Verse 13: (Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:1; Tit. 3:1) Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme…
[Be ye subject, etc., Ὑποτάγητε οὖν, etc.] From the general exhortation he descends to the particular precepts (Estius). So then subject (or, submissive [Valla, Erasmus]) be ye (a Passive in the place of the Hithpael: which is common in other verbs also, but especially in those which come from τάσσω, to put in place: Carry yourselves as subjects: Luke 2:51; Romans 8:7; Ephesians 5:22, 24; Colossians 3:18; etc. [Grotius]) to every human ordinance (Beza, Piscator, Grotius, etc.), or, constitution (Zegers), that is, τάξει καὶ πολιτειᾳ, to the order and polity, or to the arrangement of civil government (Beza out of his Greek Testament). Κτίζειν, בָּרָא, to create, signifies, among other things, to ordain, as we said in the Prolegomena on the New Testament. Add Ecclesiasticus 7:15; 39:25, 28, 29; 40:1, 10. Someone might perhaps think that κρίσει/judgment was written, for κρίνειν among the Hellenists is to govern, after the manner of the Hebrew שָׁפַט, to judge or govern (Grotius). Or, creature (Montanus, Erasmus, Vulgate, Gomar, Estius, Gerhard), as κτίσις is taken here and there, as in Romans 1:25; 2 Corinthians 5:17; Colossians 1:23 (Gerhard); that is, man, as in Mark 16:15 (Gomar, thus Estius), which is to be taken with a restriction and in a manner accommodated to the context (Estius), that is, the magistrate (Piscator, similarly Gerhard, Gomar, Estius, Menochius), whom he calls a creature; just as the Latins say, to create a consul (Piscator): which he calls human, not because God is not the founder of Magistrates (Vorstius, similarly Beza, Piscator), but men (Piscator, similarly Beza); but because these are taken from men (Gerhard); because they are instituted and appointed by men (Estius, similarly Gerhard, Cajetan); because men hold the magistracy (Piscator, Vorstius, similarly Beza); because it was instituted for benefit of men (Gerhard); because among men spending time in a land he has and ought to have a place (Grotius): he says πάσῃ/every, so that he might show that, not the qualities of the persons, but the office, ought to be regarded here (Gerhard); that is to say, to whatever superior, whether he be a Jew, or a Gentile, whether a Christian, or an infidel, whether good, or evil (Estius, Gerhard). Others by κτίσιν/creature understand human constitutions or laws. To whom is objected, both, what follows, or to the king; and, that κτίσις is nowhere thus taken (Estius).
Every ordinance; of all kinds, whether supreme or subordinate. Ordinance of man; Greek, human creatures, which may be understood either, as Mark 16:15, every human creature for every man, only restraining it to the present subject whereof he treats, viz. magistrates, and the sense is, to every magistrate: or rather, (though to the same effect,) to every human ordinance; or, as we translate it, ordinance of man; the word creature being taken for an ordinance, or constitution, and creating for ordaining, or appointing: so Œcumenius will have the word to signify, Ephesians 2:15, to make of twain one new man. But this creature, or ordinance, here is to be understood of the magistrate; (as appears by the following words,) which is called human, not as if magistracy were not an ordinance of God, (for, Romans 13:1, the powers that are are said to be ordained of God,) but either because it is only among men, and proper to them; or because it is of man secondarily and instrumentally, though of God primarily and originally, God making use of the ministry of men in bringing them into the magistracy; as, though church offices are God’s ordinance, yet he makes use of men to put them into office.
[Because of, etc., διὰ τὸν Κύριον] Because of the Lord (Beza, Piscator, Estius), or, Christ (Estius, Grotius), and His precept, Matthew 22:21 (Grotius), and example, Matthew 17:27 (certain interpreters in Gerhard): or rather, God; either, 1. on account of the mandate of God (Gerhard, Menochius): or, 2. because he bears the functions of God (certain interpreters in Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard), and is His image in the earth (Menochius), and has power from Hime (Estius). Or, 3. out of love for God, lest we offend God, Romans 13:5 (Menochius). Or, 4. so that ye might honor God, who commanded this (Piscator). Or, 5. that is to say, not against the Lord, so that he might trace out the limits of subjection (Gerhard).
For the Lord’s sake; for God’s sake, who commands this obedience; and gave them the authority, and is represented by them, and honoured by that obedience which is yielded to them in all things agreeable to his will. The phrase seems to be of the same import with that of being obedient in the Lord, Ephesians 6:1.
[Or to the King] That is, to Cæsar (Grotius, Beza, Piscator, Estius, Gomar, Gerhard). The Romans, it is true, abhorred this term (Beza, similarly Gerhard), and were calling them Emperors, not Kings, in the ancient ceremony of the oath, as Cyprian says (Gerhard): but the Jews were calling them Kings (Grotius, similarly Estius, Gerhard), as in John 19:15; Acts 17:7 (Gerhard), and also the Greeks (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard, Piscator), as Theodoret calls Caracalla King (Piscator out of Drusius), evidently because they were using Royal, that is, a most free, power, as Dio tells us. When this Epistle was written, I think that Claudius (Grotius), or Nero, was ruling. Therefore, obedience is to be rendered even to infidel and evil princes (Estius).
To the king; to Caesar, the then supreme magistrate, under whose jurisdiction the Jewish Christians were; and this being a general command extending to all Christians, it follows, that obedience is due from them to those chief magistrates whose subjects respectively they are.
[As if, etc., ὡς ὑπερέχοντι] As excelling (Erasmus, etc.), or, preeminent (Beza, similarly Piscator), or, placed above all (Grotius). Who has supreme power in the Commonwealth (Gerhard, Estius, similarly Gomar). This is the ἐξουσία ὑπερέχουσα, higher power, Romans 13:1 (Grotius). Or, one ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, in authority, 1 Timothy 2:2 (Estius). Others: This pertains to all magistrates (certain interpreters in Estius). He does not here compare Cæsar with other magistrates, but says that obedience is owed to him; for he excels, or is preeminent, or is the head, not by chance, but by the providence of God, Romans 13:1. Thus he cuts off beforehand the opportunity for meticulous debates, as to how one might lawfully obtain rule; and he admonishes that we ought to be content with this alone, that we see them to preside (Calvin). He speaks of legitimate power, although perhaps this took its beginning from tyranny and evil arts, as it often happens (Estius), and was done by Rom and the Cæsars (Calvin).
As supreme; not only above the people, but above other magistrates.
Verse 14: Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him (Rom. 13:4) for the punishment of evildoers, and (Rom. 13:3) for the praise of them that do well.
[Or, etc., εἴτε ἡγεμόσιν] Or to governors (Erasmus, Beza, Piscator, etc.), or, to leaders (Estius, Menochius), or, to Judges (Estius out of the Syriac), to Prefects (Menochius). Namely, of the provinces that were subject to the Romans (Estius); to the Proconsuls, both of Asia, and of Bithynia (Grotius); to the rest of the magistrates that depend upon the greater, and are, as it were, his Vicars (Menochius). For the name of ἡγεμόνων/governors is general to all those governing the provinces, as we said on Matthew 27:2 (Grotius).
Or unto governors; he seems immediately to intend the governors of provinces under the Roman emperors, such as Pilate, Felix, Festus were in Judea, Sergius Paulus in Cyprus, Acts 13:7; and other places; see Luke 3:1; but so as to imply, under the name of governors, all inferior magistrates, as under the name of king he doth all supreme.
[As ab/by him (or, per/by him [Beza, Piscator]) sent] This Pronoun is referred, either, 1. to the nearer antecedent, King (a great many interpreters in Gerhard, Gomar, Erasmus); as sent by Cæsar, that is, bearing his power: for this also is signified by πέμπειν, to send, as in John 20:21 and elsewhere. So, if the Proconsul command one thing, and the Emperor another, we ought to choose to serve the greater, says Augustine, who also says elsewhere, the power given to Pilate was of such a kind that he himself also was under the power of Cæsar. Wherefore Christians were not going to adhere to Furius Camillus Scribonianus against Claudius. Those who establish the peoples in another way, and oppose the doctrine of the Apostles, and disturb Empires. The highest power in any Empire belongs to him to whom civilians and soldiers swear allegiance, to whose laws all yield, from whose judgments there is no appeal, whose image the coin bears (Grotius). Or, 2. to the more remote antecedent, God (Gerhard, thus Erasmus, Calvin, Estius): For, 1. Governors are put in charge of provinces, not so much by the authority of Cæsar, as of the Senate. 2. On account of that which follows, for the punishment of malefactors, etc., which scope not all kings propose to themselves. But God prescribed that to all Magistrates. 3. The scope of Peter here is to set forth that which ought to move to obedience, namely, that God sent them (Gerhard, Estius). This, therefore, is a universal argument to commend the authority of all magistrates, that they govern by the mandate of God, and are sent by Him (Calvin).
As unto them that are sent by him; either, 1. By the king, or supreme magistrate, and then the next words show what should be his end in sending, or appointing officers, or subordinate rulers under him: or rather, 2. Sent by God, from whom all rulers, subordinate as well as supreme, have their authority, and which is the great motive on which they are to be obeyed; and then the following words show what is God’s end in appointing them, and another reason for yielding obedience to them, viz. their being set up for the common good of the societies which they rule.
[For the punishment of malefactors (that is, of criminals, sinning against the laws [Menochius]), but for the praise (he said praise in the place of reward, as in Romans 13:3, either, because praise itself is a certain kind of reward; or, because a reward is a sign of praise [Estius]) of the good] Or, of well-doers (Erasmus), of those doing well, or rightly (Beza, Piscator, Estius). Clearly the same thing is said here as in Romans 13:3-5, evidently from the old maxims of the Hebrews. We have this experience from those who hold public authority ἐπιτοπολύ/lawfully; for both crimes are punished through them, and quiet is presented as a reward to those loving quiet. If at any time they sin in ignorance or passion, God shall compensate the injuries thus born: Indeed He shall also punish unjust Princes, undoubtedly in the next age, not rarely also in this very one (Grotius). He shall here describe the office of magistrates (Estius). He speaks not of matters, or works, good or evil, but of persons who do good or evil, as the Greek text shows (Gerhard).
For the praise of them that do well: praise is a kind of reward, and is here to be taken by a synecdoche for all sorts of rewards given to those that do well, and are obedient to the laws: see Romans 13:3, 4.
Verse 15: For so is the will of God, that (Tit. 2:8; 1 Pet. 2:12) with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men…
[So is the will of God] Both absolute, and perceptive (Estius), in the Gospel, Matthew 10:16 (Grotius).
For so is the will of God; his command.
[That, etc., ἀγαθοποιοῦντας φιμοῦν τὴν τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων ἀγνωσίαν] That by well-doing (that is, by obeying the Magistrates [Erasmus]: Ἀγαθοποιεῖν, to do good, is sometime to confer benefits, in the place of which ἀγαθοεργεῖν is also used: But here it simply signifies to act rightly, as also in 1 Peter 2:20; 3:6, 17; 3 John 11; in which sense we just now had the Adjective ἀγαθοποιὸς, one doing well, and in Ecclesiasticus 42:14; and ἀγαθοποιΐα/well-doing in 1 Peter 4:19 [Grotius]) the mouth ye might block up, or stop (as if with a muzzle or halter: See 1 Corinthians 9:9: Or, ye might restrain [Castalio], muzzle [Pagnine], that is, ye might compel to silence [Piscator]; or, ye might cut off all opportunity of evilspeaking [Vorstius]: Φιμῶ, in the Glossa, is to restrain; φιμοῦμαι, to become speechless: Hesychius, φιμοῦν, ἐπιστομίζειν, to bridle or curb: See Matthew 22:12, 34; Mark 1:25; 4:39; Luke 4:35 [Grotius]) of foolish (or, imprudent [Vulgate], distracted [Piscator], stupid, who weigh all things less prudently and exactly [Gerhard]: or, understanding nothing, namely, concerning Divine things [Grotius]) men (that is, unfaithful [Gerhard, thus Erasmus]) of ignorance (Beza), that is, of things said arising out of ignorance (Grotius): or, it is an abstraction in the place of a concrete, that is to say, of ignorant men (Gerhard), who are ignorant of God, and to that extent they easily stumble (Estius, Gerhard); who, led by the most trifling suspicions, rail against you (Menochius), partly out of madness, partly out of ignorance (Erasmus). By suffering evils, and not resisting, we best restrain the mouth of enemies (Grotius); and we often stir them up to commend us and to glorify God (Estius).
That with well-doing; all manner of offices of humanity, whereof obedience to magistrates is a principal one. Ye may put to silence; Greek, muzzle, stop the mouths, Titus 1:11; viz. by taking away all occasion of evil-speaking. The ignorance; either their ignorance of the state and conversation of believers, which may be the occasion of their speaking evil of them; or their ignorance of God and his ways, to which Christ imputes the fury of persecutors, John 16:3. They that know not God themselves, are most ready to reproach and slander those that do. Of foolish men; true wisdom consisting in the knowledge of God, they that are destitute of that knowledge, as unbelievers are, are called foolish.
Verse 16: (Gal. 5:1, 13) As free, and not using (Gr. having) your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as (1 Cor. 7:22) the servants of God.
[As free] It was able to be objected: We [Jewish Christians] are free (Estius, Gerhard, Gomar), as the special people of God (Estius, Gerhard), by whom obedience is not to be yielded to a foreigner, according to Deuteronomy 17:15, having descended from a people free and claimed by Messiah for liberty; see John 8:33 (Gerhard), presented with liberty by Christ (Estius). He responds: ye are free, namely, from sins (Grotius, thus Menochius, Gomar, Gerhard), John 8:32, 36; Romans 6:18, 22 (Grotius), but not from the law of God (Menochius), nor from righteousnss (Gomar, thus Estius); [and therefore] not from obedience to Princes (Menochius, similarly Estius, Gomar), which pertains to righteousness (Gomar, similarly Estius), Romans 13:7. The sense: As free, that is, freely, not servilely, obeying the laws of princes (Estius).
As free; he prevents an objection; they might pretend they were a free people, as Jews, and therefore were not to obey strangers, Deuteronomy 17:15; John 8:33; and made free by Christ. He answers: That they were free indeed, but it was from sin, and not from righteousness, not from obedience to God’s law, which requires subjection to magistrates, for they were still the servants of God.
[And not, etc., καὶ μὴ ὡς ἐπικάλυμμα, etc.] And not as malice’s (and your disobedience’s [Estius, Menochius]) veil (or, cloak [Vatablus], or, for cloaking evil affairs: Thus Gellius, who follow useless leisure under the cloak of a Philosophical name, and obscurity of speech and life [Grotius]) having (or, taking [Grotius]) liberty (Beza, Piscator, etc.), namely, Christian liberty, as those were doing who were saying that Christians are free from all public laws: κυριότητα ἀθετοῦντας, despising dominion, as Jude says (Grotius).
And not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness; not using your liberty to cover or palliate your wickedness, excusing yourselves from obedience to your superiors by a pretence of Christian liberty, when, though ye be free from sin, yet ye are not from duty.
[But as the servants of God] Who freely and as free serve God (Menochius), and hence also the servants of those whom God commands us to serve (Grotius); obeying God, not only in His own person, but also as ruling in His vicars (Tirinus, similarly Menochius): that is to say, it amounts to this, because ye obey princes because of God, ye serve not men, but the God who commands this (Estius).
But as the servants of God; and so still bound to obey him, and your rulers in him.
Verse 17: (Rom. 12:10; Phil. 2:3) Honour (or, esteem) all men. (Heb. 13:1; 1 Pet. 1:22) Love the brotherhood. (Prov. 24:21; Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:7) Fear God. Honour the king.
[Honor all men] Understand this accommodately, as in verse 13 (Estius), namely, to whom any honor is owed (Grotius, similarly Estius, Gerhard), by reason of power, dignity, gifts, office, etc. (Gerhard), as in Romans 13:7 (Grotius), according to the state and condition of each (Menochius, Tirinus); even is they be Gentiles, or infidels (Estius); or Jews, or paupers and inferior to you. Compare Romans 12:10; Philippians 2:3 (Gerhard). This general saying he shall now unfold by its species (Grotius).
Honour all men; viz. according as honour is due to them, according to their dignity, power, gifts, etc.: see Romans 12:10; 13:7; Philippians 2:3.
[The brotherhood (you have the word in 1 Maccabees 12:10, 17; Zechariah 11:14: Indeed, this word here, as also in 1 Peter 5:9, signifies, not the σχέσιν/relation itself, but the company of brethren, just as ἱεράτευμα/ priesthood signifies the order of Priests [Grotius]: It is taken collectively [Estius, Gerhard], for brethren, that is, Christians [Estius, Menochius]: or, for the multitude of brethren, just as the nobility is used for the entire assembly of the Nobles [Gerhard, Piscator]: that is to say, the assembly of the faithful in which we live [Grotius]) love] With a special love and benevolence (Estius), honor ye them by loving (Grotius).
Love the brotherhood; though all may challenge suitable respects, yet there is a more special affection owing to believers, 1 Peter 1:22; Galatians 6:10.
[Fear God] That is, obey Him without exception. See Ephesians 6:5; Philippians 2:12 (Grotius). This he inserts, so that he might establish the definite limits of the subjection and honor owed to Magistrates, and teach that obedience ought to be rendered to God more than to men, Acts 5:29 (Gerhard), so that, if men, no matter how powerful, should command anything that is contrary to the will of God, we might be recalled from him by the honor of God (Estius, similarly Gerhard).
Fear God; with a filial fear or reverence. This command is interposed, either to show what is the true spring and fountain from which all the duties we perform to men are to proceed, viz. the fear of God, because where that doth not prevail no duty to men can be rightly performed; (they love the brotherhood best, and honour the king most, that truly fear God;) or to show the due bounds of all the offices we perform to men, that nothing is to be done for them which is inconsistent with the fear of God.
[To the king (that is, the Emperor [Grotius], the Cæsar, as in verse 13 [Piscator]) do honor] Or, honor ye (Piscator, Estius). With an honor special (Gerhard), and due (Estius, Menochius, Gerhard); with the highest honors that human nature attains (Grotius); by the observation of the laws, and by the payment of tributes (Estius, thus Gerhard). Question: Why does he say this after he had commanded that all men be honored? Response: Authors are accustomed, after the genus, to make mention of some certain species, as in the title of Psalm 18, from the hand of his enemies…and of Saul; 1 Kings 11:1, women…and the daughter of Pharaoh. Thus Mark 16:7, tell ye his disciples and Peter (Drusius). This he specifically express, both because of the eminence of the King, and lest the Emperor should appear to be honored less on account of his manifest malice (Estius).
Honour the king; with that honour which is peculiarly due to him above all others.
 The Hithpael conjugation in Hebrew frequently conveys a reflexive sense.
 Luke 2:51a: “And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject (ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος, in the passive voice) unto them…”
 Romans 8:7: “Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject (οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, in the passive voice) to the law of God, neither indeed can be.”
 Ephesians 5:22: “Wives, submit yourselves (ὑποτάσσεσθε, in the middle voice) unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord.”
 Ephesians 5:24: “Therefore as the church is subject (ὑποτάσσεται, in the passive voice) unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.”
 Colossians 3:18: “Wives, submit yourselves (ὑποτάσσεσθε, in the middle voice) unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.”
 Ecclesiasticus 7:15: “Hate not laborious work, neither husbandry, which the most High hath ordained (ἐκτισμένην).”
 Ecclesiasticus 39:25: “For the good are good things created (ἔκτισται) from the beginning: so evil things for sinners.”
 Ecclesiasticus 39:28: “There be spirits that are created (ἔκτισται) for vengeance, which in their fury lay on sore strokes; in the time of destruction they pour out their force, and appease the wrath of him that made them.”
 Ecclesiasticus 39:29: “Fire, and hail, and famine, and death, all these were created (ἔκτισται) for vengeance…”
 Ecclesiasticus 40:1: “Great travail is created (ἔκτισται) for every man, and an heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam, from the day that they go out of their mother’s womb, till the day that they return to the mother of all things.”
 Ecclesiasticus 40:10: “These things are created (ἐκτίσθη) for the wicked, and for their sakes came the flood.”
 Romans 1:25: “Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature (τῇ κτίσει) more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.”
 2 Corinthians 5:17: “Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature (κτίσις): old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.”
 Colossians 1:23b: “…and which was preached to every creature (τῇ κτίσει) which is under heaven; whereof I Paul am made a minister…”
 See Cicero’s Epistulæ ad Atticum 9:9:3, and Cæsar’s Commentaries on the Civil War 3:1.
 Ephesians 2:15b: “…for to make (κτίσῃ) in himself of twain one new man, so making peace…”
 Theodoret was a Greek Christian, born in Antioch, and serving as bishop of Cyrus, Syria.
 Caracalla was Roman Emperor from 198 to 217.
 Dio Cassius was a Roman historian of the third century AD. His Historiæ Romanæ is an important sourse of information concerning that period.
 Claudius reigned from 41 to 54.
 Nero reigned from 54 to 68.
 Matthew 27:2b: “…and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor (τῷ ἡγεμόνι).”
 John 20:21: “Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent (ἀπέσταλκέ) me, even so send (πέμπω) I you.”
 Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, reportedly the biological son of Marcus Furius Camillus, but the adopted son of Lucius Arruntius the Younger (consul in 6 AD), was considered for the office of Emperor after the death of Caligula. Having been passed over, he led a revolt against Claudius in 41 AD, but failed when he lost the support of his troops.
 Greek: εἰς ἐκδίκησιν μὲν κακοποιῶν, ἔπαινον δὲ ἀγαθοποιῶν.
 See 1 Timothy 6:18: “That they do good (ἀγαθοεργεῖν), that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate…”
 1 Peter 2:20b: “…but if, when ye do well (ἀγαθοποιοῦντες), and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.”
 1 Peter 3:6: “Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well (ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι), and are not afraid with any amazement.”
 1 Peter 3:17: “For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing (ἀγαθοποιοῦντας), than for evil doing.”
 3 John 11: “Beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doeth good (ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν) is of God: but he that doeth evil hath not seen God.”
 Ecclesiasticus 42:14: “Better is the churlishness of a man than a courteous (ἀγαθοποιὸς) woman, a woman, I say, which bringeth shame and reproach.”
 1 Peter 4:19: “Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing (ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ), as unto a faithful Creator.”
 1 Corinthians 9:9b: “Thou shalt not muzzle (οὐ φιμώσεις) the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn.”
 Matthew 22:12: “And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless (ὁ δὲ ἐφιμώθη).”
 Matthew 22:34: “But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence (ἐφίμωσε τοὺς Σαδδουκαίους), they were gathered together.”
 Mark 1:25: “And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace (Φιμώθητι), and come out of him.”
 Mark 4:39: “And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still (πεφίμωσο). And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.”
 Luke 4:35a: “And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace (Φιμώθητι), and come out of him.”
 Aulus Gellius (c. 125-c. 180) was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and collector of curiosities, which he set down in the twenty books of his Noctes Atticæ.
 Noctes Atticæ 10:22.
 Greek: τὴν ἀδελφότητα.
 1 Maccabees 12:10: “Have nevertheless attempted to send unto you for the renewing of brotherhood (ἀδελφότητα) and friendship, lest we should become strangers unto you altogether: for there is a long time passed since ye sent unto us.”
 1 Maccabees 12:17: “We commanded them also to go unto you, and to salute and to deliver you our letters concerning the renewing of our brotherhood (τῆς ἀδελφότητος).”
 1 Peter 5:9: “Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brotherhood (ἀδελφότητι) that is in the world.”