Verse 7: (1 Cor. 7:3; Eph. 5:25; Col. 3:19) Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, (1 Cor. 12:23; 1 Thess. 4:4) as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; (see Job 42:8; Matt. 5:23, 24; 18:19) that your prayers be not hindered.
[The men, οἱ ἄνδρες] In the place of ὦ ἄνδρες, oh husbands, by Antiptosis or an Atticism. For he addresses them, as it is evident from the end of the verse: whence the Syriac, ye husbands (Gerhard).
[Similarly, etc., ὁμοίως, συνοικοῦντες κατὰ γνῶσιν] Similarly (that is, reciprocally [Grotius, Estius]: In the place of which is ὡσαύτως, in like manner, 1 Timothy 2:9: He juxtaposes the duties of husbands and wives [Gerhard]) dwelling together (understanding, let them be, or be ye [Estius, thus Zegers, Piscator, Beza, Grotius], as at the beginning of the chapter [Estius]: or, let them dwell together [Illyricus, Pagnine, Gomar]; let them cohabitate [Beza, Castalio]; cohabitate ye [Piscator], understanding, with your wives [Piscator, Estius], that is, converse and live ye together with them [Estius], enjoying the same roof and bed [Menochius], as joined by an indissoluble chain [Gerhard]: συνοικεῖν, to dwell together, is used properly of Spouses; as it appears in the Greek of Genesis 20:3; Deuteronomy 22:13; 24:1; 25:5; Proverbs 30:23; Isaiah 62:5; Ecclesiasticus 25:16; 42:9, 10: Now, he comprehends by a certain Synecdoche all the duties of spouses between them [Grotius], or the entire conjugal usage and way of life: Demosthenes says, The law does not permit a citizen τῷ ξένῳ συνοικεῖν, to cohabit, to be intimate, with a stranger; and Laertius, in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 8, τὰς συνοικούσας ἄνδρασι, who with husbands cohabitate, or are intimate [Gataker’s Pfochenius 121]: In this place it denotes, either, 1. coming together with their wives [certain interpreters in Gerhard], as συνοικεῖν is used in Deuteronomy 24:1, and manifestly in Deuteronomy 22:13, just as also συνοικίζειν, to make to live with, in Deuteronomy 21:13: Or rather, 2. domestical life [Gerhard]) according to acquaintance, or knowledge (Montanus, Piscator, Gomar, etc.), that is, agreeably to the knowledge (Gomar), by which ye excel them by privilege of Nature (Gerhard): or, as it befits those knowing (Beza, Piscator, Gomar), with judgment, not yielding to their passions in all circumstances, as did Adam (Zegers); prudently and rationally (Estius, similarly Menochius), humanely (Gerhard), moderately; that is to say, Rule ye them with wisdom (Gomar): or, according to that acquaintance of the Divine will that ye have obtained through the Gospel. See Romans 15:14; 1 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 6:6 (Grotius): or, according to the knowledge of the interpretation of the mysteries of Sacred Scripture, and specifically of those words in the history of the creation, Genesis 1:27, 28; 2:22; out of which this cohabitation, and other duties of spouses, are able to be deduced, to which end these words are adduced in Matthew 19:4; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 11:8; Ephesians 5:31. Now, γνῶσις/knowledge is taken for that gift of the Spirit in 1 Corinthians 12:8 (Hammond).
Dwell with them; perform all matrimonial duties to them; by a synecdoche, all the duties of that relation are contained under this one of cohabitation. According to knowledge; either, according to that knowledge of the Divine will, which by the gospel ye have obtained; or, prudently and wisely, and as becomes those that understand their duty.
[To the weaker vessel, etc., ὡς ἀσθενεστέρῳ σκεύει τῷ γυναικείῳ ἀπονέμοντες τιμήν] To the womanly vessel as weaker attributing honor (Pagnine, Castalio, Beza, Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Montanus, Vulgate, etc.). A vessel in Scripture any instrument is called (Gerhard, Calvin, thus Estius), or that of which we make use (Grotius, similarly Beza): it is also used of Men, Acts 9:15; Romans 9:21, 22 (Grotius), and of the Bodies of men, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 (Gerhard); 2 Corinthians 4:7 (Estius). Here it is, either, 1. the Body of the woman (Menochius out of Aquinas, similarly Estius): or, 2. the Woman herself (Menochius, Piscator, Gerhard, thus Beza, Gomar), who is compared to a vessel (Piscator, Gerhard), because of her use for various activities (Estius, similarly Gerhard), and among those for the act proper to spouses (Estius); because she is a help to the man, Genesis 2:18 (Gerhard, Menochius); and after the likeness of vessels for the use and ornament of her family and husband (Gomar). Here, therefore, the adjective identifies the subject, as in 1 Peter 2:2, 13 (Piscator, Gerhard). A Wife is ὄργανον, a tool, for her Husband, Aristotle’s Politics 8, ἀσθενέστερον/weaker than her husband, as the same says in his Economics 3 (Grotius). Now, he says as weaker because we handle fragile vessles gently, lest they be broken (Gomar); and what things concern us most nearly, as they are weaker, we deem them worthy of greater care (Beza), 1 Corinthians 12:23 (Beza, Estius), in which place, as honor is to be bestowed upon the more ignoble members to cover their shame, so here upon one weaker, to cover her infirmity (Estius). And, as we more easily forgive boys erring through inexperience, so let us not be rigid and bitter toward our wives, on account of infirmities (Calvin); but let us cover them with conjugal love, and pardon lesser erros (Gerhard). Now, the woman, as she is weak in herself, so she is weaker comparatively with her husband (Gomar); both with respect to constitution of body, and mind (Menochius, thus Estius, Gerhard), judgment (Menochius, Gomar), affections (Gomar); industry also and prudence for the conducting of business (Menochius). Quintilian’s Declamations 308, A woman is a feeble creature; and she brings to her natural infirmity no small burden when she is a unmarried (Grotius). By honor here he understands, either, 1. a moderate use of the matrimonial act (Lorinus out of Jerome, Bede and Œcumenius in Gerhard, similarly Menochius, Erasmus, Zegers), that they might make use of their wives honestly, chastely, and temperately, and not abuse them unto superfluous, still less abominable, lusts (Estius). Which is favored by what follows, lest your prayers be hindered (Menochius, Zegers). He wills that the conjugal debt be rendered to those; but honestly, not petulantly and impudently (certain interpreters in Menochius). Or, 2. subsistence (certain interpreters in Zegers and in Erasmus, thus Cameron, Hammond), as τιμὴ/ honor is taken in Matthew 15:6; 1 Timothy 5:3, 17. Thus also Numbers 22:37; Acts 28:10. Thus Cicero, honor is owed to the physician, that is, compensation. And Aristotle, in his Rhetoric 1:5, places among the parts of τιμῆς/honor δῶρα/gifts, etc. (Hammond). And, just as in Hebrew בּוּז is to despise, and thus also to neglect; so in turn to honor is to take care of, etc. (Cameron). Therefore, the sense: Let them bear the maintenance of their wives, lest anything should be wanting to them (Cameron, similarly Lyra, Beza), for they are weaker, and are dependent upon their husbands for the necessities of life (Hammond). Or, 3. more generally, as it sounds (certain interpreters in Menochius, Gerhard), that they might not despise them on account of infirmities (Gerhard, similarly Estius, Gomar), nor treat them like servants or slaves (Gerhard); but that them, as the inseparable and useful companions of life (Gomar, Gerhard), they might value (Gomar, Calvin), address and treat respectfully, and accommodate themselves to them (Menochius); for we are not able truly to love those whom we despise (Calvin); that we might treat them honorably and courteously, and meet their infirmity prudently (Estius); that we might treat them mildly; just as a certain regard is had for crystal, for it is treated with care. This expression, to hold in honor, is also in the Book Musar (Grotius).
[As, etc., ὡς καὶ συγκληρονόμοι χάριτος ζωῆς] That is, ὄντες/being (Gerhard), which is able to be referred, either, 1. to the husbands; so that the sense might be, husbands, just as also their wives, are called unto eternal life, so that they ought to strive for it by living well, and therefore their spouses are to be treated by them honestly in accordance with the Law of God: or, 2. to the wives, so that the text might thus be rendered, as also co-heirs, etc., understanding, they are, that is, the wives themselves, as the Syriac translates it (Gerhard out of Estius). Others read συγκληρονόμοις, etc. (Beza, Gerhard, Vorstius, Estius) as Jerome read Codex Regius and Veronensis (Gerhard),which squares better; for he understands the wives to be co-heirs of the same kingdom with their husbands (Vorstius). The argument here is threefold, 1. in the καὶ/and; 2. in the σύν/together; 3. in the substance of the matter (Beza). As also co-heirs (inasmuch as ye are also heirs together [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator]) of the grace (that is, of the benefit [Erasmus, Beza]) of life (Erasmus, Vatablus, etc.), that is, whereby is bestowed life, eternal, that is, κατ᾽ ἐξοχήν, par excellence (Beza, similarly Gomar); or, of eternal life to be given by grace, so that it might be a Hypallage and a Synecdoche of kind (Piscator, thus Gerhard); or ζωῆς, of life, that is, ζωοποιούσης, making alive, as in 1 Peter 1:3. In a manuscript it is ποικίλης χάριτος ζωῆς, of the manifold grace of life, because of the manifold gifts of the Spirit (Grotius). Of the grace of life, that is, vital, for it gives spiritual life, and leads unto eternal life. He gives here the reason why men ought to honor their wives, because, although with respect to nature and sex they be infirm and unequal (Menochius), yet they are equal to their husbands with respect to their vocation into the same grace and glory (Menochius, similarly Beza, Estius, Calvin): for in Christ there is neither male nor female, Galatians 3:28 (Estius). Of Evangelical Grace, which leads unto eternal life, Men and Women are partakers (Grotius). Others: Χάρις/grace is a free gift, here, and in 1 Corinthians 16:3; 2 Corinthians 8:1, 4; 1 Peter 4:10; etc. Ζωὴ/life is mentioned here, either life itself, or the necessary supports of life. He instructed husbands that they bestow a maintenance upon their wives, for God has willed husbands and wives to be συγκληρονόμους, etc., that is, partakers together of the grace, both of life itself, which God gave to both in the creation, and of the necessary supports of life, the dominion and inheritance of which God gave to both in the beginning, Genesis 1:28, 29 (Hammond).
Giving honour unto the wife; not despising them because of their weakness, or using them as slaves, but respecting them, caring for them, (as Matthew 15:6; 1 Timothy 5:3,) using them gently, covering their infirmities. As unto the weaker vessel; weaker than the husbands, and that both in body and mind, as women usually are. In Scripture any instrument is called a vessel, and the wife is here called so, as being not only an ornament, but a help to the husband and family, Genesis 2:18. This he adds as a reason why the husband should give honour to the wife, viz. her being the weaker vessel; weak vessels must be gently handled; the infirmities of children bespeak their pardon when they offend; and those members of the body which we think less honourable, on them we bestow more abundant honour, 1 Corinthians 12:23. It is a part of that prudence according to which men should dwell with their wives, to have the more regard to them because of their infirmities, (in bearing with them and hiding them,) lest they should be discouraged, if they find their weakness makes them contemptible. And as being heirs together: another reason why husbands should give honour to their wives, viz. because though by nature they are weak and unequal to their husbands, yet they are equal to them in respect of their being called to the same grace and glory, there being neither male nor female in Christ, Galatians 3:28. Of the grace of life; that is, eternal life, which is the gift of grace; or, is to be given out of grace.
[That, etc., εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκκόπτεσθαι τὰς προσευχὰς ὑμῶν] Others read ἐγκόπτεσθαι, to be hindered (Grotius, Gerhard), as in the Complutensian and Royal Codices, and in two others (Gerhard), and the Latin, and that rightly: for it is to hinder, as in Acts 24:4; Romans 15:22; Galatians 5:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; whence ἐγκοπὴ/hindrance in 1 Corinthians 9:12 (Grotius). But there is no variation in the sense, for ἐκκόπτειν is both to cut off, as in Matthew 3:10; 5:30, etc.; and to sever, or to cancel, as in Herodianus’ History of the Empire 7 (Gerhard). [Thus they translate it:] To not to be severed, etc. (Montanus). Lest ye be colliding, or undermined, in your prayers (Gerhard out of the Syriac). Lest your prayers be interrupted, or hindered (Erasmus, Pagnine, Castalio, Piscator, Beza, Vulgate), that is, at those times in which they are to be made. Consult 1 Corinthians 7:5. The times of prayer and of conjugal embrace are to be distinguished (Estius); that is to say, Lest, if ye indulge excessive pleasure, the soul be called from the study of prayer (Menochius). Others: Lest prayer be hindered, that is, the force and efficacy of the prayers, by quarrels and disputes (Grotius, similarly Menochius, Calvin), which follow from harsh treatment (Grotius). For prayers are not pleasing to God, except those which proceed from a quiet spirit (Grotius, similarly Calvin). But ye are mad, if ye shut up the way to yourselves to invoke God, since it is the one refuge of our salvation (Calvin).
That your prayers be not hindered; either, that ye be not diverted and hindered from praying; or, that the efficacy of your prayers be not hindered, viz. by those contentions and differences which are like to arise, if you do not dwell with your own wives according to knowledge, and give them the honour that belongs to them.
 The putting of one case for another; here, the Nominative in the place of the Vocative.
 Genesis 20:3b: “Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is dwelling together (συνῳκηκυῖα) with a husband.”
 Deuteronomy 22:13: “If any man take a wife, and dwell together (συνοικήσῃ) with her, and hate her…”
 Deuteronomy 24:1: “When a man hath taken a wife, and dwelt with (συνοικήσῃ) her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”
 Deuteronomy 25:5: “If brethren dwell together (κατοικῶσιν), and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and dwell together (συνοικήσει) with her.”
 Isaiah 62:5: “For as a young man marrieth (συνοικῶν, or, dwelleth together with) a virgin, so shall thy sons marry (κατοικήσουσιν) thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.”
 Ecclesiasticus 25:16: “I had rather dwell (συνοικῆσαι) with a lion and a dragon, than to keep house (συνοικῆσαι) with a wicked woman.”
 Ecclesiasticus 42:9: “The father waketh for the daughter, when no man knoweth; and the care for her taketh away sleep: when she is young, lest she pass away the flower of her age; and being married (συνῳκηκυῖα, or, dwelling together), lest she should be hated…”
 Ecclesiasticus 42:10: “In her virginity, lest she should be defiled and gotten with child in her father’s house; and having an husband, lest she should misbehave herself; and when she is married (συνῳκηκυῖα, or, dwelling together), lest she should be barren.”
 Demosthenes (384-322 BC) was a Greek orator and stateman.
 Diogenes Laertius was a biographer of Greek philosophers, writing his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers probably sometime during the third century AD.
 De Novi Instrumenti Stylo Dissertatio; qua Viri Doctissimi Sebastiani Pfochenii de Linguæ Græcæ Novi Testmenti Puritate, etc.
 Deuteronomy 21:13: “And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and make her to live with (συνοικισθήσῃ), and she shall be thy wife.”
 Thomas Aquinas (c. 1224-1274) was perhaps the greatest of the mediæval scholastic theologians.
 Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35-c. 100) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, heavily referenced in medieval and Renaissance writing.
 Johannes Lorinus, or Jean Lorin (1559-1634), was a French Jesuit; he wrote several Biblical commentaries, including commentaries on Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms, Acts, Jude, and Leviticus.
 Epistularum ad Familiares 16:9.
 See, for example, Proverbs 14:21: “He that despiseth (בָּז, or, neglecteth) his neighbour sinneth: but he that hath mercy on the poor, happy is he.”
 In the Dative. Thus Codex Vaticanus.
 1 Peter 3:7: “Likewise, ye husbands (οἱ ἄνδρες, in the Nominative case), dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife (τῷ γυναικείῳ, in the Dative case), as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together (συγκληρονόμοι, in the Nominative case in the great majority of manuscripts) of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered.”
 Codex Regius is an eighth century Greek uncial of the New Testament, of the Alexandrian text-type.
 Codex Veronensis is a fourth or fifth century old Latin version of the Gospels, of the Western text-type.
 That is, a reversal of the syntactical relation of two words.
 Thus Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus.
 See Romans 12; 1 Corinthians 12.
 1 Corinthians 16:3: “And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality (χάριν) unto Jerusalem.”
 2 Corinthians 8:4: “Praying us with much intreaty that we would receive the gift (τὴν χάριν), and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.”
 Ἐκκόπτεσθαι signifies to be cut off; ἐγκόπτεσθαι, to be hindered, or to have the way cut off.
 The Complutensian Polyglot (taking its name from the university in Alcalá [Complutum, in Latin]; 1514) contained the first printed edition of the Septuagint, Jerome’s Vulgate, the Hebrew Text, Targum Onkelos with a Latin translation, and the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament. The labor of the scholars was superintended by Cardinal Francisco Ximénez de Cisneros.
 Indeed, the majority of manuscripts read ἐγκόπτεσθαι.
 Acts 24:4: “Notwithstanding, that I might hinder (ἐγκόπτω) thee no further, I pray thee that thou wouldest hear us of thy clemency a few words.”
 Romans 15:22: “For which cause also I have been hindered (ἐνεκοπτόμην) much from coming to you.”
 Galatians 5:7: “Ye did run well; who did hinder (ἀνέκοψεν) you that ye should not obey the truth?”
 1 Thessalonians 2:18: “Wherefore we would have come unto you, even I Paul, once and again; but Satan hindered (ἐνέκοψεν) us.”
 1 Corinthians 9:12: “If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should give some hindrance (ἐγκοπήν τινα) to the gospel of Christ.”
 Matthew 3:10: “And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down (ἐκκόπτεται), and cast into the fire.”
 Matthew 5:30a: “And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off (ἔκκοψον αὐτὴν), and cast it from thee…”
 Herodianus of Syria (c. 170-240) was a Roman civil servant; he wrote a history of the Roman Empire in Greek covering the years from 180 to 238 (History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus).
 A woodenly literalistic rendering.