Verse 16: Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; (Acts 5:41) but let him glorify God on this behalf.
[But if] That is, he suffers, or is afflicted (Piscator, Estius), either privately, or, by the public power (Estius).
[As a Christian] Concerning the origin of this name you have Acts 11:26 (Grotius).
Yet if any man suffer as a Christian; if his Christianity be his only crime, and the cause of his sufferings.
[Let him not be ashamed] Let him not regard it as shame or ignominy for himself (Estius).
Let him not be ashamed: see 2 Timothy 2:12.
[In, etc., ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ] In this part (Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Piscator, etc.). As far as this matter is concerned, as in 2 Corinthians 3:10; 9:3; Colossians 2:16. In a manuscript is the Latin expression, ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ, in isto nomine, in that name. Neither does the Syriac read otherwise (Grotius). In this name (Estius out of the Vulgate). Because of this (Menochius), that he suffers on account of Christ (Erasmus, thus Estius).
But let him glorify God on this behalf; i.e. on the account of his sufferings; let him bless God for keeping him from suffering as an evildoer, and for counting him worthy to suffer for Christ’s sake, Acts 5:41, as well as for giving him patience, and courage under sufferings.
Verse 17: For the time is come (Is. 10:12; Jer. 25:29; 49:12; Ezek. 9:6; Mal. 3:5) that judgment must begin at the house of God: and (Luke 23:31) if it first begin at us, (Luke 10:12, 14) what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?
[The time, etc., ὅτι ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ Θεοῦ] The time (or, a time of this sort [Castalio], or, the time opportune, or predetermined [Beza, Gerhard, Menochius, Tirinus], understanding is [Erasmus, Piscator, etc.], or, comes [Beza]: Such a time, both the present life [Menochius, similarly Gerhard], in which the pious are compelled to suffer in accordance with the appointment of God, so that God might be able to spare them in the future life [Gerhard]; and, the time of the beginning of Christianity, with the hatred of the Jews and unbelievers burning against it at that time [Menochius]; or, the time foretold by Christ, Matthew 24:9 [Grotius, thus Estius]; Luke 21:21; John 16:2 [certain interpreters in Gerhard, Estius]: Peter here has regard unto various passages of the Old Testament, like Isaiah 10:12; Jeremiah 25:15, etc; 49:12; Ezekiel 9:6 [Gerhard]) that judgment (that is, trial [Menochius], punishment [Estius, Menochius, thus Piscator], chastening [Piscator], tribulation accompanying salvation [Menochius]: Κρίμα is properly the judgment of condemnation, or punishment; but here it is Metaphorically undeserved affliction [Vorstius]: Others: Κρίμα in this place, as in Romans 5:16, is plainly מִשְׁפָּט/judgment, the ordinance of God, that is, concerning the sending of adversities, as what precedes shows; namely, for the purging of some, and for the trial of others and the setting forth of them as an example [Grotius]) begin at the house of God (Piscator, etc.), that is, with God’s domestics, sons, and servants (Piscator); or, at the Church and its members (Gerhard, thus Estius), in accordance with the expression in 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:6 (Gerhard). That is to say, the time is imminent in which Christians will suffer most grievous evils (Grotius).
For the time is come; or season, viz. that which is fixed by God: the afflictions that befall God’s people come in the time appointed, and so are never unseasonable. Or this may imply, that what the prophets spoke in their time, Isaiah 10:12; Jeremiah 25:29, doth especially agree to gospel times, viz. that judgment begins at the house of God. Judgment; viz. temporary, and for good, in opposition to the destructive judgment he implies in the latter part of the verse; he means all those afflictions God brings upon his children for their correction, trial, instruction, mortification, 1 Corinthians 11:31, 32. Must begin at the house of God; the church of God, and the members of it, called here his house, as 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:6, and typified by the material house or temple of God under the Old Testament.
[If…first, etc.] If we be first to bear evils (Grotius).
[What (that is, how miserable [Piscator] shall the end be, etc.] That is, the conclusion (Beza, Piscator, similarly Estius). It signifies terrible judgment, and torments never to be ended (Estius). He treats of the Jews, and foretells the destruction of that nation (Grotius, thus Hammond). You have τὸ τέλος, the end, in a similar sense in Matthew 24:14. The passage in Daniel 9:27 is in view, in which is כָּלָה, complete destruction, συντέλεια/consummation (Drusius, Gerhard).
What shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God? How miserable, how dreadful will be the end of all those that would not obey the gospel! Implying, that they shall be in a much worse condition if God take them in hand. If he spare not his children, much less will he his enemies. If the one sip of the cup of God’s wrath, the other shall wring out the dregs, and drink them, Psalm 75:8.
Verse 18: (Prov. 11:31; Luke 23:31) And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?
[And if the righteous (that is, the harmless [Gerhard], pious [Beza], who desire righteousness [Beza, Gerhard]) hardly, etc., εἰ ὁ δίκαιος μόλις σῴζεται] These words are taken from the Greek of Proverbs 11:31 (Grotius). Hardly (or, scarcely [Castalio]) he be saved (Beza, Piscator, thus Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), that is, he arrives at salvation (Estius). Hardly, either, 1. because of the frailty of the flesh and the dangers of temptations (certain interpreters in Estius), on account of which there must be doubt for him concerning his salvation (certain interpreters in Vorstius); which does not satisfy (Vorstius): or, 2. because of pressures (Estius): hardly, that is, with difficulty (Vorstius), not without great labor and effort (Vorstius, thus Menochius, Gerhard), on account of the strait and rugged way, Matthew 7:14 (Vorstius), through many penances (Menochius), afflictions, troubles, persecutions (Estius, similarly Menochius, Gerhard). Μόλις here signifies not without adversities. Thus μόλις πῶς in Xenophon, with difficulty. Μόλις ἐπαίρουσι τὰ βλέφαρα, with difficulty they lift the eyes, in Galen. The Syriac here has למחסן, with force. Thus μόλις and μετὰ πόνου are posited as things equivalent in Wisdom of Solomon 9:16. And μόλις is in a similar sense in Isocrates (Grotius). Thus μόλις in Acts 14:18 and 27:7. Μόλις is the same as μόγις, with toil, from μόγος/toil, which signifies πόνον/labor, μόχθον/toil, κακοπάθειαν/strain (Gerhard).
Scarcely be saved; with much labour and difficulty, through many tribulations, Acts 14:22, as going in the narrow way, and entering in at the strait gate, Matthew 7:13, 14.
[The impious and the sinner (it extends more broadly than the preceding, not believing, etc. [Estius]: Guilty, criminal, ὑπόδικος, liable to trial: who sins securely, contumaciously, and against conscience: These words are synonymous, as in Genesis 13:13; although others thus distinguish them, ἀσεβὴς is an infidel, ἁμαρτωλὸς a bad Christian [Gerhard]: Others: ἀσεβὴς, impious toward God, ἁμαρτωλὸς, offensive toward men, as in Romans 5:8; Galatians 2:15 [Grotius]: But, because both are opposed to righteous, they are rather synonyms [Gerhard]: You have ἀσεβὴς and ἁμαρτωλὸς conjointly also in 1 Timothy 1:9 [Grotius]), where shall they appear? ποῦ φανεῖται] That is to say, nowhere, namely, in the house of God, that is, heaven (Piscator). Where shall they go? what place shall receive them (Menochius)? Or, they shall not dare to appear, or, they shall not be able to stand in the judgment, Psalm 1:5 (Gerhard). Where shall he be found? shall he not be found in the greatest evils? This opinion is very much like unto this in Rabbi Salomon on Numbers 10, when God…performs judgment upon the righteous, He is praised: for, if He does this in their case, how much more in the case of the impious? See also Jeremiah 25:29 and Luke 23:31 (Grotius).
The ungodly and the sinner; unbelievers and impenitent sinners of all sorts; both words signify the same, in opposition to the righteous before mentioned. Appear; he shall not be able to stand in God’s judgment against the sentence of condemnation then to be pronounced, Psalm 1:5: q.d. If the righteous scarcely be saved, the wicked shall certainly perish.
Verse 19: Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God (Ps. 31:5; Luke 23:46; 2 Tim. 1:12) commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.
[That suffer] Πάσχειν here is to be agitated by adversaries (Grotius, similarly Beza), as in 1 Peter 2:19, 20, 23; 3:14, 17 (Grotius).
Let them that suffer; viz. any manner of affliction or persecution for righteousness’ sake.
[According to the will of God] That is, what happens to us is brought in by the will of God, from which all our afflictions proceed (Estius): or, with God thus dispensing, as in 1 Peter 3:17. He does not treat here of a certain general permission, but of the special decree of God, by which He calls the pious to the cross by the example of Christ (Grotius): Those suffering for Christ and righteousness, and that patiently and bravely, conforming their will to the divine (Menochius): Who have deserved nothing from men, yet are punished by the secret judgment of God (Beza).
According to the will of God; according to that will of God, whereby he hath appointed them to suffer such things, 1 Peter 3:17; 1 Thessalonians 3:3.
[To a faithful, etc., ὡς πιστῷ κτίστῃ παρατιθέσθωσαν τὰς ψυχὰς ἑαυτῶν ἐν ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ] As (or, before Him as [Beza], or, to Him as [Dieu out of the Syriac and Geneva]: An Ellipsis of the Pronoun αὐτὸς/He, which sort is found in Hebrews 9:19, λαβὼν, having taken, in the place of αὐτὸς λαβὼν, he having taken, that is, that very Moses, by whom the Law had been spoken to the people, sprinkled: That supplement is also able to be omitted, if a construction be admitted, κτίστῃ ὡς πιστῷ παρατιθέσθωσαν, let them commit to the creator as faithful [Dieu]) before a faithful builder (that is, God, who is also creator [Grotius], and therefore He has a right in us [Grotius, similarly Gerhard], neither will He repudiate His own work, Wisdom of Solomon 11:24: He has regard to Ecclesiastes 12:7 [Gerhard]; thereupon He is faithful; and therefore He shall stand to the promises, and shall repay the evils tolerated with the greatest goods [Grotius]) let them deposit (or, let them commit, as a deposit into the hand of God, as in Luke 23:46 [Beza], or, let them commend [Piscator, Vulgate] unto His guardianship and custody [Estius], both, so that He might furnish strength for suffering [Menochius, thus Tirinus]; and, so that He might watch over the obtaining of the victory [Tirinus], so that, if death itself should be thrust upon them [Estius], they might meet that last and difficult struggle of life without danger to salvation [Menochius]: or, let them entrust to the decision of God [Grotius]) their souls (surviving when the body is destroyed in death, Matthew 10:28: He also alludes to Luke 23:46 [Estius, thus Gerhard]; or, souls, that is, themselves, as we said on Matthew 10:39, themselves whole and entire, how great soever they be [Grotius]) for well doing (Erasmus, Piscator, etc.), or, with a zeal for well doing, as in 1 Peter 2:15, so that, deterred by no severity of the cross, let them persevere in good works (Beza); with the tolerance of ills conjoining the study of virtues (Gerhard); amassing prayers with good deeds, that they might obtain a certain/fixed salvation (Menochius); and let them not weary in well doing. We had already several times this word ἀγαθοποιεῖν, to do well, in this sense, 1 Peter 2:14, 15, 20; 3:6, 17 (Grotius); or, in good deeds (Vulgate), in, or with, beneficence (Erasmus, Estius), with which they pursue even their persecutors, by rendering unto them good for evil, and praying for them, as Christ did: or, in good works; for God does not accept this deposit of souls from sinners, but from the just, who first commend themselves to God through good works (Estius).
Commit; commend into his hands, or lay up, or intrust with him as a depositum, Psalm 31:5; 2 Timothy 1:12. The keeping of their souls; as the most precious things while they live, and most to be cared for when they die; that they may be kept from sin under afflictions, and from perishing in death: or rather, their souls here includes their bodies, and so committing their souls is committing their whole selves to God. In well-doing; not being deterred from well-doing by the evils they suffer, but by persevering in holiness notwithstanding their afflictions, making it appear to the last, that they do not suffer as evildoers. As unto a faithful Creator; one who, as Creator, is able to keep what they commit to him; and being faithful to his promises, certainly will do it.
 Any man suffer has been supplied in the Authorized Version.
 2 Corinthians 3:10: “For even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect (ἐν τούτῳ τῷ μέρει), by reason of the glory that excelleth.”
 2 Corinthians 9:3: “Yet have I sent the brethren, lest our boasting of you should be in vain in this behalf (ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ); that, as I said, ye may be ready…”
 Colossians 2:16: “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect (ἐν μέρει) of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days…”
 Matthew 24:14: “And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end (τὸ τέλος) come.”
 Daniel 9:27: “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation (כָּלָה; συντελείας, in the Septuagint), and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.”
 The entire verse is taken almost verbatim from the Septuagint rendering of Proverbs 11:31.
 Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129-200 AD) was an innovative Greek physician.
 Wisdom of Solomon 9:16: “And hardly (μόλις) do we guess aright at things that are upon earth, and with labour (μετὰ πόνου) do we find the things that are before us: but the things that are in heaven who hath searched out?”
 Isocrates (436-338 BC) was one of the most influential rhetoricians of his day.
 Acts 14:18: “And with these sayings scarce (μόλις) restrained they the people, that they had not done sacrifice unto them.”
 Acts 27:7: “And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce (μόλις) were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against Salmone…”
 Greek: ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς.
 Genesis 13:13: “But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners (רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים; πονηροὶ καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ, in the Septuagint) before the Lord exceedingly.”
 Romans 5:8: “But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners (ἁμαρτωλῶν), Christ died for us.”
 Galatians 2:15: “We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners (ἁμαρτωλοί) of the Gentiles…”
 1 Timothy 1:9: “Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners (ἀσεβέσιν καὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς), for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers…”
 The details of the life of Rabbi Salomon Jarchi (Solomon Jarchi ben Isaac) have been obscured by the mists of time. It is relatively safe to associate him with the eleventh century. He commented on the whole of the Hebrew Bible, and the principal value of his commentary is its preservation of traditional Jewish interpretation. He also authored the first comprehensive commentary on the Talmud.
 Wisdom of Solomon 11:24: “For thou lovest all the things that are, and abhorrest nothing which thou hast made: for never wouldest thou have made any thing, if thou hadst hated it.”
 Matthew 10:39: “He that findeth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν, soul) shall lose it: and he that loseth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν, soul) for my sake shall find it.”
 Galatians 6:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:13.
 Luke 6:27; Romans 12:20, 21.
 Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14; 1 Peter 3:9.