.  It is not sufficient to abstain from evils, but attention is to be given also to Christian virtues (Grotius).  He signifies that Christ died on the cross, not only so that He might expiate our sins; but also so that He might mortify them, and reform us unto a holy life (Gerhard out of Estius).

That we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness; another end of Christ’s death, the mortification of sin, and our being freed from the dominion of it, Romans 6:2, 6, and being reformed to a life of holiness.

[Whose, etc., οὗ τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἰάθητε]  It is a Hebraic Pleonasm[17] (Estius, Gerhard, Vorstius), of which sort is found in Psalm 74:2 (Estius).  The words are taken from Isaiah 53:5 (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard).  By whose bruising (or, welt [Erasmus, Piscator], battering and whipping:  From the consequent the antecedent is understood [Beza]; and there is an allusion to the whippings with which servants are wont to be smitten [Beza, similarly Estius, Gerhard], by harsh masters [Gerhard]:  or, by His flesh made livid by buffeting [Erasmus out of Hugo[18]]:  A bruise is a vestige of a blow on the skin:  In Hebrew it is חַבּוּרָה, a swelling coagulation because of a blow [Erasmus], or, a bruise from a contusion:  But it is taken figuratively from any suffering, as in Genesis 4:23;[19] Exodus 21:25;[20] Psalm 38:5;[21] Isaiah 1:6;[22] Proverbs 20:30[23] [Grotius], or, welts [Beza, Piscator]:  It is an Enallage of the singular number in the place of the plural[24] [Vorstius, thus Piscator]:  He here comforts servants concerning their welts [Piscator]:  By the welt of the same [Erasmus]) ye are healed (Vulgate, etc.), from the stripes of your sins (Estius).  Indeed, in many ways the sufferings of Christ healed us from our sins:  But here there is a special regard to the example which He gave to us of Obedience, Patience, Gentleness, Goodwill in the midst of sufferings, as what precedes shows (Grotius).  [Others otherwise:]  Healed, that is, reconciled to God, with sins remitted:  which the following verse proves from the instrument of healing, conversion, or faith (Gomar).

By whose stripes ye were healed; viz. of the wound made in your souls by sin:  this seems to relate to the blows that servants might receive of cruel masters, against which the apostle comforts them, and to the patient bearing of which he exhorts them, because Christ by bearing stripes, (a servile punishment,) under which may be comprehended all the sufferings of his death, had healed them of much worse wounds, and spiritual diseases, the guilt of their consciences, and the defilement of their souls.

[1] Greek:  ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον.

[2] Isaiah 53:4, 5, 7, 11, 12:  “Surely he (הוּא) hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:  yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.  But he (וְהוּא) was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities:  the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed….  He (וְהוּא) was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth:  he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth….  He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:  by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he (הוּא) shall bear their iniquities.  Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death:  and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he (וְהוּא) bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.”

[3] Thus the Septuagint.

[4] Hebrew 9:28:  “So Christ was once offered to bear (ἀνενεγκεῖν) the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”

[5] Isaiah 53:4:  “Surely he hath borne (נָשָׂא; φέρει, in the Septuagint) our griefs, and our sorrows, he carried them (סְבָלָם):  yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.”

[6] That is, the union of two or more tropes by a single word.

[7] Defensio Fidei Catholicæ de Satifactione Christi adversus Faustum Socinum Senensem.

[8] Matthew 17:1:  “And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up (ἀναφέρει) into an high mountain apart…”

[9] Mark 9:2:  “And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up (ἀναφέρει) into an high mountain apart by themselves:  and he was transfigured before them.”

[10] Luke 24:51:  “And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up (ἀνεφέρετο) into heaven.”

[11] Hebrews 7:27:  “Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up (ἀναφέρειν) sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people’s:  for this he did once, when he offered up (ἀνενέγκας) himself.”

[12] James 2:21:  “Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered up (ἀνενέγκας) Isaac his son upon the altar?”

[13] Romans 6:10:  “For in that he died (ἀπέθανε), he died (ἀπέθανεν) unto sin once:  but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.”

[14] Ἀπὸ signifies from; γίνεσθαι, to become.

[15] Ambrose (340-397), Bishop of Milan, was a man of great influence, ecclesiastically and politically, and was instrumental in the conversion of Augustine.

[16] See Romans 6.

[17] That is, the use of more words than is strictly necessary for clarity of expression.

[18] Hugh of St. Cher, also known as Hugo Cardinalis because he was the first Dominican to achieve the office of cardinal (c. 1200-1263), was a French Dominican Biblical scholar.  He compiled a list of variant readings of the Bible, composed a Biblical concordance, and wrote Postillæ in Sacram Scripturam.

[19] Genesis 4:23:  “…for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt (לְחַבֻּרָתִי).”

[20] Exodus 21:25:  “Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe (חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה).”

[21] Psalm 38:5:  “My wounds (חַבּוּרֹתָי) stink and are corrupt because of my foolishness.”

[22] Isaiah 1:6:  “From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises (וְחַבּוּרָה), and putrifying sores:  they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment.”

[23] Proverbs 20:30:  “The blueness of a wound (חַבֻּר֣וֹת פֶּ֭צַע) cleanseth away evil:  so do stripes the inward parts of the belly.”

[24] Μώλωπι/stripe is Dative singular.

1 Peter 2:22, 23: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 4

Verse 22:  (Is. 53:9; Luke 23:41; John 8:46; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15) Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth…

[Who did not sin, neither was found, etc.]  Not even by the Pharisees, who desired to catch Him in His speech[1] (Menochius):  that is to say, He was completely innocent, and He sinned neither in deed, nor in word (Estius, thus Gerhard).  Therefore, how is it overmuch, if ye sinners suffer (Estius)?  This is taken from Isaiah 53:9 (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard).  In the Hebrew יִהְיֶה/was is supplied to מִרְמָה/deceit, which is rightly expressed by εὑρέθη, it was found, as in Romans 7:10 and elsewhere:  just as also the Hebrews take נִמְצָא, it was found, which is translated by ἦν/was,[2] Isaiah 39:2 (Grotius).  The Hebrews use to be found for to be, as in Genesis 2:20; 2 Chronicles 31:1;[3] Isaiah 22:3.  Thus also Philippians 2:8; Revelation 14:5; 20:15 (Gerhard).  He says here that Christ is free from sin, so that He might be understood as fit to reconcile by His passion the race of men to His Father (Estius).

Neither was guile found in his mouth:  i.e. There was no guile in his mouth; it is a Hebraism; to be found is the same as to be, and not to be found the same as not to be, Genesis 2:20; Isaiah 39:2:  see Romans 7:10.  This signifies Christ’s absolute perfection, in that he did not offend so much as with his mouth, James 3:2.  The sense is, Christ was free from all manner of sin, and yet he suffered patiently; and therefore well may ye be content to suffer too, though wrongfully; seeing, though ye may be innocent in your sufferings, yet you come so far short of Christ’s perfection.


Verse 23:  (Is. 53:7; Matt. 27:39; John 8:48, 49; Heb. 12:3) Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but (Luke 23:46) committed himself (or, committed his cause) to him that judgeth righteously…

[Who, etc., ὃς λοιδορούμενος οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει]  Who, when He was assailed with abuse, or curses (called by the Jews a demoniac,[4] a Samaritan,[5] a blasphemer,[6] a subverter of the nation,[7] an enemy of Cæsar,[8] etc. [Estius, Menochius]) He did not return abuses (Grotius, similarly Beza, Piscator, etc), or, He did not recriminate (Menochius), He did not curse back (Estius, Menochius, thus Erasmus).  See Matthew 26:63, 68; 27:12, 29, 39, etc.  See Polycarp[9] [in Grotius].  That saying in John 8:44 was not a recrimination, but a true and just accusation (Estius).  Λοιδορεῖν, to revile, is the same as ὀνειδίζειν, to upbraid, in Plutarch’s[10] Moralia, or βλασφημεῖν, to blaspheme.  By this word λοιδορίας/ reviling, therefore, are understood all the verbal injuries, reproaches, calumnies, and curses, born by Christ; just as by the following language παθημάτων, of suffering,[11] are understood real injuries, like buffetings, floggings, etc. (Gerhard).

[When He suffered (not now reproaches [Beza], but wounds [Estius]; prison and bonds [Gerhard], and the cross itself:  See 1 Peter 2:21 and Hebrews 9:26 [Beza]), He did not threaten]  Lest He might appear to have done this as being moved, not by a zeal for justice, but by the affections of wrath and hatred (Estius).  He who had prostrated His adversaries with one word,[12] when He was taken captive, bound, scourged, fixed to the cross, uttered not even a threatening word, so that He might leave for us an example of patience (Grotius).

By Christ’s being reviled, we are to understand all those injurious words, reproaches, slanders, blasphemies, which his persecutors cast out against him.  Reviled not again; therefore when he told the Jews they were of their father the devil, John 8:44, that was not a reviling them, but a just accusation of them, or reproof of their devilish behaviour.  When he suffered; when he was affected not only with verbal but real injuries, buffeted, spit upon, crowned with thorns, crucified.  He threatened not; he was so far from avenging himself, or recompensing evil for evil, that he did not so much as threaten what he would afterward do to them.

[But He delivered, etc., παρεδίδου]  Some noun is understood after παρεδίδου, He committed (Grotius).  But He delivered (understanding, into the hands [Beza], or, He committed [Castalio, Beza, Piscator, thus Pagnine]:  Understand, either, ἑαυτὸν/Himself [Glassius’ “Grammar” 4:2:1:700]; or, His soul, as in 1 Peter 4:19 [Beza]; or, vengeance [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Vatablus, Zegers], which He was not taking to Himself [Erasmus]:  or, τὴν αἰτίαν αὑτοῦ [Beza], His cause [Beza, Piscator, Tremellius, Æthiopic]; His case [Castalio]; or, τὴν κρίσιν αὑτοῦ, His judgment [Beza, Grotius out of the Syriac], that is, verbal, from the following word [Beza], His judgment [Beza, Syriac]) to the one judging justly (Montanus), that is, to God (Erasmus, Valla, Zegers, Estius); who judges justly, that is, always.  For men often judge unjustly, like the Sanhedrin, and Pilate.  God is called the just judge, Psalm 7:11.[13]  The sense is the same in Psalm 96:10; 98:9; Jeremiah 11:20; and elsewhere.  This whole passage has regard to those things which we have in Isaiah 50:6-9 (Grotius); or, to the one judging unjustly (Vulgate), that is to say, He was permitting Himself to be judged unjustly and condemned by Pilate[14] (Menochius).  Thus read a great many Latin Codices, but by a fault of the copyists, as it is likely.  For it is ready justly by all the Greek Codices, and the Syriac (Estius), and all the Greek Fathers, and Augustine, etc.  When then is the αὐθεντία/authenticity of the Vulgate version (Gerhard)?

But committed himself; or his cause; neither is in the Greek, but either may be well supplied, and to the same purpose:  the sense is, Christ did not retaliate, nor act any thing out of private revenge, but so referred himself, and the judgment of his cause, to his Father’s good pleasure, as rather to desire pardon for his persecutors, than vengeance on them, Luke 23:34.  To him that judgeth righteously:  the apostle adds this of God’s judging righteously, for the comfort of servants to whom he speaks, as Ephesians 6:8, 9; Colossians 3:24; 4:1, and for the terror of masters, that the former might learn patience, and the latter moderation.

[1] Mark 12:13; Matthew 22:15; Luke 20:20.

[2] In the Septuagint.

[3] 2 Chronicles 31:1a:  “Now when all this was finished, all Israel that were present (הַנִּמְצְאִים) went out to the cities of Judah, and brake the images in pieces, and cut down the groves, and threw down the high places and the altars out of all Judah and Benjamin, in Ephraim also and Manasseh, until they had utterly destroyed them all.”

[4] John 7:20; 8:52; 10:20; Mark 3:22.

[5] John 8:48.

[6] Matthew 9:3; 26:65; John 10:33.

[7] Luke 23:2, 14.

[8] John 19:12.

[9] From his Epistle to the Philippians 2, 8.  Polycarp (69-155) was a disciple of John, and bishop of Smyrna.

[10] Mestrius Plutarchus (c. 46-127) was a Greek historian.

[11] See also 1 Peter 4:13; 5:1, 9.

[12] John 18:6.

[13] Psalm 7:11:  “God judgeth the righteous (אֱ֭לֹהִים שׁוֹפֵ֣ט צַדִּ֑יק; Deus judex justus, God is a just judge, in the Vulgate), and God is angry with the wicked every day.”

[14] John 19:10, 11.

1 Peter 2:20, 21: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 3

Verse 20:  For (1 Pet. 3:14; 4:14, 15) what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable (or, thank[1]) with God.

[For what glory is it]  Namely, before God (Grotius, Hammond)? that is to say, none (Piscator).  What illustrious and great thing is it (Gerhard, Estius)?  What glory will he attain (Menochius)?  Κλέος is praise, which is rendered by many, whence glory arises (Estius).

[If, etc., εἰ ἁμαρτάνοντες καὶ κολαφιζόμενοι ὑπομενεῖτε]  The Syriac (Beza, Grotius), and, as it appears, the Arabic (Grotius), and multiple manuscript codices (Beza), have κολαζόμενοι, being chastened (Beza, Grotius), which word is proper to punishments which the public laws appoint for the violators of human society.  Although κολαφιζόμενοι, being buffeted, is also able to be received, so that it might be a species in the place of a genus, in which manner it is in 1 Corinthians 4:11;[2] 2 Corinthians 12:7.[3]  Ὑπομενεῖτε[4] here signifies, not patience, but only suffering, as in Hebrews 12:7[5] (Grotius).  [Thus they translate it:]  If, sinning and being buffeted (or, smitten with blows [Beza]:  This was the punishment of servants [Menochius]:  Others:  If, when sinning ye are smitten with slaps, or blows [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Piscator], that is to say, if because of some fault ye are smitten [Estius]:  or, if sinning ye be smitten [Castalio]), ye suffer (Montanus, Illyricus, etc.), or, ye bear (Castalio), endure (Pagnine).

[But if, etc., εἰ ἀγαθοποιοῦντες, etc.]  If doing well, and suffering, ye bear (Montanus, Estius out of the Syriac), that is, παθήματα ὑπομενεῖτε, ye shall bear sufferings.  A sort of speech similar to that which is in verse 12 (Grotius).  If, when ye do well, nevertheless, being afflicted, ye endure (Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Estius), that is, ye endure with equanimity (Estius).

For what glory is it? what praise or glory do you get by it? or, what great matter do you do?  This interrogation hath the force of negation, but is to be understood comparatively; it is worthy of praise to suffer patiently, even when men suffer justly, but worthy of little in comparison of suffering patiently when unjustly.

[This is grace, etc.]  Explain this as in verse 19 (Grotius).

This is acceptable with God:  this shows what is meant by thankworthy, verse 19; and the apostle adds what kind of thanks or praise he intends, viz. not that which is of man, (which many times may fail, even when men patiently suffer injuries,) but that which is of God, to which believers should especially have respect.


Verse 21:  For (Matt. 16:24; Acts 14:22; 1 Thess. 3:3; 2 Tim. 3:12) even hereunto were ye called:  because (1 Pet. 3:18) Christ also suffered for us (some read, for you[6]), (John 13:15; Phil. 2:5; 1 John 2:6) leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps…

[For unto this (that is, this sort of life [Vatablus], that is, unto the cross and patience [Menochius, Tirinus]; or, on the condition [Grotius, Estius], that ye endure all hardnesses for the sake of conscience, 1 Corinthians 1:9 [Grotius]) were ye called]  that is to say, thus is your calling and profession, that ye, while doing well, bear evil patiently, Acts 14:22 (Estius).  In this way also we are said to have been called unto peace, unto holiness, Colossians 3:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:14 (Grotius).

For even hereunto; viz. to patient bearing of sufferings even for well-doing.  Were ye called; viz. to Christ and the fellowship of his kingdom; that is to say, Your very calling and profession, as Christians, requires this of you.

[Christ also suffered (that is, was afflicted with punishment:  for thus τὸ πάσχειν, to suffer, is taken absolutely in these books, like עָנָה, to be afflicted, in the Hebrew,[7] whence עֳנִי/affliction[8] [Beza]) for us]  It is to be read ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, for us, as it is in the majority of Greek Codices (Gerhard, thus Beza), manuscripts (Beza), both Latin (Gerhard), and the Syriac (Beza).  But other Codices, both Greek, and Latin, not a few, and those most approved, and Œcumenius, have for you (Estius).  Ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, for you, or περὶ ὑμῶν, on your behalf, as a manuscript has it here and elsewhere, where in the Vulgate ὑπὲρ/for.  This is correctly coheres with what follows (Grotius), and is more suited to the text; for Peter addresses servants (Estius); and since the preceding ἐκλήθητε, ye were called, and the following ἐπακολουθήσητε, ye should follow, are in the second person (Brugensis[9] in Gerhard).  But a change of person is not uncommon in this writings, especially in κοινοποιήσει, a generalization, which here has emphasis; that is to say, Christ has suffered for whomsoever of us, etc.  Therefore, also ye servants ought not to refuse a measure of sufferings (Gerhard).  Thus from a general statement he draws a particular exhortation.  Or, thus you might explain for us, that is, who were enemies, how much less that He would repay evil with evil (Beza).  The καὶ/also here is emphatic, and that, or thus, also Christ, our head, has suffered, etc.  Therefore, it is fitting that we suffer (Gerhard).  Or thus, also for you servants He suffered, etc. (Estius).

[Leaving an example, ὑπογραμμὸν]  An exemplar (Beza, Piscator).  An example (Erasmus, Montanus, Tremellius out of the Syriac, etc.).  A rule (Pagnine, Castalio, Grotius out of the Glossa), of which term Cicero also makes use.  The word appears to have first come from artisans, who with lead trace the lines which they follow in their work.  It is taken μεταφορικῶς/ metaphorically for all that which is worthy of imitation (Grotius).  Others:  A figurative use, taken from painters, or teachers of writing (Grotius).

[That, etc., ἵνα ἐπακολουθήσητε τοῖς ἴχνεσιν αὐτοῦ]  This is the same as στοιχεῖν τοῖς ἴχνεσι, to walk in the steps, Romans 4:12; περιπατεῖν τοῖς ἴχνεσι, to walk in the steps, 2 Corinthians 12:18.  To the Hebrews, it isהָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי, to walk after.[10]  Thus the Syriac, הלך בעקבא.  The Latins also use vestigiis alicujus insistere, to tread in someone’s steps, in the place of to imitate someone (Grotius).  That we might follow after His footsteps (Beza, thus Erasmus, Piscator), that is, that we might imitate His patience and other virtues (Gerhard).  Let us not marvel that what has happened to Christ happens to us (Grotius).

Also; there is an emphasis in this particle, it is as much as if he had said:  Even Christ our Lord and Head hath suffered for us, and therefore we that are but his servants and members must not think to escape sufferings.  For us; or, as in the margin, for you, which agrees with the beginning and end of the verse, where the second person is used; but most read it as we do, in the first person, and the sense is still the same; only the apostle from a general proposition draws a particular exhortation:  Christ suffered for us, (therein he comprehends the saints to whom he writes,) and left an example for us all; do ye therefore to whom, as well as to others, he left this example, follow his steps, John 13:15; 1 John 2:6.  Leaving us an example, as of other graces, so especially of patience.

[1] Greek:  χάρις.

[2] 1 Corinthians 4:11:  “Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted (κολαφιζόμεθα), and have no certain dwellingplace…”

[3] 2 Corinthians 12:7b:  “…the messenger of Satan to buffet me (ἵνα με κολαφίζη), lest I should be exalted above measure.”

[4] 1 Peter 2:20a:  “For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently (ὑπομενεῖτε, or, ye shall endure)?”

[5] Hebrews 12:7:  “If ye endure (ὑπομένετε) chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not?”

[6] Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.

[7] For example, Isaiah 53:7a:  “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted (נַעֲנֶה), yet he opened not his mouth…”

[8] For example, Exodus 3:7:  “And the Lord said, I have surely seen the affliction (אֶת־עֳנִי) of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows…”

[9] Lucas Brugensis (1549-1619) was a Jesuit scholar, who labored in the collation of manuscripts.  He wrote In Variantia Sacrarum Bibliarum Loca Notationes (Notations on the Varying Passages of the Sacred Books).

[10] For example, Deuteronomy 8:19:  “And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the Lord thy God, and walk after (וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי) other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish.”

1 Peter 2:19: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 2

Verse 19:  For this is (Matt. 5:10; Rom. 13:5; 1 Pet. 3:14) thankworthy (or, thank;[1] Luke 6:32;[2] 1 Pet. 2:20[3]), if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.

[This, etc., τοῦτο γὰρ χάρις]  For this (is [Erasmus, Piscator, etc.) grace (Montanus), that is, your praise or glory, as it is in the following verse; or, the illustrious effect of divine grace (Menochius):  or, honor (Ætheopic), or, praiseworthy (Arabic), or, acceptable, whether pleasing, or agreeable (Illyricus, Pagnine, Piscator, Camerarius, Gerhard).  Namely, to God (Gerhard, Gomar):  or, it results in favor (Beza), acquires grace (Piscator), and the highest favor (Grotius), that is, παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ, before God (Grotius, Piscator), which is added in the Syriac, and in one manuscript codex[4] (Beza, Grotius).  An abstract in the place of a concrete (Gerhard), χάρις/grace/favor in the place of χαρίεν/ graceful/acceptable, after the manner of the Hebrews, as we said on 2 Corinthians 3:9; 7:14 (Beza).

For this is thankworthy; in the Greek the substantive is put for the adjective:  the sense is either, this is acceptable to God, and will be graciously rewarded by him; or, this is praiseworthy, and will be your glory, as verse 20.

[If because of the conscience of God (that is, our conscience which is addicted or devoted to God [Vorstius]; or, of God, that is, concerning God [Estius]; or, which a man has before God [Gerhard]; or, of the divine will [Gomar]; or, of that which he owes to God [Grotius]; or, with respect to God, that is, so that he might please God, whom he bears in his soul [Estius]; because he knows that it is pleasing to God [Vatablus]; for it is religion to him not to offend God [Beza]:  for, if he bears it only so that he might not incur more grievous inconveniences, or so that he might acquire for himself the favor of his master, it was not this favor to him [Estius]:  or, because the worship of God proceeds from a pure conscience [Piscator]:  It is Metonymy [either] of the efficient [Piscator, Vorstius], [or] of the object [Grotius]:  A Genitive of object [Piscator]; or, because he was aware of God [Vatablus]:  since he is conscious to himself of God, that is, he knows himself to be a worshipper of God [Castalio]:  Others:  Because of God, who is aware of thy patience, and of the cruelty of thy lord [Menochius]:  or, Because of God, and the faith and worship of God, whom thou bearest in conscience, for the hatred of whom thou art ill-treated by thy Lord [Menochius, similarly Tirinus]:  But concerning this matter he will treat afterwards [Estius]) a man endures (or, shall suffer [Beza, Piscator]; ὑποφέρειν is set down here as in 2 Timothy 3:11[5] [Grotus]) sadnesses]  That is, sorrowful and harsh things (Menochius, Grotius), by Metonymy (Grotius).

For conscience toward God; out of respect to God, and a desire of pleasing him.

[Suffering, etc., πάσχων ἀδίκως]  Afflicted unjustly (Beza, Piscator), that is, beyond what is deserved (Estius); or, because he is innocent, and much more if he suffer for righteousness (Menochius).  Here, that ἀδίκως/unjustly is referred to the Act answering to suffering.  And it is a construction κατὰ τὸ σημαινόμενον, according to the thing signified (Grotius).  He does not understand the unrighteousness to be in this, that a man willingly suffers those things which otherwise bound to suffer; but the unjust strokes of enemies, or inflicted unjustly by them, which nevertheless the others justly endure (Vorstius).

[1] Greek:  χάρις.

[2] Luke 6:32:  “For if ye love them which love you, what thank (χάρις) have ye? for sinners also love those that love them.”

[3] 1 Peter 2:20:  “For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable (χάρις) with God.”

[4] Thus Codex Ephræmi Rescriptus.

[5] 2 Timothy 3:11:  “Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured (ὑπήνεγκα):  but out of them all the Lord delivered me.”

1 Peter 2:18: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 1

Verse 18:  (Eph. 6:5; Col. 3:22; 1 Tim. 6:1; Tit. 2:9) Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

[Servants, Οἱ οἰκέται]  It is in the Vocative case.  For the Vocatives of the Articles are similar to the Nominatives, which the multitude of Grammarians ignorantly deny (Schmidt).  From political exhortations he passes to domestical exhortations (Gomar, similarly Estius, Gerhard).  This admonition to servants was necessary (Estius, thus Gerhard), because at that time slavery was hard, and masters were having the power of life and death over servants (Gerhard); lest under the pretext of Christian liberty they should evade their services (Estius, similarly Gerhard), or they should be less compliant (Estius).  As he calls those δεσπότας/masters, whom Paul calls κυρίους/lords; so he calls those οἰκέτας/domestics, whom Paul calls δούλους/ servants (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard), Ephesians 6:5;[1] Colossians 3:22;[2] Titus 2:9[3] (Grotius); either, 1.  so that he might diminish the distastefulness of the matter by mildness of expression, because he writes to Jews, to whom it was irksome to be called servants (Estius); or rather, 2.  so he might bind servants even of a harsher and viler condition unto subjection.  For δοῦλοι/servants are able to be freed, or to be granted liberty; but οἰκέται/domestics are perpetual possessions, who are never emancipated, as Chrysippus testifies in Athenæus’ Banquet of the Learned[4] 6.  Whence also the Septuagint translates עֶבֶד/servant as οἰκέτην/ domestic, as in Genesis 9:25;[5] 27:37;[6] 44:33[7] (Gerhard).

Servants; the word is not the same which Paul useth, Colossians 3:22, but may well comprehend the servants he speaks of, as implying not only slaves, but those that were made free, yet continued still in the family; and so signifies servants of whatsoever condition.

[Be ye subject, ὑποτασσόμενοι[8]]  Active in the place of the Hithpael,[9] as we recently said, and supply ἐστί/is[10] (Grotius).

[In all fear]  Not servile, but with love conjoined, that is, with much reverence (Estius, Gerhard).  Explain this as that in Ephesians 6:5 (Grotius).

Be subject to your masters with all fear; not only reverence of masters, and fear of offending them, is to be understood, but fear of God, as appears by the parallel place, Colossians 3:22:  see Ephesians 6:5-7.

[Not only to the good (he after the manner of the common people calls good those who smite and afflict unjustly [Estius, thus Gerhard]) and mild, ἐπιεικέσιν]  Equitable (Beza, Piscator), agreeable (Estius), gentle (Zegers), benign, or, moderate, or, merciful (Menochius), humane, or, not very rigid (Erasmus).  To the lenient, ἠπίοις, as Homer says.[11]  See Philippians 4:5;[12] 1 Timothy 3:3;[13] Titus 3:2;[14] James 3:17[15] (Grotius).

[But also to the severe, τοῖς σκολιοῖς]  To the perverse (Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Piscator, Drusius, Grotius, Estius, Menochius), that is, to the harsh and cruel (Beza, thus Estius, Vatablus, Zegers, Gerhard).  See Acts 2:40;[16] Philippians 2:15;[17] נְלוֹזִים , Proverbs 2:15;[18] 3:32,[19] from לוּז, σκολιάζειν, to turn aside, Proverbs 14:2[20] (Grotius).  To the ill-disposed (Valla, Zegers), unfair (Zegers), hard-to-please (Estius, Menochius), difficult (Menochius).  To those who are intractable, rigid exactors of labors more burdensome than is right, stingy distributors of maintenance; who exhibit nothing of humanity or benevolence to their servants (Gerhard).  The Latin reads δυσκόλοις, to the harsh, and, as I believe, the Arabic.  Δύσκολος is a hard man, as in Jeremiah 49:8,[21] hard-to-please, difficult, ill-tempered, as in the Gloss.  Menander[22] wrote a play, to which he gave the name Δύσκολος.  But the Syriac has two Adjectives, לקשיא ולעסקא:  wherefore it appears to have read δυσκόλοις καὶ σκολιοῖς, to the harsh and perverse.  Now, this was able easily to be done, that the second of two neighboring words would be omitted by copyists (Grotius).

Not only to the good and gentle; by good he means not gracious or holy, but, as the next word explains it, gentle, just, equal.  But also to the froward; morose, crabbed, unjust, unmerciful.

[1] Ephesians 6:5a:  “Servants (οἱ δοῦλοι), be obedient to them that are your masters (κυρίοις) according to the flesh…”

[2] Colossians 3:22a:  “Servants (οἱ δοῦλοι), obey in all things your masters (κυρίοις) according to the flesh…”

[3] Titus 2:9:  “Exhort servants (δούλους) to be obedient unto their own masters (δεσπόταις), and to please them well in all things; not answering again…”

[4] Athenæus of Naucratis (late first-early second century AD) wrote Deipnosophistæ (or Banquet of the Learned), a dialogue in which the characters discuss a wide range of topics including food.  Chrysippus of Tyana (first century) is cited by Athenæus for his expertise in cooking.

[5] Genesis 9:25:  “And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants (עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים; παῖς οἰκέτης, in the Septuagint) shall he be unto his brethren.”

[6] Genesis 27:37b:  “Behold, I have made him thy lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants (לַעֲבָדִים; οἰκέτας, in the Septuagint); and with corn and wine have I sustained him…”

[7] Genesis 44:33:  “Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant (עֶבֶד; οἰκέτης, in the Septuagint) abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren.”

[8] A middle/passive participle.

[9] The Hithpael conjugation in Hebrew frequently conveys a reflexive force.

[10] The verb of being must be supplied to complete the sense.

[11] See, for example, Iliad 24:770; Odyssey 2:47, 234.

[12] Philippians 4:5:  “Let your moderation (ἐπιεικὲς) be known unto all men.  The Lord is at hand.”

[13] 1 Timothy 3:3:  “Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient (ἐπιεικῆ), not a brawler, not covetous…”

[14] Titus 3:2:  “To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle (ἐπιεικεῖς), shewing all meekness unto all men.”

[15] James 3:17:  “But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle (ἐπιεικής), and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.”

[16] Acts 2:40:  “And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward (σκολιᾶς) generation.”

[17] Philippians 2:15:  “That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked (σκολιᾶς) and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world…”

[18] Proverbs 2:15:  “Whose ways are crooked (עִקְּשִׁים; σκολιαὶ, in the Septuagint), and they froward (וּנְלוֹזִים) in their paths…”

[19] Proverbs 3:32:  “For the froward (נָלוֹז) is abomination to the Lord:  but his secret is with the righteous.”

[20] Proverbs 14:2:  “He that walketh in his uprightness feareth the Lord:  but he that is perverse (וּנְלוֹז; ὁ δὲ σκολιάζων, in the Septuagint) in his ways despiseth him.”

[21] Jeremiah 49:8:  “Flee ye, turn back, dwell deep, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity (אֵיד; δύσκολα, hard things, in the Septuagint) of Esau upon him, the time that I will visit him.”

[22] Menander (342-291 BC) was a Greek playwright.  He wrote more than a hundred comedies, but they remain only in fragments.

1 Peter 2:13-17: Peter Enforceth Obedience to Magistrates

Verse 13:  (Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:1; Tit. 3:1) Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake:  whether it be to the king, as supreme…

[Be ye subject, etc., Ὑποτάγητε οὖν, etc.]  From the general exhortation he descends to the particular precepts (Estius).  So then subject (or, submissive [Valla, Erasmus]) be ye (a Passive in the place of the Hithpael:[1]  which is common in other verbs also, but especially in those which come from τάσσω, to put in placeCarry yourselves as subjects:  Luke 2:51;[2] Romans 8:7;[3] Ephesians 5:22,[4] 24;[5] Colossians 3:18;[6] etc. [Grotius]) to every human ordinance (Beza, Piscator, Grotius, etc.), or, constitution (Zegers), that is, τάξει καὶ πολιτειᾳ, to the order and polity, or to the arrangement of civil government (Beza out of his Greek Testament).  Κτίζειν, בָּרָא, to create, signifies, among other things, to ordain, as we said in the Prolegomena on the New Testament.  Add Ecclesiasticus 7:15;[7] 39:25,[8] 28,[9] 29;[10] 40:1,[11] 10.[12]  Someone might perhaps think that κρίσει/judgment was written, for κρίνειν among the Hellenists is to govern, after the manner of the Hebrew שָׁפַט, to judge or govern (Grotius).  Or, creature (Montanus, Erasmus, Vulgate, Gomar, Estius, Gerhard), as κτίσις is taken here and there, as in Romans 1:25;[13] 2 Corinthians 5:17;[14] Colossians 1:23[15] (Gerhard); that is, man, as in Mark 16:15 (Gomar, thus Estius), which is to be taken with a restriction and in a manner accommodated to the context (Estius), that is, the magistrate (Piscator, similarly Gerhard, Gomar, Estius, Menochius), whom he calls a creature; just as the Latins say, to create a consul[16] (Piscator):  which he calls human, not because God is not the founder of Magistrates (Vorstius, similarly Beza, Piscator), but men (Piscator, similarly Beza); but because these are taken from men (Gerhard); because they are instituted and appointed by men (Estius, similarly Gerhard, Cajetan); because men hold the magistracy (Piscator, Vorstius, similarly Beza); because it was instituted for benefit of men (Gerhard); because among men spending time in a land he has and ought to have a place (Grotius):  he says πάσῃ/every, so that he might show that, not the qualities of the persons, but the office, ought to be regarded here (Gerhard); that is to say, to whatever superior, whether he be a Jew, or a Gentile, whether a Christian, or an infidel, whether good, or evil (Estius, Gerhard).  Others by κτίσιν/creature understand human constitutions or laws.  To whom is objected, both, what follows, or to the king; and, that κτίσις is nowhere thus taken (Estius).

Every ordinance; of all kinds, whether supreme or subordinate. Ordinance of man; Greek, human creatures, which may be understood either, as Mark 16:15, every human creature for every man, only restraining it to the present subject whereof he treats, viz. magistrates, and the sense is, to every magistrate:  or rather, (though to the same effect,) to every human ordinance; or, as we translate it, ordinance of man; the word creature being taken for an ordinance, or constitution, and creating for ordaining, or appointing:  so Œcumenius will have the word to signify, Ephesians 2:15, to make of twain one new man.[17]  But this creature, or ordinance, here is to be understood of the magistrate; (as appears by the following words,) which is called human, not as if magistracy were not an ordinance of God, (for, Romans 13:1, the powers that are are said to be ordained of God,) but either because it is only among men, and proper to them; or because it is of man secondarily and instrumentally, though of God primarily and originally, God making use of the ministry of men in bringing them into the magistracy; as, though church offices are God’s ordinance, yet he makes use of men to put them into office.

[Because of, etc., διὰ τὸν Κύριον]  Because of the Lord (Beza, Piscator, Estius), or, Christ (Estius, Grotius), and His precept, Matthew 22:21 (Grotius), and example, Matthew 17:27 (certain interpreters in Gerhard):  or rather, God; either, 1.  on account of the mandate of God (Gerhard, Menochius):  or, 2.  because he bears the functions of God (certain interpreters in Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard), and is His image in the earth (Menochius), and has power from Hime (Estius).  Or, 3.  out of love for God, lest we offend God, Romans 13:5 (Menochius).  Or, 4.  so that ye might honor God, who commanded this (Piscator).  Or, 5.  that is to say, not against the Lord, so that he might trace out the limits of subjection (Gerhard).

For the Lord’s sake; for God’s sake, who commands this obedience; and gave them the authority, and is represented by them, and honoured by that obedience which is yielded to them in all things agreeable to his will.  The phrase seems to be of the same import with that of being obedient in the Lord, Ephesians 6:1.

[Or to the King]  That is, to Cæsar (Grotius, Beza, Piscator, Estius, Gomar, Gerhard).  The Romans, it is true, abhorred this term (Beza, similarly Gerhard), and were calling them Emperors, not Kings, in the ancient ceremony of the oath, as Cyprian says (Gerhard):  but the Jews were calling them Kings (Grotius, similarly Estius, Gerhard), as in John 19:15; Acts 17:7 (Gerhard), and also the Greeks (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard, Piscator), as Theodoret[18] calls Caracalla[19] King (Piscator out of Drusius), evidently because they were using Royal, that is, a most free, power, as Dio[20] tells us.  When this Epistle was written, I think that Claudius[21] (Grotius), or Nero,[22] was ruling.  Therefore, obedience is to be rendered even to infidel and evil princes (Estius).

To the king; to Caesar, the then supreme magistrate, under whose jurisdiction the Jewish Christians were; and this being a general command extending to all Christians, it follows, that obedience is due from them to those chief magistrates whose subjects respectively they are.

[As if, etc., ὡς ὑπερέχοντι]  As excelling (Erasmus, etc.), or, preeminent (Beza, similarly Piscator), or, placed above all (Grotius).  Who has supreme power in the Commonwealth (Gerhard, Estius, similarly Gomar).  This is the ἐξουσία ὑπερέχουσα, higher power, Romans 13:1 (Grotius).  Or, one ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, in authority, 1 Timothy 2:2 (Estius).  Others:  This pertains to all magistrates (certain interpreters in Estius).  He does not here compare Cæsar with other magistrates, but says that obedience is owed to him; for he excels, or is preeminent, or is the head, not by chance, but by the providence of God, Romans 13:1.  Thus he cuts off beforehand the opportunity for meticulous debates, as to how one might lawfully obtain rule; and he admonishes that we ought to be content with this alone, that we see them to preside (Calvin).  He speaks of legitimate power, although perhaps this took its beginning from tyranny and evil arts, as it often happens (Estius), and was done by Rom and the Cæsars (Calvin).

As supreme; not only above the people, but above other magistrates.


Verse 14:  Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him (Rom. 13:4) for the punishment of evildoers, and (Rom. 13:3) for the praise of them that do well.

[Or, etc., εἴτε ἡγεμόσιν]  Or to governors (Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), or, to leaders (Estius, Menochius), or, to Judges (Estius out of the Syriac), to Prefects (Menochius).  Namely, of the provinces that were subject to the Romans (Estius); to the Proconsuls, both of Asia, and of Bithynia[23] (Grotius); to the rest of the magistrates that depend upon the greater, and are, as it were, his Vicars (Menochius).  For the name of ἡγεμόνων/governors is general to all those governing the provinces, as we said on Matthew 27:2[24] (Grotius).

Or unto governors; he seems immediately to intend the governors of provinces under the Roman emperors, such as Pilate, Felix, Festus were in Judea,[25] Sergius Paulus in Cyprus, Acts 13:7; and other places; see Luke 3:1; but so as to imply, under the name of governors, all inferior magistrates, as under the name of king he doth all supreme.

[As ab/by him (or, per/by him [Beza, Piscator]) sent]  This Pronoun is referred, either, 1.  to the nearer antecedent, King (a great many interpreters in Gerhard, Gomar, Erasmus); as sent by Cæsar, that is, bearing his power:  for this also is signified by πέμπειν, to send, as in John 20:21[26] and elsewhere.  So, if the Proconsul command one thing, and the Emperor another, we ought to choose to serve the greater, says Augustine, who also says elsewhere, the power given to Pilate was of such a kind that he himself also was under the power of Cæsar.  Wherefore Christians were not going to adhere to Furius Camillus Scribonianus against Claudius.[27]  Those who establish the peoples in another way, and oppose the doctrine of the Apostles, and disturb Empires.  The highest power in any Empire belongs to him to whom civilians and soldiers swear allegiance, to whose laws all yield, from whose judgments there is no appeal, whose image the coin bears (Grotius).  Or, 2.  to the more remote antecedent, God (Gerhard, thus Erasmus, Calvin, Estius):  For, 1.  Governors are put in charge of provinces, not so much by the authority of Cæsar, as of the Senate.  2.  On account of that which follows, for the punishment of malefactors, etc., which scope not all kings propose to themselves.  But God prescribed that to all Magistrates.  3.  The scope of Peter here is to set forth that which ought to move to obedience, namely, that God sent them (Gerhard, Estius).  This, therefore, is a universal argument to commend the authority of all magistrates, that they govern by the mandate of God, and are sent by Him (Calvin).

As unto them that are sent by him; either, 1.  By the king, or supreme magistrate, and then the next words show what should be his end in sending, or appointing officers, or subordinate rulers under him:  or rather, 2.  Sent by God, from whom all rulers, subordinate as well as supreme, have their authority, and which is the great motive on which they are to be obeyed; and then the following words show what is God’s end in appointing them, and another reason for yielding obedience to them, viz. their being set up for the common good of the societies which they rule.

[For the punishment of malefactors (that is, of criminals, sinning against the laws [Menochius]), but for the praise (he said praise in the place of reward, as in Romans 13:3, either, because praise itself is a certain kind of reward; or, because a reward is a sign of praise [Estius]) of the good[28]]  Or, of well-doers (Erasmus), of those doing well, or rightly (Beza, Piscator, Estius).  Clearly the same thing is said here as in Romans 13:3-5, evidently from the old maxims of the Hebrews.  We have this experience from those who hold public authority ἐπιτοπολύ/lawfully; for both crimes are punished through them, and quiet is presented as a reward to those loving quiet.  If at any time they sin in ignorance or passion, God shall compensate the injuries thus born:  Indeed He shall also punish unjust Princes, undoubtedly in the next age, not rarely also in this very one (Grotius).  He shall here describe the office of magistrates (Estius).  He speaks not of matters, or works, good or evil, but of persons who do good or evil, as the Greek text shows (Gerhard).

For the praise of them that do well:  praise is a kind of reward, and is here to be taken by a synecdoche for all sorts of rewards given to those that do well, and are obedient to the laws:  see Romans 13:3, 4.


Verse 15:  For so is the will of God, that (Tit. 2:8; 1 Pet. 2:12) with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men…

[So is the will of God]  Both absolute, and perceptive (Estius), in the Gospel, Matthew 10:16 (Grotius).

For so is the will of God; his command.

[That, etc., ἀγαθοποιοῦντας φιμοῦν τὴν τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων ἀγνωσίαν]  That by well-doing (that is, by obeying the Magistrates [Erasmus]:  Ἀγαθοποιεῖν, to do good, is sometime to confer benefits, in the place of which ἀγαθοεργεῖν is also used:[29]  But here it simply signifies to act rightly, as also in 1 Peter 2:20;[30] 3:6,[31] 17;[32] 3 John 11;[33] in which sense we just now had the Adjective ἀγαθοποιὸς, one doing well,[34] and in Ecclesiasticus 42:14;[35] and ἀγαθοποιΐα/well-doing in 1 Peter 4:19[36] [Grotius]) the mouth ye might block up, or stop (as if with a muzzle or halter:  See 1 Corinthians 9:9:[37]  Or, ye might restrain [Castalio], muzzle [Pagnine], that is, ye might compel to silence [Piscator]; or, ye might cut off all opportunity of evilspeaking [Vorstius]:  Φιμῶ, in the Glossa, is to restrain; φιμοῦμαι, to become speechless:  Hesychius, φιμοῦν, ἐπιστομίζειν, to bridle or curb:  See Matthew 22:12,[38] 34;[39] Mark 1:25;[40] 4:39;[41] Luke 4:35[42] [Grotius]) of foolish (or, imprudent [Vulgate], distracted [Piscator], stupid, who weigh all things less prudently and exactly [Gerhard]:  or, understanding nothing, namely, concerning Divine things [Grotius]) men (that is, unfaithful [Gerhard, thus Erasmus]) of ignorance (Beza), that is, of things said arising out of ignorance (Grotius):  or, it is an abstraction in the place of a concrete, that is to say, of ignorant men (Gerhard), who are ignorant of God, and to that extent they easily stumble (Estius, Gerhard); who, led by the most trifling suspicions, rail against you (Menochius), partly out of madness, partly out of ignorance (Erasmus).  By suffering evils, and not resisting, we best restrain the mouth of enemies (Grotius); and we often stir them up to commend us and to glorify God (Estius).

That with well-doing; all manner of offices of humanity, whereof obedience to magistrates is a principal one.  Ye may put to silence; Greek, muzzle, stop the mouths, Titus 1:11; viz. by taking away all occasion of evil-speaking.  The ignorance; either their ignorance of the state and conversation of believers, which may be the occasion of their speaking evil of them; or their ignorance of God and his ways, to which Christ imputes the fury of persecutors, John 16:3.  They that know not God themselves, are most ready to reproach and slander those that do.  Of foolish men; true wisdom consisting in the knowledge of God, they that are destitute of that knowledge, as unbelievers are, are called foolish.


Verse 16:  (Gal. 5:1, 13) As free, and not using (Gr. having[43]) your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as (1 Cor. 7:22) the servants of God.

[As free]  It was able to be objected:  We [Jewish Christians] are free (Estius, Gerhard, Gomar), as the special people of God (Estius, Gerhard), by whom obedience is not to be yielded to a foreigner, according to Deuteronomy 17:15, having descended from a people free and claimed by Messiah for liberty; see John 8:33 (Gerhard), presented with liberty by Christ (Estius).  He responds:  ye are free, namely, from sins (Grotius, thus Menochius, Gomar, Gerhard), John 8:32, 36; Romans 6:18, 22 (Grotius), but not from the law of God (Menochius), nor from righteousnss (Gomar, thus Estius); [and therefore] not from obedience to Princes (Menochius, similarly Estius, Gomar), which pertains to righteousness (Gomar, similarly Estius), Romans 13:7.  The sense:  As free, that is, freely, not servilely, obeying the laws of princes (Estius).

As free; he prevents an objection; they might pretend they were a free people, as Jews, and therefore were not to obey strangers, Deuteronomy 17:15; John 8:33; and made free by Christ.  He answers:  That they were free indeed, but it was from sin, and not from righteousness, not from obedience to God’s law, which requires subjection to magistrates, for they were still the servants of God.

[And not, etc., καὶ μὴ ὡς ἐπικάλυμμα, etc.]  And not as malice’s (and your disobedience’s [Estius, Menochius]) veil (or, cloak [Vatablus], or, for cloaking evil affairs:  Thus Gellius,[44] who follow useless leisure under the cloak of a Philosophical name, and obscurity of speech and life[45] [Grotius]) having (or, taking [Grotius]) liberty (Beza, Piscator, etc.), namely, Christian liberty, as those were doing who were saying that Christians are free from all public laws:  κυριότητα ἀθετοῦντας, despising dominion, as Jude says (Grotius).

And not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness; not using your liberty to cover or palliate your wickedness, excusing yourselves from obedience to your superiors by a pretence of Christian liberty, when, though ye be free from sin, yet ye are not from duty.

[But as the servants of God]  Who freely and as free serve God (Menochius), and hence also the servants of those whom God commands us to serve (Grotius); obeying God, not only in His own person, but also as ruling in His vicars (Tirinus, similarly Menochius):  that is to say, it amounts to this, because ye obey princes because of God, ye serve not men, but the God who commands this (Estius).

But as the servants of God; and so still bound to obey him, and your rulers in him.


Verse 17:  (Rom. 12:10; Phil. 2:3) Honour (or, esteem[46]) all men.  (Heb. 13:1; 1 Pet. 1:22) Love the brotherhood.  (Prov. 24:21; Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:7) Fear God.  Honour the king.

[Honor all men]  Understand this accommodately, as in verse 13 (Estius), namely, to whom any honor is owed (Grotius, similarly Estius, Gerhard), by reason of power, dignity, gifts, office, etc. (Gerhard), as in Romans 13:7 (Grotius), according to the state and condition of each (Menochius, Tirinus); even is they be Gentiles, or infidels (Estius); or Jews, or paupers and inferior to you.  Compare Romans 12:10; Philippians 2:3 (Gerhard).  This general saying he shall now unfold by its species (Grotius).

Honour all men; viz. according as honour is due to them, according to their dignity, power, gifts, etc.:  see Romans 12:10; 13:7; Philippians 2:3.

[The brotherhood[47] (you have the word in 1 Maccabees 12:10,[48] 17;[49] Zechariah 11:14:  Indeed, this word here, as also in 1 Peter 5:9,[50] signifies, not the σχέσιν/relation itself, but the company of brethren, just as ἱεράτευμα/ priesthood signifies the order of Priests [Grotius]:  It is taken collectively [Estius, Gerhard], for brethren, that is, Christians [Estius, Menochius]:  or, for the multitude of brethren, just as the nobility is used for the entire assembly of the Nobles [Gerhard, Piscator]:  that is to say, the assembly of the faithful in which we live [Grotius]) love]  With a special love and benevolence (Estius), honor ye them by loving (Grotius).

Love the brotherhood; though all may challenge suitable respects, yet there is a more special affection owing to believers, 1 Peter 1:22; Galatians 6:10.

[Fear God]  That is, obey Him without exception.  See Ephesians 6:5; Philippians 2:12 (Grotius).  This he inserts, so that he might establish the definite limits of the subjection and honor owed to Magistrates, and teach that obedience ought to be rendered to God more than to men, Acts 5:29 (Gerhard), so that, if men, no matter how powerful, should command anything that is contrary to the will of God, we might be recalled from him by the honor of God (Estius, similarly Gerhard).

Fear God; with a filial fear or reverence.  This command is interposed, either to show what is the true spring and fountain from which all the duties we perform to men are to proceed, viz. the fear of God, because where that doth not prevail no duty to men can be rightly performed; (they love the brotherhood best, and honour the king most, that truly fear God;) or to show the due bounds of all the offices we perform to men, that nothing is to be done for them which is inconsistent with the fear of God.

[To the king (that is, the Emperor [Grotius], the Cæsar, as in verse 13 [Piscator]) do honor]  Or, honor ye (Piscator, Estius).  With an honor special (Gerhard), and due (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard); with the highest honors that human nature attains (Grotius); by the observation of the laws, and by the payment of tributes (Estius, thus Gerhard).  Question:  Why does he say this after he had commanded that all men be honored?  Response:  Authors are accustomed, after the genus, to make mention of some certain species, as in the title of Psalm 18, from the hand of his enemies…and of Saul; 1 Kings 11:1, women…and the daughter of Pharaoh.  Thus Mark 16:7, tell ye his disciples and Peter (Drusius).  This he specifically express, both because of the eminence of the King, and lest the Emperor should appear to be honored less on account of his manifest malice (Estius).

Honour the king; with that honour which is peculiarly due to him above all others.


[1] The Hithpael conjugation in Hebrew frequently conveys a reflexive sense.

[2] Luke 2:51a:  “And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject (ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος, in the passive voice) unto them…”

[3] Romans 8:7:  “Because the carnal mind is enmity against God:  for it is not subject (οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, in the passive voice) to the law of God, neither indeed can be.”

[4] Ephesians 5:22:  “Wives, submit yourselves (ὑποτάσσεσθε, in the middle voice) unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord.”

[5] Ephesians 5:24:  “Therefore as the church is subject (ὑποτάσσεται, in the passive voice) unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.”

[6] Colossians 3:18:  “Wives, submit yourselves (ὑποτάσσεσθε, in the middle voice) unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.”

[7] Ecclesiasticus 7:15:  “Hate not laborious work, neither husbandry, which the most High hath ordained (ἐκτισμένην).”

[8] Ecclesiasticus 39:25:  “For the good are good things created (ἔκτισται) from the beginning:  so evil things for sinners.”

[9] Ecclesiasticus 39:28:  “There be spirits that are created (ἔκτισται) for vengeance, which in their fury lay on sore strokes; in the time of destruction they pour out their force, and appease the wrath of him that made them.”

[10] Ecclesiasticus 39:29:  “Fire, and hail, and famine, and death, all these were created (ἔκτισται) for vengeance…”

[11] Ecclesiasticus 40:1:  “Great travail is created (ἔκτισται) for every man, and an heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam, from the day that they go out of their mother’s womb, till the day that they return to the mother of all things.”

[12] Ecclesiasticus 40:10:  “These things are created (ἐκτίσθη) for the wicked, and for their sakes came the flood.”

[13] Romans 1:25:  “Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature (τῇ κτίσει) more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever.  Amen.”

[14] 2 Corinthians 5:17:  “Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature (κτίσις):  old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.”

[15] Colossians 1:23b:  “…and which was preached to every creature (τῇ κτίσει) which is under heaven; whereof I Paul am made a minister…”

[16] See Cicero’s Epistulæ ad Atticum 9:9:3, and Cæsar’s Commentaries on the Civil War 3:1.

[17] Ephesians 2:15b:  “…for to make (κτίσῃ) in himself of twain one new man, so making peace…”

[18] Theodoret was a Greek Christian, born in Antioch, and serving as bishop of Cyrus, Syria.

[19] Caracalla was Roman Emperor from 198 to 217.

[20] Dio Cassius was a Roman historian of the third century AD.  His Historiæ Romanæ is an important sourse of information concerning that period.

[21] Claudius reigned from 41 to 54.

[22] Nero reigned from 54 to 68.

[23] See on 1 Peter 1:1.

[24] Matthew 27:2b:  “…and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor (τῷ ἡγεμόνι).”

[25] See Acts 23-26.

[26] John 20:21:  “Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you:  as my Father hath sent (ἀπέσταλκέ) me, even so send (πέμπω) I you.”

[27] Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, reportedly the biological son of Marcus Furius Camillus, but the adopted son of Lucius Arruntius the Younger (consul in 6 AD), was considered for the office of Emperor after the death of Caligula.  Having been passed over, he led a revolt against Claudius in 41 AD, but failed when he lost the support of his troops.

[28] Greek:  εἰς ἐκδίκησιν μὲν κακοποιῶν, ἔπαινον δὲ ἀγαθοποιῶν.

[29] See 1 Timothy 6:18:  “That they do good (ἀγαθοεργεῖν), that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate…”

[30] 1 Peter 2:20b:  “…but if, when ye do well (ἀγαθοποιοῦντες), and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.”

[31] 1 Peter 3:6:  “Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord:  whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well (ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι), and are not afraid with any amazement.”

[32] 1 Peter 3:17:  “For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing (ἀγαθοποιοῦντας), than for evil doing.”

[33] 3 John 11:  “Beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good.  He that doeth good (ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν) is of God:  but he that doeth evil hath not seen God.”

[34] Verse 14.

[35] Ecclesiasticus 42:14:  “Better is the churlishness of a man than a courteous (ἀγαθοποιὸς) woman, a woman, I say, which bringeth shame and reproach.”

[36] 1 Peter 4:19:  “Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing (ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ), as unto a faithful Creator.”

[37] 1 Corinthians 9:9b:  “Thou shalt not muzzle (οὐ φιμώσεις) the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn.”

[38] Matthew 22:12:  “And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment?  And he was speechless (ὁ δὲ ἐφιμώθη).”

[39] Matthew 22:34:  “But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence (ἐφίμωσε τοὺς Σαδδουκαίους), they were gathered together.”

[40] Mark 1:25:  “And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace (Φιμώθητι), and come out of him.”

[41] Mark 4:39:  “And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still (πεφίμωσο). And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.”

[42] Luke 4:35a:  “And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace (Φιμώθητι), and come out of him.”

[43] Greek:  ἔχοντες.

[44] Aulus Gellius (c. 125-c. 180) was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and collector of curiosities, which he set down in the twenty books of his Noctes Atticæ.

[45] Noctes Atticæ 10:22.

[46] Greek:  τιμήσατε.

[47] Greek:  τὴν ἀδελφότητα.

[48] 1 Maccabees 12:10:  “Have nevertheless attempted to send unto you for the renewing of brotherhood (ἀδελφότητα) and friendship, lest we should become strangers unto you altogether:  for there is a long time passed since ye sent unto us.”

[49] 1 Maccabees 12:17:  “We commanded them also to go unto you, and to salute and to deliver you our letters concerning the renewing of our brotherhood (τῆς ἀδελφότητος).”

[50] 1 Peter 5:9:  “Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brotherhood (ἀδελφότητι) that is in the world.”

1 Peter 2:11, 12: Exhortation to Put Off Fleshly Lust, and to Put On God-Glorifying Behavior

Verse 11:  Dearly beloved, I beseech you (1 Chron. 29:15; Ps. 39:12; 119:19; Heb. 11:13; 1 Pet. 1:17) as strangers and pilgrims, (Rom. 13:14; Gal. 5:16) abstain from fleshly lusts, (Jam. 4:1) which war against the soul…

[Most beloved[1]]  Thus also James 1:16,[2] 19; 2:5 (Grotius).

[I beseech, etc., παρακαλῶ ὡς παροίκους καὶ παρεπιδήμους ἀπέχεσθαι, etc.]  I entreat that as tenants and foreigners (namely, among the nations [Gomar], exiled from their home country [Estius, Gerhard], both, 1.  in body; and 2.  in soul [Gomar], or spiritually; that is, visitors in this world [Estius, Gerhard], to whom nothing ought to be common with the desires and vanities of the age [Estius]:  Πάροικοι[3] are those who have their residence outside of the fatherland; παρεπίδημοι are those who travel outside of the fatherland:  From their present condition he reminds them of the common lot of all men, who live in the earth for a brief time, but not as in their own; clearly as in 1 Peter 1:17, in which place see the annotations [Grotius]:  There is an allusion here to 1 Peter 1:1, and at the same time he recalls them to the examples of the Patriarchs, who acknowledged themselves to be pilgrims [Gerhard out of Estius], Psalm 119:19; 1 Chronicles 29:15; Hebrews 11:13, 14 [Gerhard]) ye abstain from fleshly lusts (Beza, Piscator, etc.), or, the desires of the flesh (Estius, Grotius), Galatians 5:16; Ephesians 2:3; 1 John 2:16 (Grotius), that is, aroused by the concupiscence or kindling of sin (Estius), like appetite, lust, wrath, hatred, pride, etc. (Menochius, Tirinus); from the fulfillment of those lusts which, not reason, but the flesh, suggests (Grotius):  from desiring those things which the world admires and desires, as are pleasures, riches, honors.  For it belongs to pilgrims not to mix themselves with the affairs of the region in which they sojourn (Estius, Gerhard).

Strangers and pilgrims; not only strangers in the several countries where ye inhabit, (being out of your own land,) but strangers in the world, as all believers are, 1 Chronicles 29:15; Psalm 39:12; 119:19; Hebrews 11:13, 14.  Abstain from fleshly lusts; not only sensual desires, but all the works of the flesh, Galatians 5:19-21, the carnal mind itself being enmity against God, Romans 8:7.

[Which war (or, fight[4] [Menochius]:  A like metaphor in the language of στρατεύσεσθαι in Romans 7:23;[5] James 4:1[6] [Grotius, thus Vorstius]) against the soul[7]]  That is, either, life and salvation:  whence it is read here and there to destroy[8] and to find the soul[9] (Estius):  or, the inner man, the spirit, the mind (Gerhard):  they fight directly with the good of your soul (Grotius); they do not permit your sould to rise to God through good desires (Menochius); they hinder you from being able to obtain eternal life, which ought to be your fatherland.  Concerning the word ψυχῆς see Hebrews 10:39[10] (Grotius).

Which war; as enemies, oppose and fight against, Romans 7:23; James 4:1.  Against the soul; the inner man, or regenerate part, or Spirit, which is opposed to fleshly lusts:  see Galatians 5:17.


Verse 12:  (Rom. 12:17; 2 Cor. 8:21; Phil. 2:15; Tit. 2:8; 1 Pet. 3:16) Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles:  that, whereas (or, wherein[11]) they speak against you as evildoers, (Matt. 5:16) they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God (Luke 19:44) in the day of visitation.

[Having your conversation among the Gentiles (or, in the sight of the Gentiles, among whom ye live, by whom ye are watched on account of the diversity of religion [Grotius]:  Hence it is evident that this epistle was written to the Jews [Estius, similarly Beza]:  for, writing to the Gentiles, he would have said, among the unbelieving,[12] or those that are without;[13] or, with an addition, among the Gentiles which are ignorant of God [Estius]) good]  Or, honest (Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, holy and irreproachable (Menochius), giving offense to no one by wickedness of manners; but, with your manners rightly composed, provoking the love of your neighbors toward yourself, and commending the religion that you profess (Estius).  See James 3:13 (Grotius).

Having your conversation honest; irreprehensible, fruitful, such as may gain men’s love, and commend the religion you profess.  Among the Gentiles; who, by reason of their differing from your religion, are the more likely to observe you.  This proves this Epistle to be written to the Jews.

[That, etc., ἵνα, ἐν ᾧ καταλαλοῦσιν ὑμῶν, etc.]  That in what (or, in what matter [Arabic], or, in this, that [Vulgate, Pagnine, thus Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus], or, for this, that [Beza, Castalio, Piscator]:  Which we say in French, au lieu que, while or whereas:  Thus 1 Peter 3:16:[14]  See Romans 8:3[15] [Beza]:  or, on account of that very thing on account of which, that is, on account of the Christian religion:  In a like sense we have the little word ἐν in Ephesians 3:13[16] [Grotius]) they rail at (or, detract from [Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.], disparage [Valla, Erasmus, Zegers], reproach [Valla], traduce as criminals [Grotius]) vobis/ you (or, vos/you [Valla, Grotius]) as malefactors (Montanus), or, as evildoers (Estius, thus Piscator, Vatablus), that is, wicked men, and hurtful to the Commonwealth (Estius).  They were saying that the Christians were voluptuaries, atheists, feeding on human flesh, practicing promiscuous intercourse, and the cause of all evils and calamities in the world (Menochius, Tirinus, certain interpreters in Estius).  But I would prefer that detractions be understood here, to which the Jews (unto whom he here writes) were liable; for example, that they were less compliant with princes under the pretext of religion and liberty, and that they were too little accommodating themselves in a civil manner to those among whom they were living (Estius).

[Of, etc., ἐκ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων ἐποπτεύσαντες]  That is, ἃ ἐπόπτευσαν, what things they observe, with your good works observed (Grotius).  Ex bonis operibus, of the good works (understanding, of you [Arabic, thus Gerhard out of the Syriac], or, opera bona vestra, your good works [Gerhard]) considering (Montanus, Erasmus), or, examining (Menochius), considering more thoroughly and completely (Gerhard):  having observed, or, when they have considered, for it is in the Aorist (Estius):  when they see those things (Arabic); or, considering (Vulgate, Piscator), reckoning (Illyricus, Tigurinus, Menochius), understanding, you (Vulgate, Piscator, Illyricus, Tigurinus), or what things they considered (Beza, thus Pagnine):  but those words, ἐκ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων, of the good works, are to be conjoined, not with the following δοξάσωσι, they may glorify, as that Version supposes; but with ἐποπτεύσαντες/beholding.  Now, ἐποπτεύειν, to observe, takes an Accusative, as in 1 Peter 3:2.[17]  I would prefer, therefore, ἐποπτεύειν to be the same here as in Hesychius,[18] either ἐποπίζειν, to revere, or ὑποττεύειν [perhaps ὑποπτεύειν], to admire, or, to regard modestly and reverently; and thus the place to be rendered, on account of your good works, or actions, revering you, or, regarding you with reverence (Hammond).

[They may glorify (or, may praise [Grotius], may honor [Castalio]) God (the God who has such worshippers [Estius, Gerhard]; thus turning detraction into praise [Estius]; or, they may think more justly concerning Christianity [Gerhard], or, may become Christians:  which things would be glory to God [Castalio]) in the day, etc., ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπισκοπῆς]  In the day (or, time [Grotius]) of trial (Tremellius out of the Syriac), or, curationis, of superintendence, that is, when God will bear the curam/care of His own (Castalio):  or, of inspection (Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus), of visitation (Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Montanus, Beza, Piscator, Arabic), or, on which they shall be visited (Pagnine).  He understands the visitation here, 1.  of men of the world, and persecutors, who might inquire into the life and manners of the Christians; that is to say, so that then they might acknowledge your innocence, and be ashamed and corrected (Gerhard out of Œcumenius).  This is supported by the word ἐποπτεύσαντες/beholding/observing (Gerhard, similarly Estius).  Or thus:  So that, when hostile armies come to exact vengeance against the rebellious and seditious Jews, they might find you Christians quiet and studying peace, and judge more mildly of your religion, and ultimately embrace it (Hammond).  Or, 2.  divine, or when God visits men (Estius), either, 1.  on the day of final judgment (certain interpreters in Grotius).  To which is objected those words, considering of the good works.  For this belong to the present age (Estius).  Or, 2.  in this life (Gerhard, Estius):  and that, either, 1.  by cross and calamities, as the visitation is taken in Isaiah 10:3; Jeremiah 6:15; Ezekiel 9:1; Hosea 9:7.  Now, it is able to be referred either to those disparagers, whom God brings through suffering to an acknowledgement of sin, or to Christians, by whose highest patience revealed in adversities calumnies were brought to confusion (certain interpreters in Gerhard), and praises were extorted from the torturers themselves (Tirinus out of Lapide); that is to say, when God has permitted you to be vexed with many evils:  or thus, in hard times:  for thus the language of ἐπισκοπῆς/visitation is posited, Isaiah 10:3[19] and elsewhere.[20]  The sense:  When those nations shall observe that the Christians alone are immune to those evils which everywhere threaten the Jews on account of their turbulent and seditious inclinations.  This sense is required by those things which ἀμέσως/ immediately follow (Grotius).  Or, 2.  by a gracious visitation (Piscator, similarly Calvin), as the language is taken in Genesis 21:1; 50:24; Exodus 3:16; 1 Samuel 2:21; Luke 1:68, 78; 7:16 (other interpreters in Gerhard).  That is to say, when it was pleasing to God by His inspirations to visit the unbelieving (Menochius, similarly Estius, Gerhard), and disparagers (Estius), through saving conversion (Gerhard, similarly Erasmus, Estius, Vatablus), as the word is taken in Luke 19:44 (certain interpreters in Gerhard).  That is to say, when God shall also show pity upon them (Beza).  Or thus, when God through a variety of means will have brought forth into the light the innocence of the pious, whether throught the Apologies and good works of the faithful, or through the punishments of the persecutors, etc. (Gerhard).

They may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God; not only think more favourably of you, but of your religion; acknowledge the grace of God in you, and more readily subject themselves to him, (the best way of glorifying him,) it being usual with God to make way for the conversion of sinners by the holy conversation of saints.  In the day of visitation; viz. a gracious visitation, when God calls them by the gospel to the knowledge of Christ, Luke 1:68, 78; 7:16; 19:44.


[1] Greek:  Ἀγαπητοί.

[2] James 1:16:  “Do not err, my beloved (ἀγαπητοί) brethren.”  So also James 1:19 and 2:5.

[3] Πάροικος is composed of two words:  παρά, near or beside, and οἶκος/house.

[4] Greek:  αἵτινες στρατεύονται.

[5] Romans 7:23:  “But I see another law in my members, warring against (ἀντιστρατευόμενον) the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.”

[6] James 4:1:  “From whence come wars and fightings among you? come they not hence, even of your lusts that war (τῶν στρατευομένων) in your members?”

[7] Greek:  κατὰ τῆς ψυχῆς.

[8] See, for example, Luke 6:9b:  “Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life (ψυχὴν), or to destroy it?”

[9] See, for example, Matthew 10:39:  “He that findeth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτου) shall lose it:  and he that loseth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτου) for my sake shall find it.”

[10] Hebrews 10:39:  “But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul (ψυχῆς).”

[11] Greek:  ἐν ᾧ.

[12] See, for example, 1 Corinthians 7:14, 15.

[13] See, for example, 1 Corinthians 5:12, 13; Colossians 4:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:12; 1 Timothy 3:7.

[14] 1 Peter 3:16:  “Having a good conscience; that, whereas (ἵνα ἐν ᾧ) they speak evil of you, as of evildoers, they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.”

[15] Romans 8:3:  “For what the law could not do, in that (ἐν ᾧ) it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh…”

[16] Ephesians 3:13:  “Wherefore I desire that ye faint not at (ἐν, or, on account of) my tribulations for you, which is your glory.”

[17] 1 Peter 3:2:  “While they behold your chaste conversation (ἐποπτεύσαντες τὴν—ἁγνὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν) coupled with fear.”

[18] Hesychius of Alexandria (fifth century AD) composed a Greek lexicon of almost fifty-one thousand entries, filled with explanations of rare and obscure words and phrases.

[19] Isaiah 10:3:  “And what will ye do in the day of visitation (פְּקֻדָּה; ἐπισκοπῆς, in the Septuagint), and in the desolation which shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory?”

[20] For example, Jeremiah 6:15b:  “…at the time that I visit them (בְּעֵת־פְּקַדְתִּים; ἐν καιρῷ ἐπισκοπῆς, in the time of visitation, in the Septuagint) they shall be cast down, saith the Lord.”

1 Peter 2:10: Privileges of Believers, Part 5

Verse 10:  (Hos. 1:9, 10; 2:23; Rom. 9:25) Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God:  which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.

[Which once (understanding, were [Beza, Piscator]) not a people (either, 1.  absolutely [Estius]; because a dispersed people is actually not a people [Estius, similarly Beza], since it is not gathered into one Commonwealth [Estius]; or, that is to say, a most abject people, and considered as nothing [Erasmus, similarly Camerarius]:  Or rather, not a people, that is, of God, which is to be supplied out of the following member [Estius, Grotius], as the passage shows that is here regarded, Hosea 2:23 [Grotius], in which it is, and I shall say to them which were not my people [Estius, Drusius]), but now (understanding, are [Piscator, etc.]) the people of God]  That is, a faithful people, members of the Church (Menochius), imbued with the true and saving knowledge of God and of divine things (Estius).  He accommodates that passage [Hosea 2:23] to those who were born of the Gentiles, Romans 9:25 (Grotius, similarly Estius).  Whence it is gathered that Peter also writes to the Gentiles (certain interpreters in Estius).  Responses:  1.  From this it is gathered only that he had not written to the Jews alone, but also to the Gentiles, with whom they had been mixed, and united into one Church with them, so that he might be able to address sometimes the former, sometimes the latter, sometimes both (Estius).  2.  The passage in its literal sense pertains to dispersed Israelites alone, to whom, after the published divorce, promises reconciliation, which promise Peter here says has been fulfilled; but in its mystical sense to the Gentiles (Estius out of Ribera[1] and Jerome).  3.  What things the Prophet said concerning the Gentiles, he was able to apply to the Jews (Estius), who were evilly educated in such a way that they were made the sons of Gehenna, Matthew 23:15 (Grotius).  For Peter does not say that the Prophet wrote concerning those whom he addresses (Estius).

Which in time past were not a people; either, were not a people, i.e. a formed state, or commonwealth, being dispersed in several countries, among other people, and not worth the name of a people:  or, were not the people of God, (supplying God out of the opposite clause,) since he had given them a bill of divorce, and said Lo-ammi and Lo-ruhamah to them, Hosea 1.  These were the Jews of the dispersion, and such as had not returned out of the Babylonish captivity, together with many of other tribes mixed with them, who, before their conversion to Christ, seemed cut off from the body of that people, had no solemn worship of God among them, and were tainted with the corruptions of the heathen, with whom they conversed.  But are now the people of God; really God’s people, restored to their old covenant state and church privileges, by their believing in Christ.

[Which had not obtained mercy,[2] etc.]  Formerly not loved on account of vices; now loved on account of purification.  For also in the Passage of Hosea certain Versions have ἀγαπήσω τὴν οὐκ ἠγαπημένην, I will love her that was not loved (Grotius).  It signifies that they were called by the mercy and grace of God, but not by their merits (Estius).

Which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy; the mercy of being God’s people, and enjoying their privileges, being justified, at peace with God, etc.  Lest they might any way abuse what he had said in the former verse concerning their great dignity and privileges, so as to ascribe any thing to themselves, the apostle intimates here, that all they enjoyed was merely out of God’s mercy.

[1] Francis Ribera (1537-1591) was a Spanish Jesuit scholar, most remembered for his commentary on Revelation in which he advances the Futurist scheme of interpretation.  He also wrote a commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews.

[2] Greek:  οἱ οὐκ ἠλεημένοι.

1 Peter 2:9: Privileges of Believers, Part 4

Verse 9:  But ye are (Deut. 10:15; 1 Pet. 1:2) a chosen generation, (Ex. 19:5, 6; Rev. 1:6; 5:10) a royal priesthood, (John 17:19; 1 Cor. 3:17; 2 Tim. 1:9) an holy nation, (Deut. 4:20; 7:6; 14:2; 26:18, 19; Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:14; Tit. 2:14) a peculiar people (or, a purchased people[1]); that ye should shew forth the praises (or, virtues[2]) of him who hath called you out of (Acts 26:18; Eph. 5:8; Col. 1:13; 1 Thess. 5:4, 5) darkness into his marvellous light…

[But ye (Christians [Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard]:  The Particles, ye, we, are properly referred, indeed to all in the case of commandments, but to the elect in the cases of consolations and encomiums [James Cappel]:  understanding, are [Beza, Piscator]) an elect race]  He calls them a race on account of regeneration (Estius, thus Gerhard); elect, because they were chosen by God (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard), that they might be members of the Church (Menochius), and unto eternal life (Gerhard, similarly Estius).  The these he places over against reprobates, verses 7 and 8 (Beza).  See 1 Peter 1:2; you have γένος ἐκλεκτὸν, elect race, in Isaiah 43:20[3] (Grotius), that is, a select people (Hammond).  Peter returns to magnify the dignity and felicity of the pious (Gerhard out of Estius), which he had begun to set forth in verse 4 (Gerhard).

But ye; ye believers, in opposition to those reprobates that are disobedient to the word.  He shows that those dignities and privileges, which were mentioned by Moses as belonging to their forefathers, did much more belong to them; and that they had the real exhibition in Christ, of those good things whereof their fathers had but a taste, and which the rest of the Jews had lost by their unbelief.  Are a chosen generation; a people chosen of God, not only out of the world, but from among the rest of your own nation, and not only to an external adoption, and outward privileges, (as the whole body of the nation was,) but to eternal salvation.

[A royal Priesthood]  He cites the words of Exodus 19:6 (Menochius, thus Estius), according to the Septuagint version.  In the Hebrew it is, a kingdom sacerdotal, or of priests[4] (Estius, thus Drusius).  The sense:  a multitude of Kings and Priests (Cameron).  Take ἱεράτευμα/priesthood as in verse 5.  But βασίλειον/royal is added here, so that Christians might be understood thus to be made Priests through Christ, even while at the same time they are Kings after the pattern of Christ; not as the Israelites, concerning which this was said in Exodus 19:6 on account of the Paschal right, and on account of the liberty common to all and the magnificent victories; but because they offer those things to God concerning which we have already previously spoken, and because they are free from vinces, and overcome the Flesh, the World, and the Devil.  For that saying is able verily to be applied to a Christian man, A king is he, who fears nothing:  A king is he, who desires nothing;[5] and what Cicero says, it belongs to Kings to serve no lust.[6]  The sense is the same in Revelation 1:6 and 5:10 (Grotius).  They are called Priests with respect to God, because they are consecrated to the worship of God:  Kings, with respect to others, because they are lords over life, over death, over all their enemies (Cameron):  or, because they are masters of their affections (certain interpreters in Estius, similarly Menochius):  or rather, because they are sons and heirs of God, co-heirs of Christ, set to reign with Him eternally;[7] or, to such an extent they are members of Christ the King and Priest (Estius).  He alludes to the ancient custom, in which the Priesthood was joined to the royal power[8] (Tirinus).

A royal priesthood; or, kingdom of priests.  He called them an holy priesthood, verse 5, now he calls them a royal priesthood, to show that they were made not only spiritual priests, but spiritual kings; which privilege they had not as Jews, but as believers, who are all of them as priests in respect of God, to whom they are consecrated, and to whom they offer up spiritual sacrifices; so kings in respect both of their enemies, over whom they are victorious, and of the kingdom they are hereafter to inherit.

[An holy nation[9]]  1 Peter 1:15; with the language taken from Deuteronomy 7:6[10] and 14:2[11] (Grotius).  So called on account of holiness, not external and legal, like the Israelites, but internal and true (Estius, Gerhard).  A nation dedicated to God (Menochius).

An holy nation; Moses calls your fathers an holy people, Deuteronomy 7:6, in respect of their separation from the impurities of the Gentiles, their dedication to God, and the many laws God gave them, obliging them to external and ceremonial purity, whereby they were admonished of internal and real holiness; but ye are a holy nation in respect of that true and inward holiness itself, whereof that ceremonial holiness was but a signification.  He seems particularly to allude to Isaiah 62:12.

[A people, etc., λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν[12]]  That is, περιποιητὸς/peculiar (Beza).  The same as the Hebrew סְגֻלָּה, a treasure, or κειμήλιον, a treasure or property, which is reckoned as valuable and diligently guarded (Gerhard, Hammond); which word the Septuagint translators render περιούσιος (Gerhard), in Exodus 19:5[13] (Grotius).  But Theodotion[14] and Symmachus[15] render it ἐξαίρετος/chosen/choice (Gerhard), and in Malachi 3:17 εἰς περιποίησιν, for a possession[16] (Hammond, Grotius).  Περιποίησις means the same thing as σωτηρία/preservation/salvation, as in Hebrews 10:39[17] (Hammond).  See also Ephesians 1:14[18] (Gerhard).  [Thus they translate it:]  A people (or, society [Tremellius out of the Syriac]) peculiar (Arabic), or, redeemed (Tremellius out of the Syriac), who come into profit, adopted and engrafted into the people of God (Erasmus).  Or, for a claim (Montanus); of acquisition, or of a claim (Estius), or, of possession (Estius out of Jerome); for an acquisition (Piscator, Illyricus, Hammond), or, possession (Hammond), that is, which falls to God for an acquisition or possession (Piscator):  acquired (Tigurinus, Castalio, Vatablus, Zegers, Menochius), by the blood of Christ (Estius, Menochius); or, whom God claims for Himself as His own (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator).  Whom He redeems from the power of the Devil, and made His chosen property out of all sorts of men (Estius).  Or, for salvation, as in Hebrews 10:39 (Grotius, Hammond); that is to say, whom God shall save both from the ruin threatening Apostates, and forever (Hammond).

A peculiar people:  Exodus 19:5, it is a peculiar treasure;[19] so the same word is rendered, a special people, Deuteronomy 7:6, and, a peculiar people, Deuteronomy 14:2; the word used by the Septuagint implying as much;[20] but Malachi 3:17, where we render it jewels,[21] the Septuagint translators use the same word which Peter doth here,[22] which is as much as, a people of acquisition, or which God hath acquired to himself for his peculiar possession or treasure.  God had rescued the Israelites from their Egyptian bondage, and taken them to be his peculiar people above all others, and claimed a right to them, and counted them precious, as having redeemed them with a strong hand, and got possession of them at the expense of so much power, and so many miracles.  This deliverance of theirs was the type of Christ’s delivering the church from the tyranny of Satan, the spiritual Pharaoh, and the world, the spiritual Egypt, and a state of sin, the worst bondage; upon the account whereof God’s people are called a peculiar people, or a people thus acquired, Titus 2:14, and a purchased possession, Ephesians 1:14, where the same word is likewise used.

[That, etc., ὅπως τὰς ἀρετὰς, etc.]  That the virtues (namely, opposite to vices [Estius, Gerhard], wisdom, righteousness, goodness, etc. [Estius, thus Menochius, Gerhard, Piscator]:  For he does not say δυνάμεις/powers, but ἀρετὰς/praises/virtues/excellencies, which is a rare word in the Scriptures [Estius]:  But virtue is not proper to God, says Aristotle, and Eustratius[23] on Nicomachean Ethics 9, therefore ἀρετὴ/virtue here is the same as δύναμις/ power:  Thus the virtue of the Gods, in the place of the power, occurs here and there, as in Plautus,[24] etc. [Casaubon[25]]:  Others:  that the excellent things done [Menochius]; that the benefits [Æthiopic]; that the praises [Tremellius out of the Syriac, thus Camerarius], that is, the laudable things done [Camerarius]:  The language of ἀρετῆς sometimes signifies honest habits, as in Philippians 4:8:[26]  But, when it is used of God, as here, it corresponds to the word הוֹד /splendor, as in Habakkuk 3:3;[27] Zechariah 6:13,[28] or to the word תְּהִלָּה/praise, as in Isaiah 42:8,[29] 12;[30] 43:21;[31] 63:7:[32]  In which places it is, as here, in the plural ἀρετὰς, in the signification of potency [Grotius]) we might declare of Him, who has called you (with an efficacious calling, and according to His purpose, Romans 8:28 [Estius]:  God it is who has called us, Romans 9:12, 24; 1 Corinthians 7:15; Galatians 1:6, 15; 5:8; etc. [Grotius]) out of darkness (of ignorance [Gerhard, Gomar, Piscator], errors [Gerhard], vices [Gomar, Gerhard], Ephesians 5:11; of misery and death temporal, and eternal [Gerhard]:  The time before the Gospel is called σκότος/darkness, Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79; John 3:19; Acts 26:18; Romans 13:12; Ephesians 5:8; etc. [Grotius]) into His marvelous light (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, of the knowledge of God and of holiness:  compare Acts 26:18 (Piscator, Gomar):  or, of the Christian faith and Gospel (Menochius, similarly Estius out of Cajetan), which is called a light as true, John 1:9; 1 John 2:8, so also marvelous, here[33] and in Revelation 15:1,[34] to denote its excellence (Grotius):  or, because it is the knowledge of those things which we are able to attain neither with senses, nor with the mind, 1 Corinthians 2:8 (Estius).  But the contrast shows that by the name of light here is understood the grace and blessing of God, the consolation of the Holy Spirit, the hope of eternal life, and thus all the benefits of Christ.  This light he calls marvelous, both, because it marvelously illumines the mind to consider the marvels of the Law, Psalm 119:18, and, because it is worthy of admiration and praise, that God has called us unto that, etc. (Gerhard).  The Gospel itself and the life agreeing with it [are called] φῶς/light, as it is seen in the same passages [previously produced out of Grotius], and in Romans 13:12; Colossians 1:12.  This is the mystical sense of the passage in Isaiah 42:6, 7; Job 37:21 (Grotius).

That ye should show forth, etc.:  this notes the end of all these privileges vouchsafed them, viz. that they should glorify God in the enjoyment of them.  He seems to refer to Isaiah 43:7, 21:  This people have I formed for myself, (or acquired, as the Septuagint translators hath it,) they shall show forth my praise.  Show forth; publish and declare, both in words and deeds, that others may be excited to glorify God in the like manner.  The praises of him; or virtues, that wisdom, power, goodness, righteousness, truth etc., which God hath manifested in his vouchsafements to you, and in the acknowledgment of which he may be glorified.  Who hath called you; by an effectual calling, according to his purpose, Romans 8:28.  Out of darkness; the darkness of ignorance, unbelief, sin, and misery.  The time before the publication of the gospel, was a time of darkness, Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79.  Into his marvellous light; the light of knowledge, faith, holiness, comfort:  see Ephesians 5:8.  It is called marvellous, because men see what they never saw before, wonderful things out of God’s law, Psalm 119:18; and because it is a marvellous thing, that they who sat in so gross darkness should be translated into so glorious a light.

[1] Greek:  λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν.

[2] Greek:  τὰς ἀρετὰς.

[3] Isaiah 43:20b:  “…because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen (עַמִּי בְחִירִי; τὸ γένος μου τὸ ἐκλεκτόν, in the Septuagint).”

[4] Exodus 19:6:  “And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests (ממְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים; βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα, in the Septuagint), and an holy nation.”

[5] Seneca’s Thyestes 2.

[6] De Re Publica 1:34.

[7] See Romans 8:17.

[8] See Genesis 14:18.

[9] Greek:  ἔθνος ἅγιον.

[10] Deuteronomy 7:6:  “For thou art an holy people (עַם קָדוֹשׁ; λαὸς ἅγιος, in the Septuagint) unto the Lord thy God:  the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth.”

[11] Deuteronomy 14:2:  “For thou art an holy people (עַם קָדוֹשׁ; λαὸς ἅγιος, in the Septuagint) unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth.”

[12] Περιποίησις is related to the verbal root περιποιέω, to preserve or acquire for oneself.

[13] Exodus 19:5:  “Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure (סְגֻלָּה; λαὸς περιούσιος, a people peculiar, or of possession, in the Septuagint) unto me above all people:  for all the earth is mine…”

[14] Theodotion was a linguist and convert to Judaism, who translated the Hebrew Scripture into Greek in the middle of the second century AD.  His translation appears to be an attempt to bring the Septuagint into conformity with the Hebrew text.

[15] Symmachus (second century) produced a Greek translation of the Old Testament, which survives only in fragments.  Symmachus’ work is characterized by an apparent concern to render faithfully the Hebrew original, to provide a rendering consistent with the rabbinic exegesis of his time, and to set forth the translation in simple, pure, and elegant Septuagint-style Greek.

[16] Malachi 3:17:  “And they shall be mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in that day when I make up my jewels (סְגֻלָּה; εἰς περιποίησιν, in the Septuagint); and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth him.”

[17] Hebrews 10:39:  “But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving (εἰς περιποίησιν) of the soul.”

[18] Ephesians 1:14:  “Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession (εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως), unto the praise of his glory.”

[19] Hebrew:  סְגֻלָּה.

[20] Greek:  λαὸν περιούσιον.

[21] Hebrew:  סְגֻלָּה.

[22] Greek:  περιποίησιν.

[23] Eustratius of Nicea (c. 1050-1120) was Bishop of Nicea.  He wrote commentaries on portions of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and Nicomachean Ethics.

[24] Aulularia 166.  Titus Maccius Plautus (254-184 BC) was a Roman playwright.  Only twenty-one of his nearly one hundred and thirty comedies survive.

[25] Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614) began his career as Professor of Greek at Geneva and finished his career as a prebendary of Westminster and Canterbury.  He was a learned critic, and he produced annotated editions of Greek and Latin authors, as well as Notæ in Novum Testamentum.  He was among those that sought a reunion between the Protestant and Roman churches.

[26] Philippians 4:8:  “Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue (ἀρετὴ), and if there be any praise, think on these things.”

[27] Habakkuk 3:3b:  “His glory (הוֹדוֹ; ἡ ἀρετὴ αὐτου, in the Septuagint) covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.”

[28] Zechariah 6:13a:  “Even he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory (הוֹד; ἀρετὴν, in the Septuagint), and shall sit and rule upon his throne…”

[29] Isaiah 42:8:  “I am the Lord:  that is my name:  and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise (וּתְהִלָּתִי; οὐδὲ τὰς ἀρετάς μου, in the Septuagint) to graven images.”

[30] Isaiah 42:12:  “Let them give glory unto the Lord, and his praise (וּתְהִלָּתוֹ; τὰς ἀρετὰς αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint) declare in the islands.”

[31] Isaiah 43:21:  “This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise (תְּהִלָּתִי; τὰς ἀρετάς μου, in the Septuagint).”

[32] Isaiah 63:7a:  “I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord, and the praises (תְּהִלֹּת; τὰς ἀρετὰς, in the Septuagint) of the Lord…”

[33] 1 Peter 2:9b:  “…that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous (θαυμαστὸν) light…”

[34] Revelation 15:1a:  “And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous (θαυμαστόν), seven angels having the seven last plagues…”

1 Peter 2:8: Privileges of Believers, Part 3

Verse 8:  (Is. 8:14; Luke 2:34; Rom. 9:33) And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, (1 Cor. 1:23) even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient:  (Ex. 9:16; Rom. 9:22; 1 Thess. 5:9; Jude 4) whereunto also they were appointed.

[And a stone of offense, etc.]  Or, against which one is dashed, etc. (Beza, Piscator).  Against which they shall violently strike, to be dashed and crushed by the same, as it is said in Matthew 21:44 (Estius).  This is what is said in Luke 2:34 (Menochius).

[To them which, etc., οἳ προσκόπτουσι, etc.]  Who stumble at the word, etc. (Montanus).  Namely, to them which against, or into, the Verbum/Word, or Sermonem/Word (Drusius, Piscator, thus Erasmus, Vatablus, Zegers, etc.) (that is, either, 1.  Christ, who is the Word, John 1:1 [Drusius]; or, 2.  the Gospel [Erasmus, thus Vatablus, Zegers, Cameron, Estius]:  Namely, to them which stumble by not being obedient to the Word [Beza]), disobedient (Piscator, Beza, etc.), or, rebels (James Cappel).  Others:  The passage is to be read thus, οἳ προσκόπτουσι, who dash (Cameron, thus Beze out of the Syriac), understanding, against Him, namely, the stone, out of Luke 4:11, Romans 9:32 (Beza out of the Syriac), τῷ λόγῳ ἀπειθοῦντες, being disobedient to the word (Cameron, Beza out of the Syriac, Camerarius, James Cappel).  The Present here is in the place of the Future, being unwilling to believe the word, they shall stumble most grievously, that is, they shall bear the most grievous punishments, in the destruction of the City and Temple, and in the captivities, exiles, and finally in the contempt before all.  See James 5:1 (Grotius).

And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence; i.e. a stone at which they stumble, a rock at which they are offended; and so it implies Christ not to be the cause of their stumbling, but the object of it; they of their own accord, and through the pravity of their nature, without any just occasion given by him, being offended, either because they find not that in him which they expected, viz. outward encouragements; or find that in him which they do not like, the holiness of his law, and purity of his doctrine, contrary to their corruptions and lusts, and especially his requiring of them faith in him for the justification of their persons, which was so contrary to the pride of their hearts, and which was one great reason of the Jews stumbling at him, as seeking to establish their own righteousness, and therefore not submitting to the righteousness of God, Romans 9:32, 33, compared with Romans 10:3.  This stumbling includes not only their falling into sin, but into destruction too, the punishment of sin, Isaiah 8:14, 15; whereof Christ can be no more than the inculpable occasion, but their own unbelief the proper cause.  Which stumble at the word, being disobedient; these words may have a double reading:  one according to our translation; and then the sense is, that stumble at the word of the gospel, i.e. are disobedient to it, in rejecting Christ therein offered to them:  or, that stumble, being disobedient to the word; i.e. stumble at Christ preached to them in the word, and therefore will not obey it; they show that they are offended at Christ, by their not receiving his doctrine, nor accepting his offers.

[In which, etc., εἰς ὃ καὶ ἐτέθησαν]  Ad/unto, or in/unto, which et/also, or etiam/also, placed (or, put [Pagnine], created [Arabic], appointed [Beza], directed [Illyricus], determined, or ordained [Castalio, Grotius, Beza, Piscator, Menochius, Estius]:  Thus τιθεῖναι, שׂוּם, to put or place, is often used, as in John 15:16;[1] Acts 13:47;[2] 1 Thessalonians 5:9[3] [Grotius, thus Beza, Vorstius, Piscator, Hammond]) they were (Montanus, Piscator, Tremellius out of the Syriac).  Namely, by the Divine decree (Grotius, Piscator, Gomar), which is in Daniel[4] and Malachi[5] (Grotius).  That εἰς ὃ, unto which, is referred, either, 1.  to something more remote, that is, verse 6, where the stone here is said to be placed with this purpose, that he who believes might not be confounded.[6]  Therefore, he subjoins that the unbelieving also have been placed/appointed unto this, that they also might be built up upon this stone by faith, etc.; but that they had stumbled over it by their own fault.  For this connection is demonstrated by τίθημι in verse 6 and ἐτέθησαν in this verse (Gerhard).  Who stumble…neither do they believe the truth, although they were placed and appointed unto this (Zegers).  Or, 2.  to the contrary of that had preceded, so that the sense might be, The Unbelieving stumble at the Word (certain interpreters in Vorstius), unto which, that is, to be heard (certain interpreters in Estius), and to be believed (Tirinus), they were appointed, that is, created, ordained, commanded by God (Tirinus out of Bede and Lyra), instructed and prepared by the Legal types (certain interpreters in Vorstius).  For unto this Judaism had been prepared, that faith might be placed upon Christ, whom the Mosaic Law foresignified (Erasmus).  But this exposition is hard and violent (Vorstius).  And the Neuter ὃ/which is not able to be referred to the masculine λόγος/word, and for the same reason neither to λίθος/stone, as one has maintained (Estius).  Or, 3.  to the words immediately preceding (certain interpreters in Gerhard), unto which, namely, unto which condition (certain interpreters in Estius, Gerhard); that is, 1.  not to believe (Estius, Menochius, similarly Beza, Piscator, Gomar), they were appointed, either, by themselves and their own will and malice (Menochius):  or, by God (Estius, Menochius, Beza), from a comparison with Proverbs 16:4; Luke 2:34; Romans 9:22, 23 (Beza), who, for His own glory (Estius), and before they had sinned (Estius, similarly Menochius), permits them to fall into the sin of infidelity (Estius out of Œcumenius, Didymus, etc.); and by His just and free judgment He decreed to leave them in unbelief (Gomar), as they deserved (Menochius), and on account of that unbelief justly to punish them (Gomar).  This sense is supported by, 1.  a comparison with Romans 1:24; 9:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2.  the present arrangement.  For he speaks of the Jews reprobated by God (Estius).  Others:  That, they stumble, does not denote the sin, which is indicated by the word ἀπειθοῦντες/ disobedient (Hammond), but the punishment and ruin, which the bring upon themselves by their unbelief (Vorstius, thus Hammond).  Unto this the unbelieving were determined by God, that they might most grievously stumble, that is, bear the harshest punishments of their unbelief (Grotius, similarly Hammond, Vorstius).  Others:  On which, namely, foundation, or cornerstone, that is, Christ, they had been placed, that is, placed together (Menochius out of Vatablus and Cajetan).  For the Judaic religion and Synagogue was founded on Christ (Menochius out of Cajetan).  But in the Greek it is εἰς ὃ, unto which [not ἐν ᾧ, on whom (Estius)].  But the [Latin] Interpreter frequently does not make a distinction between εἰς/unto and ἐν/in (Zegers).

Whereunto also they were appointed; either this may refer, 1.  To verse 6, where Christ is said to be laid (the same word in the Greek with that which is here translated by appointed) in Sion, as a chief cornerstone, elect and precious, on whom whosoever believeth, shall not be confounded.  The apostle then adds, that even these unbelievers were appointed (viz. in their external vocation, as being taken into covenant with God) to be built on Christ by faith but they stumbled, by their unbelief, at the word of the gospel, and consequently at this stumbling-stone.  And then it is a high aggravating the unbelief of the Jews, that they, being God’s peculiar people, should reject that salvation which was sent to them, and to the first offer of which they were designed, Acts 13:26, 46, 47.  Or, 2.  To the words immediately going before, which stumble at the word, being disobedient; and then the sense is, (speaking concerning the reprobate Jews,) that God appointed them to this stumbling, in his decreeing not to give them faith in Christ, but to leave them to their unbelief, and to punish them justly for it:  see Romans 9:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; Jude 4.  The scope of the apostle in this whole verse seems to be, to keep weak Christians from being offended at the multitude of unbelievers, and especially at their seeing Christ rejected by the Jewish rulers and doctors; and this he doth by pointing them to the Scripture, where all this was long since foretold, and therefore not to be wondered at now, nor be any occasion of offence to them:  see the like, John 16:1, 4.

[1] John 15:16a:  “Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained (ἔθηκα) you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit…”

[2] Acts 13:47:  “For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, I have set (Τέθεικά) thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.”

[3] 1 Thessalonians 5:9:  “For God hath not appointed (ἔθετο) us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ…”

[4] See Daniel 12.

[5] See Malachi 3; 4.

[6] 1 Peter 2:6b:  “Behold, I lay (τίθημι) in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious:  and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.”