1 Peter 3:7: Duties of Husbands

Verse 7:  (1 Cor. 7:3; Eph. 5:25; Col. 3:19) Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, (1 Cor. 12:23; 1 Thess. 4:4) as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; (see Job 42:8; Matt. 5:23, 24; 18:19) that your prayers be not hindered.

[The men, οἱ ἄνδρες]  In the place of ὦ ἄνδρες, oh husbands, by Antiptosis[1] or an Atticism.  For he addresses them, as it is evident from the end of the verse:  whence the Syriac, ye husbands (Gerhard).

[Similarly, etc., ὁμοίως, συνοικοῦντες κατὰ γνῶσιν]  Similarly (that is, reciprocally [Grotius, Estius]:  In the place of which is ὡσαύτως, in like manner, 1 Timothy 2:9:  He juxtaposes the duties of husbands and wives [Gerhard]) dwelling together (understanding, let them be, or be ye [Estius, thus Zegers, Piscator, Beza, Grotius], as at the beginning of the chapter [Estius]:  or, let them dwell together [Illyricus, Pagnine, Gomar]; let them cohabitate [Beza, Castalio]; cohabitate ye [Piscator], understanding, with your wives [Piscator, Estius], that is, converse and live ye together with them [Estius], enjoying the same roof and bed [Menochius], as joined by an indissoluble chain [Gerhard]:  συνοικεῖν, to dwell together, is used properly of Spouses; as it appears in the Greek of Genesis 20:3;[2] Deuteronomy 22:13;[3] 24:1;[4] 25:5;[5] Proverbs 30:23; Isaiah 62:5;[6] Ecclesiasticus 25:16;[7] 42:9,[8] 10:[9]  Now, he comprehends by a certain Synecdoche all the duties of spouses between them [Grotius], or the entire conjugal usage and way of life:  Demosthenes[10] says, The law does not permit a citizen τῷ ξένῳ συνοικεῖν, to cohabit, to be intimate, with a stranger; and Laertius, in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers[11] 8, τὰς συνοικούσας ἄνδρασι, who with husbands cohabitate, or are intimate [Gataker’s Pfochenius[12] 121]:  In this place it denotes, either, 1.  coming together with their wives [certain interpreters in Gerhard], as συνοικεῖν is used in Deuteronomy 24:1, and manifestly in Deuteronomy 22:13, just as also συνοικίζειν, to make to live with, in Deuteronomy 21:13:[13]  Or rather, 2.  domestical life [Gerhard]) according to acquaintance, or knowledge (Montanus, Piscator, Gomar, etc.), that is, agreeably to the knowledge (Gomar), by which ye excel them by privilege of Nature (Gerhard):  or, as it befits those knowing (Beza, Piscator, Gomar), with judgment, not yielding to their passions in all circumstances, as did Adam (Zegers); prudently and rationally (Estius, similarly Menochius), humanely (Gerhard), moderately; that is to say, Rule ye them with wisdom (Gomar):  or, according to that acquaintance of the Divine will that ye have obtained through the Gospel.  See Romans 15:14; 1 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 6:6 (Grotius):  or, according to the knowledge of the interpretation of the mysteries of Sacred Scripture, and specifically of those words in the history of the creation, Genesis 1:27, 28; 2:22; out of which this cohabitation, and other duties of spouses, are able to be deduced, to which end these words are adduced in Matthew 19:4; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 11:8; Ephesians 5:31.  Now, γνῶσις/knowledge is taken for that gift of the Spirit in 1 Corinthians 12:8 (Hammond).

Dwell with them; perform all matrimonial duties to them; by a synecdoche, all the duties of that relation are contained under this one of cohabitation.  According to knowledge; either, according to that knowledge of the Divine will, which by the gospel ye have obtained; or, prudently and wisely, and as becomes those that understand their duty.

[To the weaker vessel, etc., ὡς ἀσθενεστέρῳ σκεύει τῷ γυναικείῳ ἀπονέμοντες τιμήν]  To the womanly vessel as weaker attributing honor (Pagnine, Castalio, Beza, Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Montanus, Vulgate, etc.).  A vessel in Scripture any instrument is called (Gerhard, Calvin, thus Estius), or that of which we make use (Grotius, similarly Beza):  it is also used of Men, Acts 9:15; Romans 9:21, 22 (Grotius), and of the Bodies of men, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 (Gerhard); 2 Corinthians 4:7 (Estius).  Here it is, either, 1.  the Body of the woman (Menochius out of Aquinas,[14] similarly Estius):  or, 2.  the Woman herself (Menochius, Piscator, Gerhard, thus Beza, Gomar), who is compared to a vessel (Piscator, Gerhard), because of her use for various activities (Estius, similarly Gerhard), and among those for the act proper to spouses (Estius); because she is a help to the man, Genesis 2:18 (Gerhard, Menochius); and after the likeness of vessels for the use and ornament of her family and husband (Gomar).  Here, therefore, the adjective identifies the subject, as in 1 Peter 2:2, 13 (Piscator, Gerhard).  A Wife is ὄργανον, a tool, for her Husband, Aristotle’s Politics 8, ἀσθενέστερον/weaker than her husband, as the same says in his Economics 3 (Grotius).  Now, he says as weaker because we handle fragile vessles gently, lest they be broken (Gomar); and what things concern us most nearly, as they are weaker, we deem them worthy of greater care (Beza), 1 Corinthians 12:23 (Beza, Estius), in which place, as honor is to be bestowed upon the more ignoble members to cover their shame, so here upon one weaker, to cover her infirmity (Estius).  And, as we more easily forgive boys erring through inexperience, so let us not be rigid and bitter toward our wives, on account of infirmities (Calvin); but let us cover them with conjugal love, and pardon lesser erros (Gerhard).  Now, the woman, as she is weak in herself, so she is weaker comparatively with her husband (Gomar); both with respect to constitution of body, and mind (Menochius, thus Estius, Gerhard), judgment (Menochius, Gomar), affections (Gomar); industry also and prudence for the conducting of business (Menochius).  Quintilian’s[15] Declamations 308, A woman is a feeble creature; and she brings to her natural infirmity no small burden when she is a unmarried (Grotius).  By honor here he understands, either, 1.  a moderate use of the matrimonial act (Lorinus[16] out of Jerome, Bede and Œcumenius in Gerhard, similarly Menochius, Erasmus, Zegers), that they might make use of their wives honestly, chastely, and temperately, and not abuse them unto superfluous, still less abominable, lusts (Estius).  Which is favored by what follows, lest your prayers be hindered (Menochius, Zegers).  He wills that the conjugal debt be rendered to those; but honestly, not petulantly and impudently (certain interpreters in Menochius).  Or, 2.  subsistence (certain interpreters in Zegers and in Erasmus, thus Cameron, Hammond), as τιμὴ/ honor is taken in Matthew 15:6; 1 Timothy 5:3, 17.  Thus also Numbers 22:37; Acts 28:10.  Thus Cicero, honor is owed to the physician,[17] that is, compensation.  And Aristotle, in his Rhetoric 1:5, places among the parts of τιμῆς/honor δῶρα/gifts, etc. (Hammond).  And, just as in Hebrew בּוּז is to despise, and thus also to neglect;[18] so in turn to honor is to take care of, etc. (Cameron).  Therefore, the sense:  Let them bear the maintenance of their wives, lest anything should be wanting to them (Cameron, similarly Lyra, Beza), for they are weaker, and are dependent upon their husbands for the necessities of life (Hammond).  Or, 3.  more generally, as it sounds (certain interpreters in Menochius, Gerhard), that they might not despise them on account of infirmities (Gerhard, similarly Estius, Gomar), nor treat them like servants or slaves (Gerhard); but that them, as the inseparable and useful companions of life (Gomar, Gerhard), they might value (Gomar, Calvin), address and treat respectfully, and accommodate themselves to them (Menochius); for we are not able truly to love those whom we despise (Calvin); that we might treat them honorably and courteously, and meet their infirmity prudently (Estius); that we might treat them mildly; just as a certain regard is had for crystal, for it is treated with care.  This expression, to hold in honor, is also in the Book Musar (Grotius).

[As, etc., ὡς καὶ συγκληρονόμοι χάριτος ζωῆς]  That is, ὄντες/being (Gerhard), which is able to be referred, either, 1.  to the husbands; so that the sense might be, husbands, just as also their wives, are called unto eternal life, so that they ought to strive for it by living well, and therefore their spouses are to be treated by them honestly in accordance with the Law of God:  or, 2.  to the wives, so that the text might thus be rendered, as also co-heirs, etc., understanding, they are, that is, the wives themselves, as the Syriac translates it (Gerhard out of Estius).  Others read συγκληρονόμοις,[19] etc.[20] (Beza, Gerhard, Vorstius, Estius) as Jerome read Codex Regius[21] and Veronensis[22] (Gerhard),which squares better; for he understands the wives to be co-heirs of the same kingdom with their husbands (Vorstius).  The argument here is threefold, 1.  in the καὶ/and; 2.  in the σύν/together; 3.  in the substance of the matter (Beza).  As also co-heirs (inasmuch as ye are also heirs together [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator]) of the grace (that is, of the benefit [Erasmus, Beza]) of life (Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), that is, whereby is bestowed life, eternal, that is, κατ᾽ ἐξοχήν, par excellence (Beza, similarly Gomar); or, of eternal life to be given by grace, so that it might be a Hypallage[23] and a Synecdoche of kind (Piscator, thus Gerhard); or ζωῆς, of life, that is, ζωοποιούσης, making alive, as in 1 Peter 1:3.  In a manuscript it is ποικίλης χάριτος ζωῆς, of the manifold grace of life,[24] because of the manifold gifts of the Spirit[25] (Grotius).  Of the grace of life, that is, vital, for it gives spiritual life, and leads unto eternal life.  He gives here the reason why men ought to honor their wives, because, although with respect to nature and sex they be infirm and unequal (Menochius), yet they are equal to their husbands with respect to their vocation into the same grace and glory (Menochius, similarly Beza, Estius, Calvin):  for in Christ there is neither male nor female, Galatians 3:28 (Estius).  Of Evangelical Grace, which leads unto eternal life, Men and Women are partakers (Grotius).  Others:  Χάρις/grace is a free gift, here, and in 1 Corinthians 16:3;[26] 2 Corinthians 8:1, 4;[27] 1 Peter 4:10; etc.  Ζωὴ/life is mentioned here, either life itself, or the necessary supports of life.  He instructed husbands that they bestow a maintenance upon their wives, for God has willed husbands and wives to be συγκληρονόμους, etc., that is, partakers together of the grace, both of life itself, which God gave to both in the creation, and of the necessary supports of life, the dominion and inheritance of which God gave to both in the beginning, Genesis 1:28, 29 (Hammond).

Giving honour unto the wife; not despising them because of their weakness, or using them as slaves, but respecting them, caring for them, (as Matthew 15:6; 1 Timothy 5:3,) using them gently, covering their infirmities.  As unto the weaker vessel; weaker than the husbands, and that both in body and mind, as women usually are.  In Scripture any instrument is called a vessel, and the wife is here called so, as being not only an ornament, but a help to the husband and family, Genesis 2:18.  This he adds as a reason why the husband should give honour to the wife, viz. her being the weaker vessel; weak vessels must be gently handled; the infirmities of children bespeak their pardon when they offend; and those members of the body which we think less honourable, on them we bestow more abundant honour, 1 Corinthians 12:23.  It is a part of that prudence according to which men should dwell with their wives, to have the more regard to them because of their infirmities, (in bearing with them and hiding them,) lest they should be discouraged, if they find their weakness makes them contemptible.  And as being heirs together:  another reason why husbands should give honour to their wives, viz. because though by nature they are weak and unequal to their husbands, yet they are equal to them in respect of their being called to the same grace and glory, there being neither male nor female in Christ, Galatians 3:28.  Of the grace of life; that is, eternal life, which is the gift of grace; or, is to be given out of grace.

[That, etc., εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκκόπτεσθαι τὰς προσευχὰς ὑμῶν]  Others read ἐγκόπτεσθαι, to be hindered[28] (Grotius, Gerhard), as in the Complutensian[29] and Royal Codices, and in two others[30] (Gerhard), and the Latin, and that rightly:  for it is to hinder, as in Acts 24:4;[31] Romans 15:22;[32] Galatians 5:7;[33] 1 Thessalonians 2:18;[34] whence ἐγκοπὴ/hindrance in 1 Corinthians 9:12[35] (Grotius).  But there is no variation in the sense, for ἐκκόπτειν is both to cut off, as in Matthew 3:10;[36] 5:30,[37] etc.; and to sever, or to cancel, as in Herodianus’ History of the Empire[38] 7 (Gerhard).  [Thus they translate it:]  To not to be severed, etc.[39] (Montanus).  Lest ye be colliding, or undermined, in your prayers (Gerhard out of the Syriac).  Lest your prayers be interrupted, or hindered (Erasmus, Pagnine, Castalio, Piscator, Beza, Vulgate), that is, at those times in which they are to be made.  Consult 1 Corinthians 7:5.  The times of prayer and of conjugal embrace are to be distinguished (Estius); that is to say, Lest, if ye indulge excessive pleasure, the soul be called from the study of prayer (Menochius).  Others:  Lest prayer be hindered, that is, the force and efficacy of the prayers, by quarrels and disputes (Grotius, similarly Menochius, Calvin), which follow from harsh treatment (Grotius).  For prayers are not pleasing to God, except those which proceed from a quiet spirit (Grotius, similarly Calvin).  But ye are mad, if ye shut up the way to yourselves to invoke God, since it is the one refuge of our salvation (Calvin).

That your prayers be not hindered; either, that ye be not diverted and hindered from praying; or, that the efficacy of your prayers be not hindered, viz. by those contentions and differences which are like to arise, if you do not dwell with your own wives according to knowledge, and give them the honour that belongs to them.

[1] The putting of one case for another; here, the Nominative in the place of the Vocative.

[2] Genesis 20:3b:  “Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is dwelling together (συνῳκηκυῖα) with a husband.”

[3] Deuteronomy 22:13:  “If any man take a wife, and dwell together (συνοικήσῃ) with her, and hate her…”

[4] Deuteronomy 24:1:  “When a man hath taken a wife, and dwelt with (συνοικήσῃ) her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her:  then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

[5] Deuteronomy 25:5:  “If brethren dwell together (κατοικῶσιν), and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger:  her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and dwell together (συνοικήσει) with her.”

[6] Isaiah 62:5:  “For as a young man marrieth (συνοικῶν, or, dwelleth together with) a virgin, so shall thy sons marry (κατοικήσουσιν) thee:  and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.”

[7] Ecclesiasticus 25:16:  “I had rather dwell (συνοικῆσαι) with a lion and a dragon, than to keep house (συνοικῆσαι) with a wicked woman.”

[8] Ecclesiasticus 42:9:  “The father waketh for the daughter, when no man knoweth; and the care for her taketh away sleep:  when she is young, lest she pass away the flower of her age; and being married (συνῳκηκυῖα, or, dwelling together), lest she should be hated…”

[9] Ecclesiasticus 42:10:  “In her virginity, lest she should be defiled and gotten with child in her father’s house; and having an husband, lest she should misbehave herself; and when she is married (συνῳκηκυῖα, or, dwelling together), lest she should be barren.”

[10] Demosthenes (384-322 BC) was a Greek orator and stateman.

[11] Diogenes Laertius was a biographer of Greek philosophers, writing his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers probably sometime during the third century AD.

[12] De Novi Instrumenti Stylo Dissertatio; qua Viri Doctissimi Sebastiani Pfochenii de Linguæ Græcæ Novi Testmenti Puritate, etc.

[13] Deuteronomy 21:13:  “And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month:  and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and make her to live with (συνοικισθήσῃ), and she shall be thy wife.”

[14] Thomas Aquinas (c. 1224-1274) was perhaps the greatest of the mediæval scholastic theologians.

[15] Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35-c. 100) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, heavily referenced in medieval and Renaissance writing.

[16] Johannes Lorinus, or Jean Lorin (1559-1634), was a French Jesuit; he wrote several Biblical commentaries, including commentaries on Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms, Acts, Jude, and Leviticus.

[17] Epistularum ad Familiares 16:9.

[18] See, for example, Proverbs 14:21:  “He that despiseth (בָּז, or, neglecteth) his neighbour sinneth:  but he that hath mercy on the poor, happy is he.”

[19] In the Dative.  Thus Codex Vaticanus.

[20] 1 Peter 3:7:  “Likewise, ye husbands (οἱ ἄνδρες, in the Nominative case), dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife (τῷ γυναικείῳ, in the Dative case), as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together (συγκληρονόμοι, in the Nominative case in the great majority of manuscripts) of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered.”

[21] Codex Regius is an eighth century Greek uncial of the New Testament, of the Alexandrian text-type.

[22] Codex Veronensis is a fourth or fifth century old Latin version of the Gospels, of the Western text-type.

[23] That is, a reversal of the syntactical relation of two words.

[24] Thus Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus.

[25] See Romans 12; 1 Corinthians 12.

[26] 1 Corinthians 16:3:  “And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality (χάριν) unto Jerusalem.”

[27] 2 Corinthians 8:4:  “Praying us with much intreaty that we would receive the gift (τὴν χάριν), and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.”

[28] Ἐκκόπτεσθαι signifies to be cut off; ἐγκόπτεσθαι, to be hindered, or to have the way cut off.

[29] The Complutensian Polyglot (taking its name from the university in Alcalá [Complutum, in Latin]; 1514) contained the first printed edition of the Septuagint, Jerome’s Vulgate, the Hebrew Text, Targum Onkelos with a Latin translation, and the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament.  The labor of the scholars was superintended by Cardinal Francisco Ximénez de Cisneros.

[30] Indeed, the majority of manuscripts read ἐγκόπτεσθαι.

[31] Acts 24:4:  “Notwithstanding, that I might hinder (ἐγκόπτω) thee no further, I pray thee that thou wouldest hear us of thy clemency a few words.”

[32] Romans 15:22:  “For which cause also I have been hindered (ἐνεκοπτόμην) much from coming to you.”

[33] Galatians 5:7:  “Ye did run well; who did hinder (ἀνέκοψεν) you that ye should not obey the truth?”

[34] 1 Thessalonians 2:18:  “Wherefore we would have come unto you, even I Paul, once and again; but Satan hindered (ἐνέκοψεν) us.”

[35] 1 Corinthians 9:12:  “If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather?  Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should give some hindrance (ἐγκοπήν τινα) to the gospel of Christ.”

[36] Matthew 3:10:  “And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees:  therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down (ἐκκόπτεται), and cast into the fire.”

[37] Matthew 5:30a:  “And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off (ἔκκοψον αὐτὴν), and cast it from thee…”

[38] Herodianus of Syria (c. 170-240) was a Roman civil servant; he wrote a history of the Roman Empire in Greek covering the years from 180 to 238 (History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus).

[39] A woodenly literalistic rendering.

1 Peter 3:5, 6: Duties of Wives, Part 4

Verse 5:  For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands…

[For thus, etc.]  Namely, by the virtues of the soul (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard).

[Holy women]  Namely, of the Old Testament (Gomar, Grotius).  How much more those women who pertain to Christ (Grotius).

Holy women; and therefore worthy of imitation.

[Hoping, etc.[1]]  Trusting and adoring God (Menochius), and therefore worthy of imitation (Gomar).  Who were trusting in God:  in which sense ἐλπίζω, to hope, is wont to have after itself εἰς/unto or ἐπὶ/in; just as in Hebrew בָּטַח, to trust, draws after itself ב/in;[2] and in a manuscript in this place εἰς is in the place of ἐπὶ[3] (Grotius).  Whose hope was in God, and whose care was to please God (Estius, Gerhard).  Or, as fear is everywhere set down for the entire worship of God, so hope in this place is set down for all virtues flowing from faith in God, in which is the principal part of that interior ornamentation (Gerhard).

Who trusted in God; whose only hope was in God, and therefore their care to please him.  Adorned themselves; viz. with a meek and quiet spirit, counting that the best ornament.

[Being subject, etc.]  That is, with a gentle and quiet spirit:  thus only regarding themselves as beautifully adorned and ornamented, if they be such (Estius).  See 1 Peter 3:1 (Grotius).


Verse 6:  Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, (Gen. 18:12) calling him lord:  whose daughters (Gr. children[4]) ye are, as long as ye do well, and are not afraid with any amazement.

[Even as, etc., ὡς Σάρρα]  Often to proper Hebrew names ought to be added the article so that the case might be known ἐν τοῖς ἀκλίτοις, in the case of those indeclineable.  She is called Sara, Ἄνασσα/lady,[5] as it were, because many Kings were going to come forth from her (Grotius).  Sara here is named as the parent of that entire class, as in Isaiah 51:1, 2 (Estius, Gerhard), as is Abraham in Romans 4:11, 12 (Gerhard).

[She obeyed Abraham]  As you see in Genesis 12:5; 18:6; 20:1; and elsewhere (Grotius).  Inasmuch as her husband, who departed from their home country, parents, and relatives (Menochius), unto regions foreign and remote, and constantly changed locations, she always followed (Estius, similarly Gerhard, Menochius); inasmuch as, with him commanding, she also exposed herself to the danger of impropriety,[6] etc. (Estius, similarly Gerhard).

[Calling him lord]  Genesis 18:12 (Estius, Gerhard, Grotius).  As she was wont to do, because God commanded her to be subject (Calvin), in that title acknowledging the authority of her husband, and professing her subjection (Estius); and that when God had willed that she be called, not Sarai, my lady, but Sara, that is, simply lady (Gerhard).

[Κύριον, etc.]  אֲדֹנִי, my lord, as it is in Genesis.[7]  They were also wont to use בַּעְלִי, my lord/husband, in the same sense, as in Genesis 20:3;[8] Exodus 21:3;[9] Joel 1:8;[10] and this is found a number of times in the Book of מוסר.  The Athenians imitated [this custom].  Ἀνὴρ, a husband, was called κύριος/lord, as the Scholiast on Aristophanes’[11] The Knights[12] [see the words in Grotius].  At Rome also it was formerly the custom thus to speak (Grotius).  Lucretia, in Ovid,[13] was to be sent to her Lord, etc.[14]  Euripides[15] in Stobæus,[16] πᾶσ᾿ ἐστὶ δούλη ἀνδρὸς ἡ σώφρων γυνή, every sober woman is the servant of her husband (Beza).  By the corruption of manners, the opposite custom crept in, that wives were called dominæ/ladies by their husbands (Grotius).

Even as Sara; after her name was changed from Sarai, my lady, to Sarah, simply a lady or princess, because kings were to come of her, Genesis 17:15, 16:  yet even then she obeyed Abraham; and this is spoken in commendation of her obedience.  Calling him lord; not merely in compliment, but in reality, hereby acknowledging his authority and her own subjection.

[Whose (namely, Sara’s [Erasmus, Vatablus, Estius]) daughters ye are (or, are made [Erasmus, Beza, Piscator], that is, ye shall declare yourselves to have been made [Vorstius, Piscator, Gomar]:  A Metonymy of subject, of which sort is found in John 15:8 [Piscator]; or, ye shall actually become [Vorstius])]  In spirit (Estius, Menochius, similarly Gerhard), promise (Gomar), and imitation (Gomar, thus Estius).  Ye were her daughters in the flesh, but through the Gospel ye have also been made her daughters in manners.  A similar expression in Matthew 3:9; John 8:39; Romans 9:7, 8; Galatians 4:28 (Grotius).

Whose daughters ye are; not only according to the flesh, but spiritually, according to the promise.  Ye are; either ye are made or become, viz. by imitation of her faith and holiness, as well as ye are by kindred and succession; or, ye are declared and known to be, as the phrase is elsewhere used, John 15:8.

[Doing well, etc., ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι καὶ μὴ φοβούμεναι μηδεμίαν πτόησιν]  Before μηδεμίαν, not any, is understood κατὰ, with or with respect to, and a double negation, in the Greek fashion, denies more strongly (Gerhard, Piscator).  These things are to be taken, either, 1.  προτρεπτικῶς, in a hortatory manner, so that he might continue to exhort the wives (certain interpreters in Gerhard):  Act rightly, and be terrified with no fear (Castalio).  Or, 2.  διακριτικῶς/diacritically, so that it might indicate of what sort the true daughters of Sara are (Gerhard).  If, or as long as, ye do well (or, in good works (Menochius and Gerhard out of the Syriac), that is, by imitating her virtues [Estius, similarly Menochius], especially obedience [Estius], beneficence [Menochius], just as Sara readily received guests [Grotius]) and not (or, even if not:  ו/and is taken for even if, although, in Joshua 17:18;[17] Psalm 23:4;[18] 78:23;[19] Isaiah 49:5;[20] Jeremiah 32:33[21] [Gataker’s Cinnus 21:234]) are frightened (or, be not frightened [Beza]) with any fear (Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Vatablus), or, with any consternation (Piscator, Gerhard), any consternation[22] (Beza), or, any perturbation[23] (Vulgate).  But πτόησις and πτοεῖσθαι properly signify, not so much perturbation, as fear, or consternation, as in Luke 21:9;[24] 24:37,[25] and in Plutarch and Pollux[26] (Gerhard).  [See Gerhard.]  Πτόησις here denotes, either, 1.  the form of the fear, a pleonasm used both by the Hebrews, and by the Athenians, and also by the Latins (certain interpreters in Gomar); who say gaudere gaudium, to rejoice a rejoicing, furere furorem, to rage a rage, timere timorem, to fear a fear (Erasmus, Beza).  He here forbids that consternation with which a person might be mad, as it were, and forget his duty, etc. (Beza).  Or, 2.  the object and efficient cause of the fear, as in Romans 13:3, the cause of terror (Gomar, similarly Gerhard); so that the act or affection might be in the place of the object, in accordance with the Hebraism, as fear is taken in Job 3:25;[27] Psalm 53:5;[28] Proverbs 1:26; 3:25.[29]  Thus praise is in the place of a praiseworthy name, Psalm 106:12; covetousness in the place of things much coveted (Gerhard out of Estius).  [They explain the passage in a variety of ways:]  While freely and out of pure conscience of duty ye obey, although ye be compelled by no fear or consternation to render it (Gataker’s Cinnus 21:234, similarly certain interpreters in Gerhard).  What he had said concerning fear in verse 2 he here explains, and shows that he was not speaking of servile fear and obedience, as if they, after the manner of slaves, ought to be terrified, for example, by the threats and abuses of harsh masters (Gomar).  Others:  fearful of no causes of fear, that is, unto the surrendering chastity; which the magistrates of the provinces were often also assailing with threats:  just as Sara yielded not to the lust of Abimelech, Genesis 20 (Grotius).  Others:  If ye imitate in behavior the piety and modesty of Sara (Dickson[30]), and suffer not any earthly fear to take you away from the study of piety (Dickson, similarly Vorstius).  See Luke 21:9; 24:37 (Vorstius, Grotius).  Others:  If ye trust in Christ, and in the favor and help of God, in such a way that ye are wrong-headedly afraid or confounded by no evil (Gerhard).  Others:  As long as ye do this (Estius), that is, study good works (certain interpreters in Estius), it is not possible that ye fear any evil; so that ye might not displease your husbands, if ye appear less elegantly adorned (Estius); or, so that ye might not carry yourselves in a servile manner, if ye readily submit yourselves for obedience (Estius, similarly Calvin, Tirinus); as the feminine sex is wont to empty fears (and suspicions [Calvin]) to be liable (Estius, similarly Calvin).  But also, if perchance ye have married husbands of the less kind sort, study to mollify their souls rather by silence and patience, than by many words (Estius); bear perterbations moderately and bravely, and mollify and soften resentments, not by the sinking of your spirits, but by your prudence and grace (Menochius):  that ready subjection will win for you in turn, the love, honor, and reconciliation of your husbands (Tirinus):  therefore, attend upon your calling with a brave and undaunted spirit (Calvin).

As long as ye do well; follow her in good works, 1 Timothy 2:10.  And are not afraid with any amazement; or, afraid of any amazement, any thing frightful, or which might terrify you, taking amazement for the object or cause or fear, as 1 Peter 3:14; Psalm 53:5; Proverbs 3:25; and the sense may be, either, so long as ye perform your duty with a resolute mind, and keep from that which is contrary to your faith; or, as long as you subject yourselves to your husbands willingly, cheerfully, and without slavish fear of being losers by your obedience, and faring the worse for your patience and submission.

[1] 1 Peter 3:5:  “For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God (αἱ ἐλπίζουσαι ἐπὶ τὸν Θεὸν), adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands…”

[2] For example, 2 Kings 18:5a:  “He trusted (בָּטָח) in the Lord (בַּיהוָה) God of Israel…”  And, Psalm 21:7:  “For the king trusteth (בֹּטֵחַ) in the Lord (בַּיהוָה), and through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved.”

[3] Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.

[4] Greek:  τέκνα.

[5] שָׂרָה/Sarah signifies princess or noble lady.

[6] Genesis 20.

[7] Genesis 18:12:  “Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, and my lord (וַאדֹנִי) being old also?”

[8] Genesis 20:3:  “But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is the wife of a man (בְּעֻלַת בָּעַל).”

[9] Exodus 21:3:  “If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself:  if the husband of a wife (בַּעַל אִשָּׁה), then his wife shall go out with him.”

[10] Joel 1:8:  “Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband (בַּעַל) of her youth.”

[11] Aristophanes (c. 448-c. 385 BC) was a writer of comedies.

[12] Equites.

[13] Publius Ovidius Naso (43 BC-17 AD) was a Roman poet.

[14] Fasti 2.

[15] Euripides (c. 480-406) was a Greek playwright, one of the great tragedians.

[16] Johannes Stobæus (fifth century), of Stobi in Macedonia, compiled a series of extracts from Greek authors, many of which would be otherwise unknown; this work is known as the Extracts (Eclogues) and the Anthology (Florilegium).  He quotes Euripides over five hundred times.

[17] Joshua 17:18:  “But the mountain shall be thine; for it is a wood, and thou shalt cut it down:  and the outgoings of it shall be thine:  for thou shalt drive out the Canaanites, though (כִּי) they have iron chariots, and though they be strong.”

[18] Psalm 23:4:  “Yea, though (כִּי) I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil:  for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.”

[19] Psalm 78:22, 23:  “Because they believed not in God, and trusted not in his salvation:  though he had commanded (וַיְצַו) the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven…”

[20] Isaiah 49:5:  “And now, saith the Lord that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel (וְיִשְׂרָאֵל) be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and my God shall be my strength.”

[21] Jeremiah 32:33:  “And they have turned unto me the back, and not the face:  though I taught (וְלַמֵּד) them, rising up early and teaching them, yet they have not hearkened to receive instruction.”

[22] In the Accusative case.

[23] In the Accusative case.

[24] Luke 21:9a:  “But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified (μὴ πτοηθῆτε): for these things must first come to pass…”

[25] Luke 24:37:  “But they were terrified (πτοηθέντες) and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.”

[26] Julius Pollux (second century AD) was a Greek grammarian and rhetorician.  Only his Onomasticon, a dictionary of Attic phrases and an invaluable source of information concerning classical antiquity, survives.

[27] Job 3:25:  “For the fear which I greatly feared (פַחַד פָּחַדְתִּי) is come upon me, and that which I was afraid of is come unto me.”

[28] Psalm 53:5a:  “There were they fearing a fear (פָּחֲדוּ־פַחַד), where no fear (פָחַד) was:  for God hath scattered the bones of him that encampeth against thee…”

[29] Proverbs 3:25:  “Be not afraid of sudden fear (אַל־תִּירָא מִפַּחַד פִּתְאֹם), neither of the desolation of the wicked, when it cometh.”

[30] David Dickson (1583-1662) was a Scottish Presbyterian divine.  Dickson served his church as a minister and Professor of Divinity at Glasgow and at Edinburgh.  He was ejected in 1662, after the Restoration, and he died later that same year.  He co-authored the Sum of Saving Knowledge, and he wrote commentaries on the Psalms, the Gospel of Matthew, the Epistles of Paul, and the Catholic Epistles.

1 Peter 3:4: Duties of Wives, Part 3

Verse 4:  But let it be (Ps. 45:13; Rom. 2:29; 7:22; 2 Cor. 4:16) the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.

[But, etc., ἀλλ᾽ ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος]  He makes use of the Masculine, although he speaks of Women, because this precept is such that it is able to apply to both sexes (Grotius).  But (understanding, let it be [Hammond out of Augustine], or, let be adorned [Camerarius]) that secret, or hidden, of the heart (or, that is, of the heart; which is set down exegetically, so that it might show who this hidden man is [Gerhard out of Estius]:  In like manner, τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς καρδίας, the secrets of the heart, 1 Corinthians 14:25; for καρδία/heart, לֵב among the Hebrews, is taken for inward parts of the soul, Ecclesiastes 11:9, 10,[1] and elsewhere [Grotius]) man[2] (Montanus, Beza, Piscator).  This is the same as the inward man, Romans 7:22 (Grotius, Gerhard, Estius, Hammond, Beza, Piscator), in which place see what things have been said (Grotius), and in 2 Corinthians 4:16 (Estius, Gerhard):  or, the new man (Gerhard, Hammond, Piscator), Romans 6:6; Colossians 3:9, 10 (Gerhard), that is, either, anima/soul[3] (Beza), or animus/soul,[4] or the mind and will of man (Vorstius, similarly Beza, Hammond):  which things are generally wont to be neglected by those that are excessively fond of external grooming (Vorstius):  or, Christian virtues (Gerhard), with which he desires the sould to be adorned (Menochius).  In like manner, a Jew in the hidden part, Romans 2:29[5] (Grotius, thus Gerhard), to which there appears to be an allusion here (Gerhard).  Now, this expression is conflated from two Hebraisms:  1.  the Targum uses τὸν κρυπτὸν τῆς καρδίας, the hidden place of the heart,[6] in the place of בְסָתֻם , in the hidden part; 2.  κρυπτὸς ἄνθρωπος, the hidden man (Hammond).  The mystical sense is found in Psalm 45:13; Exodus 28:13 (Grotius).

The hidden man of the heart; the inward man, Romans 7:22; 2 Corinthians 4:16; either the soul in opposition to the body, or the image of God, and graces of his Spirit in the soul, called elsewhere the new man, and opposed to natural corruption, or the old man, Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:9, 10.

[In, etc., ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ πρᾳέος καὶ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος]  Understand, ὢν, being or consisting in (Beza), or κείμενος, situated in (Gerhard).  In (or, situated in [Beza, Piscator, Pagnine]; or, and that through [Zegers]) the incorruptibility[7] (or, incorruption [Piscator, Gerhard], incorruptibility[8] [Zegers], sincerity [Beza], or, incorrupt ornament [Pagnine]:  Others:  if he be free from all corruption [Erasmus, Vatablus]:  Ἄφθαρτον, that which is not corruptible, here is the same as ἀφθαρσία/incorruption/sincerity, Ephesians 6:24[9] [Hammond, thus Grotius]; Titus 2:7[10] [Grotius]; and denotes the Spirit’s, or soul’s, either, 1.  integrity, firmness, and holiness [Gerhard]; or, the constancy of the mentioned virtues, conquerable by no temptations, and that having arisen from simplicity and sincerity, just as also in nature those things that are simple are less liable to corruption [Hammond]:  Ἄφθαρτον here is that which does not suffer itself to be spoiled [Grotius]:  Or, 2.  potency and excellence, a nature constant and abiding [Beza], and never going to perish [Gerhard, similarly Hammond]:  which here he opposes to gold, garments, etc., as to things transient and perishable [Beza, similarly Hammond], or corruptible, 1 Peter 1:18, which things are also place around a corruptible body [Gerhard]) of a mild (or, gentle [Erasmus, Zegers, Estius, Hammond]) and tranquil (or, quiet [Erasmus]) spirit (Montanus, Beza, Piscator, etc.); or, in such a way that the spirit is placid and quiet (Erasmus, Vatablus); or, with a disposition mild and modest, which does not allow itself to be corrupted by evil examples (Grotius).  Spirit here is the same thing as animus/soul (Estius, thus Piscator).  I take spirit here for the disposition of the soul, as in 1 Corinthians 4:21; Galatians 6:1.  For the Hebrews often take רוּחַ/spirit in this way[11] (Grotius).  He names these virtures in particular (Estius), as the ornaments of women (Estius, similarly Calvin), the greatest (Calvin); and as those things promoting peace, and obedience (Gomar), which they owe to their husbands, and concerning which he here treats (Estius).  Now, these either signify the same thing, or are thus distinguished (Gomar), inasmuch as gentleness is a quality of behavior (Gerhard), and is opposed to irascibility, ferocity, haughtiness, etc. (Gomar, similarly Gerhard, Erasmus); but quiet describes, both, the soul’s tranquility, not agitated by perverse passions; and, taciturnity, lest they mutter against their husbands; and, modesty, and it is opposed to levity, inconstancy, impudence (Gerhard), garrulity, and arrogant πολυπραγμοσύνῃ/officiousness, the management of the affairs of others (Gomar).  What ἡσυχία/quiet might be, see 1 Timothy 2:11, 12 (Grotius).

In that which is not corruptible:  this relates to what follows, the ornament of a meek, etc., and is opposed to those external ornaments before mentioned, which are of a fading, perishing nature, whereas this is constant and durable:  and therefore women who are more apt to be overmuch pleased with external dresses, and bodily ornaments, are exhorted rather to enrich and beautify their souls with Divine graces, than their bodies with gaudy clothes.  Even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit:  this notes the particular grace or graces (parts of the new man) in which the spiritual beauty and adorning of women’s souls consists; and either these two words, meek and quiet, are but indifferent expressions of the same grace; or, by meekness may be meant gentleness, easiness and sweetness of spirit, in opposition to moroseness, frowardness, pride, passion, etc.; and by quietness, a peaceable, still, modest temper, in opposition to pragmaticalness, talkativeness, clamorousness.  These two usually go in conjunction together, and the latter is the effect of the former:  see 1 Timothy 2:9-12.

[Which, etc., ὅ ἐστιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ πολυτελές]  Which (namely, the spirit [Estius, Menochius, Vatablus], ornamented with those virtues [Estius, similarly Menochius]:  or, which, that is, to have such a Spirit [Vatablus]:  Ὅ/ which is referred to the entire preceding member [Grotius, similarly Erasmus, Zegers, Beza]) is in the sight of God precious (Beza, etc.), or, a thing excellent and costly (Vatablus), or, a striking ornament (Erasmus), and thing very pleasing to God (Estius).  You have πολυτελές concerning Ointment, Mark 14:3;[12] concerning the Clothing of women, 1 Timothy 2:9.[13]  It corresponds to the Hebrew יָקָר/precious, Proverbs 1:13.  [The sense:]  Other things in the sight of men are prized, Hair, Gold, striking garments:  but in the sight of God, a Soul gentle and modest, and untouched by evil manners (Grotius).  He commands women to be more careful that they be prized in the sight of God, than that they adorn themselves for the esteem of men (Calvin).

Which:  either this referreth to spirit, or to the whole sentence, the ornament of a meek, etc., but the sense is still the same.  Is in the sight of God; who can best judge, (as looking to the inner man, which is not obvious to the eyes of others,) and whose judgment is most to be valued:  here God’s judgment is opposed to the judgment of vain women, who think to commend themselves to others by outward bravery, and of a vain world, which esteems such things.  Of great price:  the excellency of grace and spiritual ornaments is set in opposition to gold and costly apparel:  that is to say, If women will be fine that they may appear beautiful, let them choose the best ornaments, those of the mind and heart, a meek and quiet spirit, which are precious in the sight of God himself, rather than these external ones, which serve only to draw men’s eyes toward them.

[1] Ecclesiastes 11:9, 10:  “Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth; and let thy heart (לִבְּךָ; ἡ καρδία σου, in the Septuagint) cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thine heart (לִבְּךָ; καρδίας σου, in the Septuagint), and in the sight of thine eyes:  but know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee into judgment.  Therefore remove sorrow from thy heart (מִלִּבֶּךָ; ἀπὸ καρδίας σου, in the Septuagint), and put away evil from thy flesh:  for childhood and youth are vanity.”

[2] Thus the Greek word order.  The natural English word order:  the hidden man of the heart.

[3] That is, the principle of life.

[4] That is, the principle of thought, volition, and feeling.

[5] Romans 2:29:  “But he is a Jew, which is one in the inner part (ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ); and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.”

[6] Chaldean:  ובמטמור לבא.

[7] In the Ablative case.

[8] In the Accusative case.

[9] Ephesians 6:24:  “Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity (ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ).  Amen.”

[10] Titus 2:7:  “In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works:  in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity (ἀφθαρσιαν)…”

[11] For example, Genesis 26:35:  “Which were a grief of mind (מֹרַת רוּחַ, or, bitterness of soul) unto Isaac and to Rebekah.”  Also, Isaiah 54:6:  “For the Lord hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit (רוּחַ), and a wife of youth, when thou wast refused, saith thy God.”

[12] Mark 14:3:  “And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious (πολυτελοῦς); and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.”

[13] 1 Timothy 2:9:  “In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly (πολυτελεῖ) array…”

1 Peter 3:3: Duties of Wives, Part 2

Verse 3:  (1 Tim. 2:9; Tit. 2:3, etc.) Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel…

[Whose, etc., ὧν ἔστω οὐχ ὁ ἔξωθεν ἐμπλοκῆς τριχῶν, καὶ περιθέσεως χρυσίων, ἢ ἐνδύσεως ἱματίων κόσμος]  Κόσμος/adorning[1] at the end of the verse is to be conjoined with ὧν/whose at the beginning (Gerhard).  [Thus, therefore, they translate the passage:]  Whose adornment (or, attiring [Vulgate, Zegers], κόσμος γυναικὸς, womanly adornment, ornament:  The Latins distinguish a woman’s mundum/neatness from her ornatu/ ornamentation; but the Greeks comprehend both in the one word [Grotius]) is not the external (understanding ὢν/being [Camerarius], or understanding which is situated [Erasmus, Tigurinus, Vatablus, similarly Zegers]) in the knots (or, in the ringlets [Castalio, Menochius], in the crimping [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Gerhard, Menochius], in the curling, or braiding [Erasmus, Vatablus]; or, of interweaving [Montanus]:  Ἐμπλοκαὶ here is the same as πλέγματα, braided hair, 1 Timothy 2:9[2] [Grotius, thus Gerhard], which is to be compared with the present passage [Grotius]:  Ἐμπλέκεσθαι is to be interwoven, to be tied in knots, 2 Timothy 2:4;[3] 2 Peter 2:20[4] [Gerhard]:  He understands crimping in whatever way that might be done, whether by curling the hair, or by knotting, or by dividing it into ringlets and tufts with curling-tongs, or by bringing in other hair, and by raising it into towers [Tirinus and Gerhard out of Jerome]) of the hair, and (or, or [Erasmus, Beza, Vatablus]) in put on (or, in the putting on [Tigurinus, Zegers], of the putting on [Montanus], in the apposition, or addition [Erasmus, Illyricus]) gold (or, of gold [Erasmus, Montanus, etc.], that is, of golden ornaments [Gerhard]; of which sort are necklaces [Gerhard, thus Menochius, Grotius], rings, earrings, frontlets [Gerhard], chains, amulets [Tirinus, thus Menochius], garments interwoven with gold [Menochius]; especially nets, or other things of that sort, interwoven with gold, placed on the hair or head [Gerhard, similarly Estius], because this is conjoined with ἐμπλοκῇ τριχῶν, the braiding of the hair [Gerhard]), or, of pallia[5] (or, garments [Gerhard, Erasmus], for ἱμάτιον is both a garment in general, as in Matthew 11:8;[6] 27:35;[7] and the pallium, Matthew 9:20;[8] 21:7[9] [Gerhard]:  Πολυτελῶν [Grotius], precious, or, as in the Syriac, expensive [Gerhard out of 1 Timothy 2:9] [Gerhard, thus Grotius]) in dress (Beza, Piscator), as in tunics, robes, veils, etc. (Tirinus).  Nevertheless, he does not simply prohibit or condemn the use of these things (Estius, Calvin), since also these very materials, expensive and skillfully made, are from God (Calvin); but the immoderate study of this vanity (Estius), grooming immoderate, excessive (Estius, thus Calvin, Tirinus), improper (Estius), affected, immodest, and lascivious (Estius).

Let it not be; let it not be chiefly, or not so much the adorning of the outward man as the inward; the negative here is to be taken as a comparative, as Exodus 16:8; Luke 14:12.  The apostle doth not absolutely condemn all kind of ornaments, or rich attire, which we find used sometimes by the godly themselves in the Scripture, Genesis 24:22, 30; Esther 5:1; compared with Psalm 45:9, 13, where the spiritual ornaments of Christ’s spouse are set forth by terms taken from the external ornaments of Solomon’s wife; and Ezekiel 16:12, these things are spoken of as God’s gifts.  But he taxeth all vanity, levity, immoderate sumptuousness or luxury in apparel, and bodily ornaments in women, (or men,) whatsoever is above their place and condition in the world, or above their estate and ability; such as proceeds from any lust, (pride, wantonness, etc.,) or tends to the provoking or cherishing any, or is accompanied with the neglecting or slighting of inward beauty and spiritual ornaments.

[1] Κόσμος/order can be applied to many things, including the world-order or universe, and the orderliness of apparel.

[2] 1 Timothy 2:9:  “In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair (πλέγμασιν), or gold, or pearls, or costly array…”

[3] 2 Timothy 2:4:  “No man that warreth entangleth himself (ἐμπλέκεται) with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier.”

[4] 2 Peter 2:20:  “For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled (ἐμπλακέντες) therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning.”

[5] The pallium was a rectangular, draped coverlet.

[6] Matthew 11:8:  “But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment (ἱματίοις)? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings’ houses.”

[7] Matthew 27:35:  “And they crucified him, and parted his garments (ἱμάτια), casting lots:  that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments (ἱμάτιά) among them, and upon my vesture (ἱματισμόν) did they cast lots.”

[8] Matthew 9:20:  “And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment (ἱματίου)…”

[9] Matthew 21:7:  “And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes (ἱμάτια), and they set him thereon.”

1 Peter 3:1, 2: Duties of Wives, Part 1

Verse 1:  Likewise, (1 Cor. 14:34; Eph. 5:22; Col. 3:18; Tit. 2:5) ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; that, if any obey not the word, (1 Cor. 7:16) they also may without the word (Matt. 18:15; 1 Cor. 9:19-22) be won by the conversation of the wives…

[Similarly also let the women (or, wives[1] [Beza, Piscator]:  He passes from servants to women:  Question:  Why not unto masters as in Ephesians 6 and Colossians 4:  Response:  Because he writes unto the dispersed Jews, of whom many were servants, but very few were masters [Estius]:  He says similarly, because, as he speaks of the subjection of servants in the preceding chapter, so here of the subjection of wives [Menochius]) be subject, etc., ὑποτασσόμεναι τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀνδράσιν]  Ἐστὶ, the verb of being, is to be supplied here, as in 1 Peter 2:18 (Grotius, Gomar).  The middle voice of the verb here denotes reflexive action (Piscator).  Let them subject themselves (according to the order instituted by God, which this word in this place denotes [Gomar]) to their own (or, proper [Estius, Piscator]) men (Piscator), or husbands (Dieu[2] out of the Syriac).  The sense is the same as in Ephesians 5:22, 24; Colossians 3:18.  These things agree with Genesis 3:16 (Grotius).  He specifies their own, both, to mitigate the difficulty, and, to circumscribe their obedience, as opposed to those of others (Gomar); so that he might admonish them with respect to chastity, and call them away from suspected compliances with the husbands of others (Estius, thus Gerhard).

To your own husbands; this he adds both to mitigate the difficulty of the duty, subjection, in that they were their own husbands to whom they were to be subject, and likewise to bound and circumscribe their obedience, that it was to be only to their own husbands, not to others; and so while he persuades them to subjection, he cautions them against unchastity.

[Who do not, etc., ἀπειθοῦσι,[3] etc.]  Who do not obey (or, are unbelieving, that is to say, disbelieve [Estius], or, yet resist [Grotius, similarly Estius, Gerhard], as in Romans 2:8[4] [Grotius]) the word (Beza, Piscator), that is, of God (Piscator, Gomar), that is, the Gospel (Piscator, Estius, Menochius, Gomar):  He describes positive unbelief, that is to say, those that will not suffer themselves to be persuaded (Gerhard); those that refuse the word (Estius).

[Through their wives’ conversation[5] (that is, good conversation [Estius, Gomar], and holy behavior [Menochius]:  Concerning the word ἀναστροφῆς/ conversation/conduct, see 1 Peter 1:15;[6] 2:12[7] [Grotius]) without the word (that is, with the preaching of the word now ceasing, because they have refused it:  or thus, even if their wives press not upon them the Evangelical doctrine, because the husbands only with annoyance bear to be taught by their wives [Estius]:  because Γυναιξὶ κόσμον ἡ σιγὴ φέρει, silence is becoming to a woman[8] [Grotius]; as men moved only by a good example [Menochius]) they may be gained]  Namely, to Christ (Estius, Menochius, Piscator, Gerhard), or to the Church (Gerhard, thus Menochius).  The same Metaphor is in Matthew 18:15; 1 Corinthians 9:19, etc. (Gerhard, thus Vorstius, Grotius, Piscator); Philippians 3:8, taken from that parable in Matthew 25:14, etc.  Under the name of gain is insinuated, both the value of souls, and the effort of the pious concerning the conversion of others (Gerhard).  The sense:  so that those whom the word does not move, the life alone might influence (Gomar); so that, having been mollified by degrees (Beza), they might be prepared unto reverence and the hearing of the Gospel, by the fruit of it seen in the behavior of their wives (Gomar, similarly Beza); whence afterwards from the word they might conceive faith (Gomar).  They may gain, that is, they may thence take occasion for gain.  Thus in 1 Corinthians 7:16, thou shalt save thy husband, that is, thou shalt furnish occasion for so great a good:  and in Romans 14:15, destroy not, etc. (Glassius’ “Grammar” 3:3:10:255).  But also the word ἀπειθοῦντες, those disobeying, relates that the word was announced to them and heard (Estius).  There were already examples of this sort, as we see in 1 Corinthians 7:16.  For, although they be silent, their chastity, modesty, obedience, care of domestic affairs, and other virtues, were commending to their husbands, not only their wives, but also that truly Divine Philosophy in which they had been instructed.  They were saying what Libanius said, Oh what women these Christians have![9] (Grotius).  Whose behavior is pleasing, his religion is not easily able to be displeasing (Estius).

That if any obey not the word; the word of the gospel.  He exhorts not only them that had believing husbands, but unbelieving ones, to be in subjection to them.  They also may without the word:  not that they could be converted to Christ without the knowledge of the word, when faith cometh by hearing, Romans 10:17, but that they who either would not endure their wives’ instructing them, or who had before rejected the word, yet, by seeing the effects and fruits of it in their wives, might be brought to have good thoughts of it, and thereby be the more prepared for the hearing of it, whereby faith might be wrought in them.  Be won; or gained, viz. to Christ and his church:  the same metaphor Paul useth, 1 Corinthians 9:19-21; Philippians 3:8.


Verse 2:  (1 Pet. 2:12) While they behold your chaste conversation coupled with fear.

[Beholding, etc., ἐποπτεύσαντες τὴν ἐν φόβῳ ἁγνὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν]  Observing (or, when they regard [Beza, Arabic], while the consider [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tirinus]) that in (or, with [Beza, Piscator, etc.], ἐν/in in the place of σὺν/with, as often elsewhere [Grotius]) fear (or, reverence [Erasmus, Pagnine, Piscator, etc.], either, 1.  of God [Grotius, Menochius], as in Acts 2:43; 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:15 [Grotius]; or, 2.  toward their husbands [Gerhard, similarly Estius, Hammond], from a comparison with Ephesians 5:33 [Gerhard, Estius]:  understanding, conjoined [Beza]:  ἐν φόβῳ, in fear, in the place of μετὰ φόβου, with fear, that is, οὖσαν, it being [Piscator]) chaste (or, pure [Erasmus, Beza, Estius], holy [Menochius]) conversation[10] (Montanus, etc.), that is, shrinking from adultery and all corruptions of lusts, beyond nature and honesty (Estius, thus Gerhard).  See Philippians 4:8.  Tertullain’s To his Wife[11] 2, so that, under the government of holy men, the duties of their sex might be fulfilled with the honor of that bond, modestly and moderately, as under the eyes of God (Grotius).

Chaste conversation; free from all manner of impurities, and any thing contrary to the marriage covenant.  Coupled with fear; such a fear or reverence of your husbands, whereby out of the fear of God, and conscience of his command, you give them all due respect, and do not willingly displease them. See Ephesians 5; subjection is required, verse 22, and fear, verse 33.

[1] Greek:  Ὁμοίως, αἱ γυναῖκες.

[2] Louis de Dieu (1590-1642) was a Huguenot minister of Dutch origin, and he was a linguist and critic of extraordinary talent and judgment.  He wrote Animadversiones, sive Commentarius in Quatuor Evangelia, Animadveriones in Acta Apostolorum, Animadversiones in Epistolam ad Romanos, Accessit Spicilegium in Reliquas Ejusdem Apostoli, ut et Catholicas Epistolas, and Critica Sacra, sive Animadversiones in Loca Quædam Difficiliora Veteris et Novi Testamenti.

[3] Ἀπειθέω signifies to refuse compliance with, to disobey, or to disbelieve.

[4] Romans 2:8:  “But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey (ἀπειθοῦσι) the truth, but obey (πειθομένοις) unrighteousness, indignation and wrath…”

[5] Greek:  διὰ τῆς τῶν γυναικῶν ἀναστροφῆς.

[6] 1 Peter 1:15:  “But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation (ἀναστροφῇ)…”

[7] 1 Peter 2:12:  “Having your conversation (τὴν ἀναστροφὴν) honest among the Gentiles:  that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.”

[8] Sophocles’ Ajax 293.

[9] Libanius (c. 314-c. 394) was a Greek-speaking rhetorician.  Although he was on friendly terms with many Christians, and although Christianity was having a growing influence upon the Empire, he remained unconverted and committed to the traditional Greek religion.

[10] Woodenly:  the in-fear, chaste conversation.

[11] Ad Uxorem.

Outline of 1 Peter 3

The apostle teacheth the duty of wives and husbands, 1-7, exhorting all men to unity and love, and to return good for evil, 8-13, to suffer boldly for righteousness’ sake, and to give a reason of their hope with meekness and fear; taking especial care to suffer, as Christ did, for well-doing, and not for evil-doing, 14-18.  The preaching of Christ by his Spirit to the old world, 19, 20.  After what manner Christian baptism saveth us, 21, 22.

1 Peter 2:25: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 6

Verse 25:  For (Is. 53:6; Ezek. 34:6) ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned (Ezek. 34:23; 37:24; John 10:11, 14, 16; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 5:4) unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

[For ye were like straying sheep]  And this is out of Isaiah 53:6, with which the passage in Jeremiah 50:6 agrees, but also Psalm 119:176.  See on Matthew 9:36 (Grotius).  He here indicates the sickness from which they were healed (Estius, Gerhard), and he amplifies the salvation brought by God by the Antithesis of the preceding misery (Gerhard).  Straying from the way of salvation (Menochius), from Christ the shepherd, and from the flock of the righteous (Estius), alienated and having degenerated from the righteousness and life of God (Gomar), rushing through the byways of errors and depraved habits unto destruction (Menochius).

For ye were, while ye continued in your Judaism, and had not yet received the gospel, as sheep going astray, from Christ the great Shepherd, and the church of believers his flock, and the way of righteousness in which he leads them.  Ye were alienated from the life of God, bewildered and lost in the way of sin, Isaiah 53:6.

[But, etc., ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεστράφητε νῦν ἐπὶ τὸν ποιμένα καὶ ἐπίσκοπον τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν]  Ἐπιστρέψαι, to return is wont to have after it ἐπὶ/to, or πρὸς/to.  Then the καὶ/and [here following] is ἐξηγητικόν/exegetical:  ἐπιστρέφοντα τὰ ἀποπεπλανημήνα, returning, having been led astray. For, since he had called Him shepherd, to follow the similitude he now explains how Christ is Shepherd, namely, that He cares for souls as a Shepherd does for sheep.  See 1 Peter 1:9.  Ἐπίσκοπος/bishop/overseer is פׇּקוּד, one that undertakes the oversight of some matter,[1] as in Numbers 31:14;[2] 2 Kings 11:15;[3] etc.  The comparison of a Shepherd agrees with Christ excellently well, John 10:11, 14, 16; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4 (Grotius).  [Thus they translate it:]  But now are ye converted (from your wanderings, that is, sins, which were removing you from God [Estius]; [and that] through the grace of Christ, who calls and draws you [Menochius]) unto that Shepherd (thus he calls Christ, because He feeds, guides, and nourishes us by the Word and Sacraments of the Gospel, by His holy example, and especially by the internal inspiration of His grace [Estius]) and overseer (or, Bishop [Vulgate], inspector [Estius, Piscator], visitor [Estius, Erasmus out of Bede], watchman [Menochius, Tirinus], superintendent [Menochius]:  Thus Christ is called because He most diligently attends to the government, protection [Tirinus], and direction, of His sheep unto eternal life [Tirinus, thus Menochius]; because, being vigilant over us, and considering our infirmities and necessities, He is continually managing the oversight of our salvation [Estius]) of your souls (Piscator, etc.).  Thus he consoles servants, so that they might know they also are the charges of Christ (Gomar)

But are now returned, in your conversion to the faith, to the Shepherd; Christ the good Shepherd, John 10:11, 14, 16, that takes care of souls, as a shepherd doth of his sheep.  And Bishop of your souls; superintendent, inspector, or, as the Hebrews phrase it, visitor, i.e. he that with care looks to, inspects, and visits the flock.  This he adds for the comfort (as of all believers, so) particularly of servants, that even they, as mean as they were, and as much exposed to injuries, yet were under the care and tuition of Christ.

[1] פָּקַד signifies to attend to, to visit, to muster, to appoint.

[2] Numbers 31:14:  “And Moses was wroth with the officers (פְּקוּדֵי) of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle.”

[3] 2 Kings 11:15a:  “But Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains of the hundreds, the officers (פְּקֻדֵי) of the host, and said unto them, Have her forth without the ranges: and him that followeth her kill with the sword.”

1 Peter 2:24: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 5

Verse 24:  (Is. 53:4-6, 11; Matt. 8:17; Heb. 9:28) Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on (or, to[1]) the tree, (Rom. 6:2, 11; 7:6) that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness:  (Is. 53:5) by whose stripes ye were healed.

[Who, etc., ὃς τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον]  Who our sins (that is, the punishments of our sins [Menochius, thus Estius, Gomar]) Himself (that is, by Himself [Estius, Gerhard], Hebrews 1:3, or, in His own person, not through the sacrifice of another [Gerhard]; [but] by the offering of Himself, so that He might be at the same time both Priest and sacrificial victim [Beza]:  The little word αὐτὸς/Himself, הוּא, carries great emphasis:  for which reason it is repeated so many times in Isaiah 53:4, 5, 7, 11, 12,[2] and it sends us back to Genesis 3:15, where הוּא/ αὐτὸς[3]/He/Himself shall crush, etc. [Gerhard]) bore (or, took away [Castalio, Vorstius], or carried [Vorstius, Grotius], which the things following show; just as we observed the same word to be taken in Hebrew 9:28:[4]  In the same sence, αἴρει ἁμαρτίαν, He takes away sin, John 1:29; and נָשָׂא, to bear, and סָבַל, to carry, in Isaiah 53:4, where the Greeks have φέρει, He bears:[5]  Thus He killed our sins, just as those that are fixed to a cross are wont to be killed:  A similar sort of speech in Colossians 2:14:  See also Romans 6:6; Galatians 2:20; 5:24:  Now, there is a μετάληψις/metalepsis[6] here:  For Christ, although He was crucified, did not properly bear away our sins, but provided the means by which they might be born away:  For the Cross of Christ is the foundation of preaching; and preaching is the foundation of repentance; and repentance bears away sins [Grotius]:  [These things Grotius has, like many other things drawn from the school of Socinus:  who was changed greatly by him! who in that extraordinary little book, in which he strenuously defends this very doctrine concerning the Satisfaction of Christ,[7] has these things, among others, that, that ἀναφέρειν signifies to bear away, neither the particle ἀνὰ/upward allows, nor does any Greek author thus make use:  To which argument and others of this sort, why would not Grotius in his Annotations give satisfaction to his prudent reader, who is left guessing, while Grotius proceeds unto other Translations of this word?]  Ἀνήνεγκεν, that is, ἄνωσε ἤνεγκεν [Piscator, Gerhard]; He bore up [Beza, Piscator, Hammond, Gerhard], that is, those things imposed upon Him upon the altar of the cross [Beza, similarly Hammond]; or, He carried [Arabic]; or, He made to ascend [Tremellius out of the Syriac]:  Ἀναφέρομαι is to lift upwards, or unto the altar, as in Matthew 17:1;[8] Mark 9:2;[9] Luke 24:51[10] [Gerhard]:  Therefore, there is an allusion, 1.  to the sacrifices of the Old Testament, concerning which ἀναφέρειν is used in Hebrews 7:27[11] [Gerhard, thus Beza]; James 2:21;[12] 2.  to the cross, on which Christ offered Himself; 3.  to the place in Isaiah 53:4, where the Septuagint has, our sins for us He carries [Gerhard]) in His own body (which he understands synecdochically of Christ’s entire human nature, consisting of body and soul; for His soul also labored [Gerhard, thus Piscator], indeed especially so [Piscator], Isaiah 53:10-12 [Gerhard]:  Now, mention is made of the body on account of the tree, or cross, to which He was fixed [Piscator, thus Gerhard], and because the sufferings of His body were more apparent to the eyes [Gerhard]; or, by a Hebraism, by His own body, that is, by the crucifixion of His body [Vorstius]) upon the tree (Montanus), that is, the cross (Beza, Piscator, Estius).

Who his own self; not by offering any other sacrifice, (as the Levitical priests did,) but by that of himself.  Bare our sins; or, took up, or lifted up, in allusion to the sacrifices of the Old Testament, the same word being used of them, Hebrews 7:27; James 2:21.  As the sins of the offerer were typically laid upon the sacrifice, which, being substituted in his place, was likewise slain in his stead; so Christ standing in our room, took upon him the guilt of our sins, and bare their punishment, Isaiah 53:4, etc.  The Lord laid on him our iniquities, and he willingly took them up; and by bearing their curse, took away our guilt.  Or, it may have respect to the cross, on which Christ being lifted up, (John 3:14, 15; 12:32,) took up our sins with him, and expiated their guilt by undergoing that death which was due to us for them.  In his own body; this doth not exclude his soul but is rather to be understood, by a synecdoche, of his whole human nature, and we have the sufferings of his soul mentioned, Isaiah 53:10, 12; John 12:27; but mention is made of his body, because the sufferings of that were most visible.  On the tree; on the cross.

[That, etc., ἵνα, ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀπογενόμενοι, τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζήσωμεν]  That is, ἀποθανόντες/dying, as it is in Romans 6:10[13] (Piscator).  Ἀπογίνομαι here is, either, 1.  to be taken out of the midst, that is to say, to fail (Piscator, Gerhard), or, to perish; which agrees to a remarkable extent with the abolition of the old man, from which begins our ἀναγέννησις/regeneration (Beza); that it might be opposed to γίνεσθαι, to become (Piscator, Gerhard), and to to live, as the following Antithesis shows (Gerhard, similarly Estius).  Or, 2.  to be put outside,[14] that is, to be excluded and separated (Beza, similarly Estius out of Ambrose[15]), or, to become far off (Grotius).  [Thus they render the words:]  that, to sins having died, or being dead (or, wearing out [Estius], dying out, as if now we would cease to be [Erasmus]:  He understands this, either, 1.  of justification, that is to say, that having been freed from the guilt and punishment of sin:  which is favored by the following words:  Or, 2.  of sanctification [Gomar]; that is to say, that having been freed from the dominion of sin,[16] and now having nothing further to do with sin [Estius]:  That with with state of sin left behind, and with past sins effaced [Menochius]:  That having been separated from sins [Arabic], or having been made far distant [Grotius]:  He signifies that this power is entailed in the death of Christ, that He might mortify our flesh [Calvin]), we should live to righteousness (Beza, Piscator, Pagnine, Erasmus, etc.), that is, we should practice works of righteousness (Estius, Gerhard).  It is the same thing as to live to God, Romans 6:10, 11 (Grotius, Piscator); Galatians 2:19; as to do righteousness, 1 John 3:7.  It is not sufficient to abstain from evils, but attention is to be given also to Christian virtues (Grotius).  He signifies that Christ died on the cross, not only so that He might expiate our sins; but also so that He might mortify them, and reform us unto a holy life (Gerhard out of Estius).

That we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness; another end of Christ’s death, the mortification of sin, and our being freed from the dominion of it, Romans 6:2, 6, and being reformed to a life of holiness.

[Whose, etc., οὗ τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἰάθητε]  It is a Hebraic Pleonasm[17] (Estius, Gerhard, Vorstius), of which sort is found in Psalm 74:2 (Estius).  The words are taken from Isaiah 53:5 (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard).  By whose bruising (or, welt [Erasmus, Piscator], battering and whipping:  From the consequent the antecedent is understood [Beza]; and there is an allusion to the whippings with which servants are wont to be smitten [Beza, similarly Estius, Gerhard], by harsh masters [Gerhard]:  or, by His flesh made livid by buffeting [Erasmus out of Hugo[18]]:  A bruise is a vestige of a blow on the skin:  In Hebrew it is חַבּוּרָה, a swelling coagulation because of a blow [Erasmus], or, a bruise from a contusion:  But it is taken figuratively from any suffering, as in Genesis 4:23;[19] Exodus 21:25;[20] Psalm 38:5;[21] Isaiah 1:6;[22] Proverbs 20:30[23] [Grotius], or, welts [Beza, Piscator]:  It is an Enallage of the singular number in the place of the plural[24] [Vorstius, thus Piscator]:  He here comforts servants concerning their welts [Piscator]:  By the welt of the same [Erasmus]) ye are healed (Vulgate, etc.), from the stripes of your sins (Estius).  Indeed, in many ways the sufferings of Christ healed us from our sins:  But here there is a special regard to the example which He gave to us of Obedience, Patience, Gentleness, Goodwill in the midst of sufferings, as what precedes shows (Grotius).  [Others otherwise:]  Healed, that is, reconciled to God, with sins remitted:  which the following verse proves from the instrument of healing, conversion, or faith (Gomar).

By whose stripes ye were healed; viz. of the wound made in your souls by sin:  this seems to relate to the blows that servants might receive of cruel masters, against which the apostle comforts them, and to the patient bearing of which he exhorts them, because Christ by bearing stripes, (a servile punishment,) under which may be comprehended all the sufferings of his death, had healed them of much worse wounds, and spiritual diseases, the guilt of their consciences, and the defilement of their souls.

[1] Greek:  ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον.

[2] Isaiah 53:4, 5, 7, 11, 12:  “Surely he (הוּא) hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:  yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.  But he (וְהוּא) was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities:  the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed….  He (וְהוּא) was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth:  he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth….  He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:  by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he (הוּא) shall bear their iniquities.  Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death:  and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he (וְהוּא) bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.”

[3] Thus the Septuagint.

[4] Hebrew 9:28:  “So Christ was once offered to bear (ἀνενεγκεῖν) the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”

[5] Isaiah 53:4:  “Surely he hath borne (נָשָׂא; φέρει, in the Septuagint) our griefs, and our sorrows, he carried them (סְבָלָם):  yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.”

[6] That is, the union of two or more tropes by a single word.

[7] Defensio Fidei Catholicæ de Satifactione Christi adversus Faustum Socinum Senensem.

[8] Matthew 17:1:  “And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up (ἀναφέρει) into an high mountain apart…”

[9] Mark 9:2:  “And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up (ἀναφέρει) into an high mountain apart by themselves:  and he was transfigured before them.”

[10] Luke 24:51:  “And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up (ἀνεφέρετο) into heaven.”

[11] Hebrews 7:27:  “Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up (ἀναφέρειν) sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people’s:  for this he did once, when he offered up (ἀνενέγκας) himself.”

[12] James 2:21:  “Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered up (ἀνενέγκας) Isaac his son upon the altar?”

[13] Romans 6:10:  “For in that he died (ἀπέθανε), he died (ἀπέθανεν) unto sin once:  but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.”

[14] Ἀπὸ signifies from; γίνεσθαι, to become.

[15] Ambrose (340-397), Bishop of Milan, was a man of great influence, ecclesiastically and politically, and was instrumental in the conversion of Augustine.

[16] See Romans 6.

[17] That is, the use of more words than is strictly necessary for clarity of expression.

[18] Hugh of St. Cher, also known as Hugo Cardinalis because he was the first Dominican to achieve the office of cardinal (c. 1200-1263), was a French Dominican Biblical scholar.  He compiled a list of variant readings of the Bible, composed a Biblical concordance, and wrote Postillæ in Sacram Scripturam.

[19] Genesis 4:23:  “…for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt (לְחַבֻּרָתִי).”

[20] Exodus 21:25:  “Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe (חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה).”

[21] Psalm 38:5:  “My wounds (חַבּוּרֹתָי) stink and are corrupt because of my foolishness.”

[22] Isaiah 1:6:  “From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises (וְחַבּוּרָה), and putrifying sores:  they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment.”

[23] Proverbs 20:30:  “The blueness of a wound (חַבֻּר֣וֹת פֶּ֭צַע) cleanseth away evil:  so do stripes the inward parts of the belly.”

[24] Μώλωπι/stripe is Dative singular.

1 Peter 2:22, 23: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 4

Verse 22:  (Is. 53:9; Luke 23:41; John 8:46; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15) Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth…

[Who did not sin, neither was found, etc.]  Not even by the Pharisees, who desired to catch Him in His speech[1] (Menochius):  that is to say, He was completely innocent, and He sinned neither in deed, nor in word (Estius, thus Gerhard).  Therefore, how is it overmuch, if ye sinners suffer (Estius)?  This is taken from Isaiah 53:9 (Grotius, Estius, Gerhard).  In the Hebrew יִהְיֶה/was is supplied to מִרְמָה/deceit, which is rightly expressed by εὑρέθη, it was found, as in Romans 7:10 and elsewhere:  just as also the Hebrews take נִמְצָא, it was found, which is translated by ἦν/was,[2] Isaiah 39:2 (Grotius).  The Hebrews use to be found for to be, as in Genesis 2:20; 2 Chronicles 31:1;[3] Isaiah 22:3.  Thus also Philippians 2:8; Revelation 14:5; 20:15 (Gerhard).  He says here that Christ is free from sin, so that He might be understood as fit to reconcile by His passion the race of men to His Father (Estius).

Neither was guile found in his mouth:  i.e. There was no guile in his mouth; it is a Hebraism; to be found is the same as to be, and not to be found the same as not to be, Genesis 2:20; Isaiah 39:2:  see Romans 7:10.  This signifies Christ’s absolute perfection, in that he did not offend so much as with his mouth, James 3:2.  The sense is, Christ was free from all manner of sin, and yet he suffered patiently; and therefore well may ye be content to suffer too, though wrongfully; seeing, though ye may be innocent in your sufferings, yet you come so far short of Christ’s perfection.


Verse 23:  (Is. 53:7; Matt. 27:39; John 8:48, 49; Heb. 12:3) Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but (Luke 23:46) committed himself (or, committed his cause) to him that judgeth righteously…

[Who, etc., ὃς λοιδορούμενος οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει]  Who, when He was assailed with abuse, or curses (called by the Jews a demoniac,[4] a Samaritan,[5] a blasphemer,[6] a subverter of the nation,[7] an enemy of Cæsar,[8] etc. [Estius, Menochius]) He did not return abuses (Grotius, similarly Beza, Piscator, etc), or, He did not recriminate (Menochius), He did not curse back (Estius, Menochius, thus Erasmus).  See Matthew 26:63, 68; 27:12, 29, 39, etc.  See Polycarp[9] [in Grotius].  That saying in John 8:44 was not a recrimination, but a true and just accusation (Estius).  Λοιδορεῖν, to revile, is the same as ὀνειδίζειν, to upbraid, in Plutarch’s[10] Moralia, or βλασφημεῖν, to blaspheme.  By this word λοιδορίας/ reviling, therefore, are understood all the verbal injuries, reproaches, calumnies, and curses, born by Christ; just as by the following language παθημάτων, of suffering,[11] are understood real injuries, like buffetings, floggings, etc. (Gerhard).

[When He suffered (not now reproaches [Beza], but wounds [Estius]; prison and bonds [Gerhard], and the cross itself:  See 1 Peter 2:21 and Hebrews 9:26 [Beza]), He did not threaten]  Lest He might appear to have done this as being moved, not by a zeal for justice, but by the affections of wrath and hatred (Estius).  He who had prostrated His adversaries with one word,[12] when He was taken captive, bound, scourged, fixed to the cross, uttered not even a threatening word, so that He might leave for us an example of patience (Grotius).

By Christ’s being reviled, we are to understand all those injurious words, reproaches, slanders, blasphemies, which his persecutors cast out against him.  Reviled not again; therefore when he told the Jews they were of their father the devil, John 8:44, that was not a reviling them, but a just accusation of them, or reproof of their devilish behaviour.  When he suffered; when he was affected not only with verbal but real injuries, buffeted, spit upon, crowned with thorns, crucified.  He threatened not; he was so far from avenging himself, or recompensing evil for evil, that he did not so much as threaten what he would afterward do to them.

[But He delivered, etc., παρεδίδου]  Some noun is understood after παρεδίδου, He committed (Grotius).  But He delivered (understanding, into the hands [Beza], or, He committed [Castalio, Beza, Piscator, thus Pagnine]:  Understand, either, ἑαυτὸν/Himself [Glassius’ “Grammar” 4:2:1:700]; or, His soul, as in 1 Peter 4:19 [Beza]; or, vengeance [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Vatablus, Zegers], which He was not taking to Himself [Erasmus]:  or, τὴν αἰτίαν αὑτοῦ [Beza], His cause [Beza, Piscator, Tremellius, Æthiopic]; His case [Castalio]; or, τὴν κρίσιν αὑτοῦ, His judgment [Beza, Grotius out of the Syriac], that is, verbal, from the following word [Beza], His judgment [Beza, Syriac]) to the one judging justly (Montanus), that is, to God (Erasmus, Valla, Zegers, Estius); who judges justly, that is, always.  For men often judge unjustly, like the Sanhedrin, and Pilate.  God is called the just judge, Psalm 7:11.[13]  The sense is the same in Psalm 96:10; 98:9; Jeremiah 11:20; and elsewhere.  This whole passage has regard to those things which we have in Isaiah 50:6-9 (Grotius); or, to the one judging unjustly (Vulgate), that is to say, He was permitting Himself to be judged unjustly and condemned by Pilate[14] (Menochius).  Thus read a great many Latin Codices, but by a fault of the copyists, as it is likely.  For it is ready justly by all the Greek Codices, and the Syriac (Estius), and all the Greek Fathers, and Augustine, etc.  When then is the αὐθεντία/authenticity of the Vulgate version (Gerhard)?

But committed himself; or his cause; neither is in the Greek, but either may be well supplied, and to the same purpose:  the sense is, Christ did not retaliate, nor act any thing out of private revenge, but so referred himself, and the judgment of his cause, to his Father’s good pleasure, as rather to desire pardon for his persecutors, than vengeance on them, Luke 23:34.  To him that judgeth righteously:  the apostle adds this of God’s judging righteously, for the comfort of servants to whom he speaks, as Ephesians 6:8, 9; Colossians 3:24; 4:1, and for the terror of masters, that the former might learn patience, and the latter moderation.

[1] Mark 12:13; Matthew 22:15; Luke 20:20.

[2] In the Septuagint.

[3] 2 Chronicles 31:1a:  “Now when all this was finished, all Israel that were present (הַנִּמְצְאִים) went out to the cities of Judah, and brake the images in pieces, and cut down the groves, and threw down the high places and the altars out of all Judah and Benjamin, in Ephraim also and Manasseh, until they had utterly destroyed them all.”

[4] John 7:20; 8:52; 10:20; Mark 3:22.

[5] John 8:48.

[6] Matthew 9:3; 26:65; John 10:33.

[7] Luke 23:2, 14.

[8] John 19:12.

[9] From his Epistle to the Philippians 2, 8.  Polycarp (69-155) was a disciple of John, and bishop of Smyrna.

[10] Mestrius Plutarchus (c. 46-127) was a Greek historian.

[11] See also 1 Peter 4:13; 5:1, 9.

[12] John 18:6.

[13] Psalm 7:11:  “God judgeth the righteous (אֱ֭לֹהִים שׁוֹפֵ֣ט צַדִּ֑יק; Deus judex justus, God is a just judge, in the Vulgate), and God is angry with the wicked every day.”

[14] John 19:10, 11.

1 Peter 2:20, 21: Peter Teaches Servants to Obey Their Masters, and to Suffer patiently for Well-Doing, Part 3

Verse 20:  For (1 Pet. 3:14; 4:14, 15) what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable (or, thank[1]) with God.

[For what glory is it]  Namely, before God (Grotius, Hammond)? that is to say, none (Piscator).  What illustrious and great thing is it (Gerhard, Estius)?  What glory will he attain (Menochius)?  Κλέος is praise, which is rendered by many, whence glory arises (Estius).

[If, etc., εἰ ἁμαρτάνοντες καὶ κολαφιζόμενοι ὑπομενεῖτε]  The Syriac (Beza, Grotius), and, as it appears, the Arabic (Grotius), and multiple manuscript codices (Beza), have κολαζόμενοι, being chastened (Beza, Grotius), which word is proper to punishments which the public laws appoint for the violators of human society.  Although κολαφιζόμενοι, being buffeted, is also able to be received, so that it might be a species in the place of a genus, in which manner it is in 1 Corinthians 4:11;[2] 2 Corinthians 12:7.[3]  Ὑπομενεῖτε[4] here signifies, not patience, but only suffering, as in Hebrews 12:7[5] (Grotius).  [Thus they translate it:]  If, sinning and being buffeted (or, smitten with blows [Beza]:  This was the punishment of servants [Menochius]:  Others:  If, when sinning ye are smitten with slaps, or blows [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Piscator], that is to say, if because of some fault ye are smitten [Estius]:  or, if sinning ye be smitten [Castalio]), ye suffer (Montanus, Illyricus, etc.), or, ye bear (Castalio), endure (Pagnine).

[But if, etc., εἰ ἀγαθοποιοῦντες, etc.]  If doing well, and suffering, ye bear (Montanus, Estius out of the Syriac), that is, παθήματα ὑπομενεῖτε, ye shall bear sufferings.  A sort of speech similar to that which is in verse 12 (Grotius).  If, when ye do well, nevertheless, being afflicted, ye endure (Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Vatablus, Beza, Estius), that is, ye endure with equanimity (Estius).

For what glory is it? what praise or glory do you get by it? or, what great matter do you do?  This interrogation hath the force of negation, but is to be understood comparatively; it is worthy of praise to suffer patiently, even when men suffer justly, but worthy of little in comparison of suffering patiently when unjustly.

[This is grace, etc.]  Explain this as in verse 19 (Grotius).

This is acceptable with God:  this shows what is meant by thankworthy, verse 19; and the apostle adds what kind of thanks or praise he intends, viz. not that which is of man, (which many times may fail, even when men patiently suffer injuries,) but that which is of God, to which believers should especially have respect.


Verse 21:  For (Matt. 16:24; Acts 14:22; 1 Thess. 3:3; 2 Tim. 3:12) even hereunto were ye called:  because (1 Pet. 3:18) Christ also suffered for us (some read, for you[6]), (John 13:15; Phil. 2:5; 1 John 2:6) leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps…

[For unto this (that is, this sort of life [Vatablus], that is, unto the cross and patience [Menochius, Tirinus]; or, on the condition [Grotius, Estius], that ye endure all hardnesses for the sake of conscience, 1 Corinthians 1:9 [Grotius]) were ye called]  that is to say, thus is your calling and profession, that ye, while doing well, bear evil patiently, Acts 14:22 (Estius).  In this way also we are said to have been called unto peace, unto holiness, Colossians 3:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:14 (Grotius).

For even hereunto; viz. to patient bearing of sufferings even for well-doing.  Were ye called; viz. to Christ and the fellowship of his kingdom; that is to say, Your very calling and profession, as Christians, requires this of you.

[Christ also suffered (that is, was afflicted with punishment:  for thus τὸ πάσχειν, to suffer, is taken absolutely in these books, like עָנָה, to be afflicted, in the Hebrew,[7] whence עֳנִי/affliction[8] [Beza]) for us]  It is to be read ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, for us, as it is in the majority of Greek Codices (Gerhard, thus Beza), manuscripts (Beza), both Latin (Gerhard), and the Syriac (Beza).  But other Codices, both Greek, and Latin, not a few, and those most approved, and Œcumenius, have for you (Estius).  Ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, for you, or περὶ ὑμῶν, on your behalf, as a manuscript has it here and elsewhere, where in the Vulgate ὑπὲρ/for.  This is correctly coheres with what follows (Grotius), and is more suited to the text; for Peter addresses servants (Estius); and since the preceding ἐκλήθητε, ye were called, and the following ἐπακολουθήσητε, ye should follow, are in the second person (Brugensis[9] in Gerhard).  But a change of person is not uncommon in this writings, especially in κοινοποιήσει, a generalization, which here has emphasis; that is to say, Christ has suffered for whomsoever of us, etc.  Therefore, also ye servants ought not to refuse a measure of sufferings (Gerhard).  Thus from a general statement he draws a particular exhortation.  Or, thus you might explain for us, that is, who were enemies, how much less that He would repay evil with evil (Beza).  The καὶ/also here is emphatic, and that, or thus, also Christ, our head, has suffered, etc.  Therefore, it is fitting that we suffer (Gerhard).  Or thus, also for you servants He suffered, etc. (Estius).

[Leaving an example, ὑπογραμμὸν]  An exemplar (Beza, Piscator).  An example (Erasmus, Montanus, Tremellius out of the Syriac, etc.).  A rule (Pagnine, Castalio, Grotius out of the Glossa), of which term Cicero also makes use.  The word appears to have first come from artisans, who with lead trace the lines which they follow in their work.  It is taken μεταφορικῶς/ metaphorically for all that which is worthy of imitation (Grotius).  Others:  A figurative use, taken from painters, or teachers of writing (Grotius).

[That, etc., ἵνα ἐπακολουθήσητε τοῖς ἴχνεσιν αὐτοῦ]  This is the same as στοιχεῖν τοῖς ἴχνεσι, to walk in the steps, Romans 4:12; περιπατεῖν τοῖς ἴχνεσι, to walk in the steps, 2 Corinthians 12:18.  To the Hebrews, it isהָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי, to walk after.[10]  Thus the Syriac, הלך בעקבא.  The Latins also use vestigiis alicujus insistere, to tread in someone’s steps, in the place of to imitate someone (Grotius).  That we might follow after His footsteps (Beza, thus Erasmus, Piscator), that is, that we might imitate His patience and other virtues (Gerhard).  Let us not marvel that what has happened to Christ happens to us (Grotius).

Also; there is an emphasis in this particle, it is as much as if he had said:  Even Christ our Lord and Head hath suffered for us, and therefore we that are but his servants and members must not think to escape sufferings.  For us; or, as in the margin, for you, which agrees with the beginning and end of the verse, where the second person is used; but most read it as we do, in the first person, and the sense is still the same; only the apostle from a general proposition draws a particular exhortation:  Christ suffered for us, (therein he comprehends the saints to whom he writes,) and left an example for us all; do ye therefore to whom, as well as to others, he left this example, follow his steps, John 13:15; 1 John 2:6.  Leaving us an example, as of other graces, so especially of patience.

[1] Greek:  χάρις.

[2] 1 Corinthians 4:11:  “Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted (κολαφιζόμεθα), and have no certain dwellingplace…”

[3] 2 Corinthians 12:7b:  “…the messenger of Satan to buffet me (ἵνα με κολαφίζη), lest I should be exalted above measure.”

[4] 1 Peter 2:20a:  “For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently (ὑπομενεῖτε, or, ye shall endure)?”

[5] Hebrews 12:7:  “If ye endure (ὑπομένετε) chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not?”

[6] Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.

[7] For example, Isaiah 53:7a:  “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted (נַעֲנֶה), yet he opened not his mouth…”

[8] For example, Exodus 3:7:  “And the Lord said, I have surely seen the affliction (אֶת־עֳנִי) of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows…”

[9] Lucas Brugensis (1549-1619) was a Jesuit scholar, who labored in the collation of manuscripts.  He wrote In Variantia Sacrarum Bibliarum Loca Notationes (Notations on the Varying Passages of the Sacred Books).

[10] For example, Deuteronomy 8:19:  “And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the Lord thy God, and walk after (וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי) other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish.”