Verse 1: The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also (Philem. 9) an elder, and (Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 5:32; 10:39) a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also (Rom. 8:17, 18; Rev. 1:9) a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed…
[The elders] Either, 1. with respect to age (Menochius out of Lapide, Gomar), as the Antithesis of the younger in verse 5 suggests (Gomar), as the word is taken in Luke 15:25; John 8:9; Acts 2:17; 1 Timothy 5:1, etc. (Gerhard): or, 2. with respect to office and dignity (Gerhard, Estius, Menochius out of Lapide), as the language of feeding conveys; whom he thus calls, because in age, or in mature prudence, they ought to excel the others (Gerhard).
[Πρεσβυτέρους] He understands, either, 1. Bishops alone (Estius, thus Hammond); or, 2. all ministers of the word (Gerhard), pastors and governors of manners (Piscator, similarly Beza, Gomar). He understands also the Elders of the assembly κοπιῶντας ἐν λόγῳ, laboring in the word, and the others joined with them for government (Grotius); or, all Priests, whether they be minor and common, or major, that is, Bishops (Menochius out of Lapide).
[A fellow-elder, ὁ συμπρεσβύτερος] A fellow-presbyter (Valla, Vatablus, Zegers, Estius, Menochius). A presbyter together (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, a co-bishop (Estius): set in the same office with you (Gerhard).
The elders which are among you I exhort; viz. those that were such, not so much by age as by office, as appears by his exhorting them to feed the flock, verse 2; he means the ordinary ministers of the churches among the believing Jews. Who am also an elder: elder is a general name, comprehending under it even apostles themselves, who were elders, though every elder were not an apostle.
[A witness of Christ’s sufferings] Both, 1. in word (Menochius, Estius), by which he preached Christ’s cross and death (Estius), of which Peter was an eyewitness (Tirinus). Peter saw Him bound: Then, what the History does not relate, but is plausible, hearing that He was crucified, he desired to be a witness of this also, but at a distance and in the crowd. The Apostles are eminently characterized by the name of witnesses, Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32 (Grotius). And, 2. in the work itself (Gerhard, Estius, Menochius), by which he was testifying that Christ is patient (Estius), with many afflictions born for Him (Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard), by which he was representing the sufferings of Christ in his own person also (Gerhard). Compare Matthew 10:17, 18. This sense is supported by the Antithesis of the glory of Christ (Gerhard, Estius). Peter animates them by his own example, lest they should cease from duty out of fear of persecutions (Estius).
[And, etc., ὁ καὶ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κοινωνός] And also of the glory to be brought to light (or, which shall be revealed [Erasmus, thus the Vulgate, Vatablus]: Thus Romans 8:18: Now we have a right, but the matter itself lies hidden [Grotius]; that is, of everlasting glory [Menochius, similarly Estius], which shall be revealed in the coming of the Lord [Estius]) a sharer, or, a partaker (Beza, Piscator, Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), understanding, going to be. Thus κοινωνοὶ τῆς παρακλήσεως, partakers of the consolation, 2 Corinthians 1:7 (Grotius); or, understanding, I have been, namely, in the transfiguration of the Lord (certain interpreters in Estius, Menochius, Hammond): concerning which it is spoken in 2 Peter 1:16, 17 (Gerhard).
And a witness; either, 1. In his doctrine, in which he held forth Christ’s sufferings, whereof he had been an eyewitness, in which respect the apostles are often called witnesses, Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; 2:32. Or, 2. In his example, in that he in suffering so much for Christ, did give an ample testimony to the reality of Christ’s sufferings, and that Christ had indeed suffered: or, both may well be comprehended. The glory that shall be revealed; viz. at Christ’s last coming, 1 Peter 1:5; 4:13; Romans 8:17, 18.
Verse 2: (John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28) Feed the flock of God which is among you (or, as much as in you is), taking the oversight thereof, (1 Cor. 9:17) not by constraint, but willingly; (1 Tim. 3:3, 8; Tit. 1:7) not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind…
[Feed ye] That is, rule ye (Grotius, Camerarius, Menochius), as appears out of Matthew 2:6; John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28. Thus the Hebrew רָעָה, to shepherd or feed, is applied to Kings, as in 2 Samuel 5:2; 7:7; Psalm 78:72; but what things here follow sufficiently show that Royal government is not here understood, but that which is exercised by persuasion, not by force (Grotius). This word comprehends all the care and government of a pastor/ shepherd (Estius). Christ had commanded this to Peter also, John 21:15 (Grotius, Gerhard). He takes the language of feeding out of the Old Testament, Jeremiah 3:15; 23:1, etc.; Ezekiel 34:2, 23; Micah 5:4 (Gerhard).
[Which, etc., τὸ ἐν ὑμῖν ποίμνιον] As much as in you is (Erasmus, Tigurinus, Calvin). This does not satisfy (Estius, Gerhard): for then he would have said τὸ καθ᾿ ὑμᾶς, or, as in Romans 12:18, τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as much as lieth in you (Gerhard). Which is in your hands (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator, Gerhard), that is, which is committed to your trust: or, which depends upon you, as in Sophocles, ἐν σοί ἔσμεν, we are in thee, in the place of, we depend upon thee (Beza): or, which is with you (Gerhard), that is, with whom ye are one body, one church (Gerhard, Estius). Which is in your place (Grotius). Which in you (or, in your presence [Estius, Gerhard]) is (Vulgate). Thus in the preceding verse, which are among you. And in Acts 20:28. And, as the flock is said to be in the pastor, so contrariwise the pastor in the flock, Acts 20:28, …in which He hath set, etc. By which it is signified that there ought to be the closest conjunction of pastor and flock (Estius).
Feed; teach and rule, Matthew 2:6; John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28. The flock of God; the church. Which is among you; which is with you, or committed to your charge; intimating that the flock not being their own, they were to give an account of it to him that had set them over it.
[Providing for, ἐπισκοποῦντες] Applying oneself (Erasmus, Gerhard, Estius). Superintending (Estius out of Jerome, Menochius, Augustine in Valla). Looking out for (Zegers). Taking care (Vatablus, Piscator). Being free for the inspection (Beza), understanding, of that (Vatablus, Beza, Piscator). Bishoping (Valla). Acting as a Bishop (Erasmus). פְּקִידִים/overseers. Thus Presbyters are also called ἐπίσκοποι/overseers/bishops, Acts 20:28, which name by excellence adheres to the Chief man of the assembly (Grotius). There is an allusion to the name of Bishop; that is to say, Answer to your name; do that which ye are called (Estius, Gerhard).
Taking the oversight thereof; or, being bishops, or acting as bishops over it, i.e. superintending, inspecting, and watching over it with all care, Acts 20:28-29.
[Not, etc., μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς, ἀλλ᾽ ἑκουσίως] Not by compulsion (or, by force [Syriac], as unwilling [Castalio]: The same as ἄκων/unwilling in 1 Corinthians 9:17; that is to say, be ye not grieved as if by an imposed burden: Thus Thucydides, ἀναγκαστοὶ ἐκβάντες, when unwilling they went forth [Grotius]: Not as of duty [Erasmus on verse 3], or of necessity [Grotius, Gerhard], slowly and lifelessly, perfunctorily or negligently, inasmuch as the consequent is here understood from the antecedent [Gerhard]: not out of sadness, as in 2 Corinthians 9:7, as if unwilling, as they are wont to be, who frequently and easily complain of the annoyances of their pastoral responsibility: which is illiberal of soul [Estius]), but freely (Pagnine, Beza, Piscator), or, willingly (Castalio, Syriac, thus the Arabic, Montanus). As willing (Erasmus, Tigurinus). Out of affection (Erasmus). Do ye what belongs to your office with a cheerful, or eager, spirit, בִּנְדָבָה, with voluntariness, Psalm 54:6 (Grotius). The same as ἑκὼν, one willing, in 1 Corinthians 9:17. Thus ἑκουσίως/willingly in Exodus 36:2; Hebrews 10:26, and κατὰ ἑκούσιον, of free will, in Philemon 14 (Gerhard).
Not by constraint; not merely because ye must: what men do out of compulsion, they do more slightly and perfunctorily, as those that would not do it if they could help it: see the like expression, 2 Corinthians 9:7. But willingly; cheerfully and freely, as Exodus 36:2; Psalm 54:6: compare 1 Corinthians 9:17.
[Neither, etc., μηδὲ αἰσχροκερδῶς] Not in an unseemly manner (that is, not with a wanton and avaricious soul [Estius]) desiring, or pursuing, gain (Beza, Piscator, Estius). Of which sort is that pastor in Zechariah 11:16. Not so that ye might turn this function into an occasion for gain. You have the same in 1 Timothy 3:3, 8; Titus 1:7. Add 1 Timothy 6:8, 9 (Grotius).
Not for filthy lucre; not out of covetousness, or a design of making a gain of the work; it being a shameful thing for a shepherd to feed the sheep out of love to the fleece: see Titus 1:7; 1 Timothy 3:3, 8.
[But, etc., ἀλλὰ προθύμως] But with a right spirit, that is, optimally affected toward the people (Grotius): or, ready, or eager (Menochius, Tirinus, Beza, Piscator, Erasmus, Vatablus), not unto his own advantage, but that of the sheep (Tirinus).
But of a ready mind; out of a good affection to the welfare of the flock, in opposition to the private gain before mentioned. He doth not do his work freely, and of a ready mind, who is either driven to it by necessity, or drawn by covetousness.
Verse 3: Neither as (Ezek. 34:4; Matt. 20:25, 26; 1 Cor. 3:9; 2 Cor. 1:24) being lords over (or, over-ruling) (Ps. 33:12; 74:2) God’s heritage, but (Phil. 3:17; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12; Tit. 2:7) being ensamples to the flock.
[Neither, etc., μηδ᾽ ὡς κατακυριεύοντες τῶν κλήρων] Neither as over-ruling, or exercising dominion (that is, ruling imperiously [Menochius, thus Tirinus], arrogantly [Tirinus], with ostentation of power and with terror [Estius]; unto thine own, not the flock’s, advantage [Hammond]; after the manner of kings ruling according to one’s own pleasure, as we said on Matthew 20:25, and Concerning the Law of War and Peace 2:22:14 [Grotius]) with respect to the clergy (Pagnine, Montanus, Beza, Piscator), or, upon, or over against, the clergy (Erasmus, Vatablus, Estius). He calls here the clergy, either, 1. the Order of Clerics, over whom Bishops are in charge (Menochius), Presbyters, Deacons, etc. (Estius); or, 2. the flock, as it is next explained (Estius, thus Gerhard), the Church (Menochius), individual assemblies of the faithful (Piscator); particular congregations or parishes (Tirinus), or portions of the flock, which fell to individual bishops for feeding (Gerhard, Estius out of Cyprian): flocks which fell to them by lot for government (Vatablus). The reason for this appellation is twofold (Gerhard); 1. because of old the people of Israel were called κλῆρος, either the patrimony, or inheritance, of God, Deuteronomy 4:20; 9:29. Now the Christian people (Grotius, thus Gerhard), who fall to God, as it were, by lot (Vatablus); or, who are no less dear to God than an inheritance which falls to someone by lot (Piscator); the individual parts of which, as it is wont to be done ἐν ὁμογενέσι, in those of the same race, partake of the same name (Grotius). 2. Because those portions of the flock fell to the Bishops, as it were, by lot, like portions of land which fell to individuals for a possession (Estius, Gerhard); which are called lots in Judges 1:3; 20:9 (Gerhard). Not a Kingdom, but a cure, was committed to Presbyters (Beza).
Neither as being lords; not exercising any such lordship or dominion over the people, as temporal lords and magistrates exercise over their subjects, Matthew 20:25, 26, etc.; Luke 22:25: compare 2 Corinthians 1:24. Over God’s heritage; the Lord’s clergy, the same as flock before; the Greek word is plural, and so it signifies the several churches or flocks which were under the charge of the several elders or pastors. The church of Israel is often called God’s inheritance, which as it were fell to him by lot, (as the Greek word signifies,) and which was as dear to him as men’s inheritances are to them: see Deuteronomy 4:20; 9:29; 32:9; Psalm 33:12; 74:2; 78:71. Accordingly now the Christian church, succeeding it, is called God’s inheritance, and the word κλῆρος/clerus is no where in the New Testament peculiarly ascribed to ministers of the gospel. This title given here to the Lord’s people, implies a reason why the elders should not lord it over them, viz. because they are still the Lord’s inheritance, and not their own; God having not given them a kingdom but a care, and still retaining his right to his people.
[But, etc., ἀλλὰ τύποι γινόμενοι τοῦ ποιμνίου] But examples, or exemplars (as the word τύποι is taken in Exodus 25:40; Philippians 3:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:12; Titus 2:7 [Grotius]; or patterns [Erasmus, Valla, Vatablus]) made (or, in such a way that ye be [Erasmus, thus Beza, Piscator]) of the flock (Montanus, Erasmus, etc.). In Christian life and holiness (Estius, Menochius). Teach ye those things which ye yourselves also do, otherwise than the Scribes and Pharisees, Matthew 23:4. Latinus Pacatus, It is most persuasively commanded by example. Cicero concerning the Senate, this order with vice vacated; let it be a model for others (Grotius).
But being ensamples to the flock; in holiness of life, practising before their eyes what you preach to their ears, Philippians 3:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Titus 2:7.
Verse 4: And when (Heb. 13:20) the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive (1 Cor. 9:25; 2 Tim. 4:8; Jam. 1:12) a crown of glory (1 Pet. 1:4) that fadeth not away.
[When He appears] On the day of judgment (Menochius, thus Piscator), as in Colossians 3:4 (Grotius).
[The Prince of pastors] That is, Christ (Estius, Menochius, Piscator), who is the good shepherd, John 10:11 (Menochius), the great shepherd, Hebrews 13:20. We have the word ἀρχιποίμην in 2 Kings 3:4 (Grotius).
And when the chief Shepherd; the Lord Jesus Christ, the only Prince of pastors, called the great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20, as here the chief Shepherd, not only for his supereminent dignity over all other pastors, but because of the power he hath over them, they being all subject to his authority, receiving their charge from him, and exercising their office in his name, and being accountable to him for their administrations. Shall appear: see 1 Peter 1:7, 13; 4:13.
[Ye shall receive, etc., κομιεῖσθε τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον] Κομίζεσθαι, to carry off, is used elegantly of a Prize, as in 1 Peter 1:9; Hebrews 10:36; 11:39; στέφανον δόξης, a crown of glory, Proverbs 16:31; Jeremiah 13:18; Ezekiel 16:12. Thus were called those crowns which were received during festival times, or in the highest delight. Now, Peter elegantly adds ἀμαράντινον/unfading; for, among the crowns that were given to the deserving among the Greeks and other nations were στέφανοι ἀμαράντινοι, unfading crowns, with Philostratus as a witness; Pliny in his Natural History 20 concerning Amaranth, its hightest nature is in its name, so called because it does not fade. Hence this Allegory is derived, at the same time having regard to Psalm 1:3. See also 1 Peter 1:4. You have the contrary in Isaiah 40:7; James 1:10, 11; 1 Peter 1:24 (Grotius).
Ye shall receive; or, carry away, viz. from Christ, who, as the Judge, shall award it to you. A crown of glory; either, a glorious crown; or, that glory which shall be as a crown to you. It is called a crown of righteousness, 2 Timothy 4:8; a crown of life, James 1:12. That fadeth not away; in opposition to those crowns which were given to conquerors in war, and in public games, which were made of perishable flowers or herbs: see 1 Peter 1:4; 1 Corinthians 9:25.
 See Matthew 26:56-58; Mark 14:50, 53, 54; Luke 22:54.
 2 Corinthians 1:7: “And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers (κοινωνοί) of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation (τῆς παρακλήσεως).”
 Matthew 17:1-9; Mark 9:2-10; Luke 9:28-36.
 Greek: τὸ ἐν ὑμῖν ποίμνιον.
 Greek: ποιμάνατε. Ποιμαίνω signifies to shepherd, to rule or guide.
 Matthew 2:6: “And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (ποιμανεῖ) my people Israel.”
 John 21:15-17: “So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed (βόσκε) my lambs. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed (ποίμαινε) my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed (βόσκε) my sheep.”
 Acts 20:28: “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed (ποιμαίνειν) the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.”
 2 Samuel 5:2: “Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the Lord said to thee, Thou shalt feed (תִרְעֶה; σὺ ποιμανεῖς, in the Septuagint) my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel.”
 2 Samuel 7:7: “In all the places wherein I have walked with all the children of Israel spake I a word with any of the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to feed (לִרְעוֹת; ποιμαίνειν, in the Septuagint) my people Israel, saying, Why build ye not me an house of cedar?”
 Psalm 78:72: “So he fed them (וַיִּרְעֵם; καὶ ἐποίμανεν αὐτοὺς, in the Septuagint) according to the integrity of his heart; and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands.”
 Sophocles (c. 495-406) was a Greek playwright. Of his one hundred and twenty-three plays, only seven tragedies survive.
 1 Peter 5:1a: “The elders which are among you (πρεσβυτέρους τοὺς ἐν ὑμῖν) I exhort…”
 Acts 20:28: “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which (ἐν ᾧ) the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.”
 For example, Nehemiah 11:9: “And Joel the son of Zichri was their overseer (פָּקִיד): and Judah the son of Senuah was second over the city.”
 1 Corinthians 9:17: “For if I do this thing as one willing (ἑκὼν), I have a reward: if as one unwilling (ἄκων), a dispensation of the gospel is committed unto me.”
 Thucydides (c. 460-c. 400 BC) was a Greek historian, author of the History of the Peloponnesian War.
 2 Corinthians 9:7: “Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly (μὴ ἐκ λύπης, not out of sorrow), or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.”
 Psalm 54:6: “With voluntariness (בִּנְדָבָה), I will sacrifice unto thee: I will praise thy name, O Lord; for it is good.”
 Exodus 36:2: “And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the Lord had put wisdom, even every one whose heart incited (נְשָׂאוֹ לִבּוֹ; τοὺς ἑκουσίως βουλομένους, those purposing willingly, in the Septuagint) to come unto the work to do it…”
 Hebrews 10:26: “For if we sin wilfully (ἑκουσίως) after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins…”
 Philemon 14: “But without thy mind would I do nothing; that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity (κατὰ ἀνάγκην), but willingly (κατὰ ἑκούσιον).”
 Greek: κατακυριεύοντες.
 Deuteronomy 4:20: “But the Lord hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance (נַחֲלָה; ἔγκληρον, in the Septuagint), as ye are this day.”
 Deuteronomy 9:29: “Yet they are thy people and thine inheritance (וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ; καὶ κλῆρός σου, in the Septuagint), which thou broughtest out by thy mighty power and by thy stretched out arm.”
 Judges 1:3a: “And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot (בְגוֹרָלִי; ἐν τῷ κλήρῳ μου, in the Septuagint), that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot (בְּגוֹרָלֶךָ; ἐν τῷ κλήρῳ σου, in the Septuagint).”
 Judges 20:9: “But now this shall be the thing which we will do to Gibeah; we will go up by lot (בְּגוֹרָל; ἐν κλήρῳ, in the Septuagint) against it…”
 Deuteronomy 32:9: “For the LORD’S portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance (נַחֲלָתוֹ; κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint).”
 Psalm 33:12: “Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance (לְנַחֲלָה לוֹ; εἰς κληρονομίαν ἑαυτῷ, in the Septuagint).”
 Psalm 74:2: “Remember thy congregation, which thou hast purchased of old; the rod of thine inheritance (נַחֲלָתֶךָ; κληρονομίας σου, in the Septuagint), which thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein thou hast dwelt.”
 Psalm 78:71: “From following the ewes great with young he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance (נַחֲלָתוֹ; τὴν κληρονομίαν αὐτοῦ, in the Septuagint).”
 Exodus 25:40: “And look that thou make them after their pattern (בְּתַבְנִיתָם; κατὰ τὸν τύπον, in the Septuagint), which was shewed thee in the mount.”
 Philippians 3:17: “Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk so as ye have us for an ensample (τύπον).”
 1 Thessalonians 1:7: “So that ye were ensamples (τύπους) to all that believe in Macedonia and Achaia.”
 2 Thessalonians 3:9: “Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample (τύπον) unto you to follow us.”
 1 Timothy 4:12: “Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example (τύπος) of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.”
 Titus 2:7: “In all things shewing thyself a pattern (τύπον) of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity…”
 Latinus Pacatus Drepanius (flourished as the end of the fourth century) was a Latin rhetorician and poet. His panegyric of Theodosius I survives.
 Greek: ἀρχιποίμενος.
 2 Kings 3:4: “And Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster (נֹקֵד; ἀρχιποίμην, in Symmachus), and rendered unto the king of Israel an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool.”
 1 Peter 1:9: “Receiving (κομιζόμενοι) the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.”
 Hebrews 10:36: “For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive (κομίσησθε) the promise.”
 Hebrews 11:39: “And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received (ἐκομίσαντο) not the promise…”
 Proverbs 16:31: “The hoary head is a crown of glory (עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת; στέφανος καυχήσεως, a crown of boasting, in the Septuagint), if it be found in the way of righteousness.”
 Jeremiah 13:18: “Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down: for your principalities shall come down, even the crown of your glory (עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאַרְתְּכֶם; στέφανος δόξης ὑμῶν, in the Septuagint).”
 Ezekiel 16:12: “And I put a jewel on thy forehead, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of beauty (וַעֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת; καὶ στέφανον καυχήσεως, and a crown of boasting, in the Septuagint) upon thine head.”
 Heroicus 19. Philostratus “the Athenian” (c. 170-c. 250) was a Greek sophist. Little is known about him.
 Amaranth, an herb, received its name because it was unfading.