James 2:7: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 6

Verse 7:[1] Do not they blaspheme that worthy name by the which ye are called?

[Do not they, etc., οὐκ αὐτοὶ βλασφημοῦσι—τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶς] Do not they blaspheme (either, 1. properly, as many understand it [certain interpreters in Estius, similarly Gataker]: Of those rich men many are found that so hate Christianity that they also curse Christ [Grotius]; or, 2. they are the reason that He may be blasphemed [Menochius, thus Piscator, Estius], on account of their evil manners, and especially because they cruelly draw their poor brethren before the judgment-seats of the Heathen: See Ezekiel 36:21, 22 [Estius], and Romans 2:24 [Piscator]) the lovely[2] (or, honorific: See concerning καλῶς/well/honorably in verse 3[3] [Grotius]; or, illustrious [Beza, Piscator], good [Vulgate]: The name he calls good, as Ezekiel calls it holy, so that he might show the gravity of the sin; that is to say, that name, which ought by all to be honored and sanctified, they render odious [Estius]) name (others: they speak illy of the good name [Erasmus, Vatablus], namely, of God, or of Christ [Estius, Gataker], or of the Christian [Menochius, thus Vatablus, Drusius]) invoked over you? (Montanus, thus Erasmus, Piscator), or, by which ye are named (Beza, Piscator), or, by whose name ye are called (Grotius, thus Estius), or, the people of God; or, Christians (Estius). It is a Hebrew expression (Grotius, Piscator), examples of which see in Genesis 48:16 (Piscator, Grotius); Deuteronomy 28:10 (Laurentius); Isaiah 4:1 (Piscator). Just as children are called by the names of their parents, women by the names of their husbands; so Christians by the name of Christ (Grotius).

Do not they blaspheme? If the rich here spoken of were Christians, then they may be said to blaspheme Christ’s name, when by their wicked carriage they caused it to be blasphemed by others, unbelievers, among whom they were, Romans 2:24; Titus 2:5, etc.; 1 Timothy 6:1: but if rich unbelievers be here meant, the rich men of those times being generally great enemies to Christianity; he would from thence show how mean a consideration riches were, to incline the professors of religion to such partiality as he taxeth them for. That worthy name; or, good or honourable (as good place, James 2:3, for honourable) name of Christ; they blaspheme what they should adore. By the which ye are called; or, which is called upon you, either, which was called upon over you, when you were baptized into it; or rather it is a Hebrew phrase, and, implies no more than (as we read it) their being called by it, as children are after their fathers, and wives after their husbands, Genesis 48:16; Isaiah 4:1; for so God’s people are called by his name, Deuteronomy 28:10; Ephesians 3:15.

[1] Greek:  οὐκ αὐτοὶ βλασφημοῦσι τὸ καλὸν ὄνομα τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶς;

[2] Greek:  τὸ καλὸν.

[3] James 2:3:  “And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here honorably (καλῶς); and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool…”

James 2:6: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 5

Verse 6:[1] But (1 Cor. 11:22) ye have despised the poor. Do not rich men oppress you, (Acts 13:50; 17:6; 18:12; Jam. 5:6) and draw you before the judgment seats?

[Ye, etc., ὑμεῖς δὲ ἠτιμάσατε, etc.] The Aorist tense for whatever Time, as also in verse 4[2] (Grotius). But ye (emphatically, as in Malachi 1:12; that is to say, ye Christians, who have been taught better things, Philippians 3:8, etc.: For it would not be strange for worldly men to do this, Psalm 17:14 [Gataker]) despised (or, dishonored [Drusius, Piscator], have afflicted with abuse [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator], have held in contempt, or derision [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Tremellius out of the Syriac, Vatablus, Castalio, Grotius]: that is to say, which was not at all proper: for those that God has chosen unto His fellowship are not to be despised [Estius]: לֹעֵג, ὁ καταγελῶν, whoso mocketh, Proverbs 17:5; בּוֹשַׁסְכֶם, your treading, Amos 5:11: Compare also Psalm 10 [Grotius]) the poor (Montanus), that is, poor men (Estius); the entire class of poor men (Piscator), and therefore his maker, God, Proverbs 17:5 (Drusius).

But ye have despised the poor; God’s poor, viz. by your respecting persons.

[Do not, etc., οὐχ—καταδυναστεύουσιν ὑμῶν, etc.] Do not rich men (that is, the greater part [Piscator], either, 1. in general, not specifically those that were frequenting the Church: You have an example in Acts 13:50 [Grotius]: the rich of this world that were sore vexing Christians, and stirring profane magistrates against them [Beza]: Or, 2. Christians [Estius out of Gagnæus], as it is evident from what precedes and follows [Estius]) by force (or, tyranny [Pagnine, Beza, Piscator]) oppress you (or, exercise tyranny over you [Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus], that is, abuse their power to your hurt [Erasmus]: Or, rule over you [Castalio]; become overbearing toward you [Syriac]; are superior to you [Arabic]: Ye see, says he, what scornful contempt, what arrogance, is wont to accompany riches, that ye might make less of those riches [Grotius], and detest the calumnies and robberies of those men, which ye have experienced; still less that ye might prefer them to the poor [even the Lord’s poor (Beza)] [Menochius]: The custom of the right is to act imperiously against the poor, to care little for their trouble: Indeed…this is the liberty of the poor: Having been pounded into jelly by fists, he begs and pleads:[3] Euripides, ὕβριν τοι τίκτει πλοῦτος , wealth brings forth to thee outrages: Compare Psalm 10:2, 8, 9: See also Plautus’[4] Aulularia 2:2 [Grotius]: Καταδυναστεύειν, to oppress, as in Acts 10:38[5] [Gataker]: It is to oppress, as it is seen in Wisdom of Solomon 2:10;[6] 17:2:[7] It answers to the Hebrew רָדָה, to have dominion, as we said on Matthew 20:25;[8] and מָשַׁל, to rule, as in Proverbs 22:7[9] [Grotius]; and שָׁלַט, to bear rule, Nehemiah 5:15[10] [Gataker]), and (in the place of, for [Vatablus]) they (αὐτοὶ/they is redundant, according to the Hebraism [Piscator]) draw (that is, they lead away as if with the neck in a noose [Gataker]) you (or, yourselves, who do so honor them [Gataker]) to trials? (Montanus), or, judgment-seats? (Beza, Piscator, etc.). Namely, secular, or of unbelievers, from a comparison with 1 Corinthians 6 (Estius). They haul off to court/law, as Plautus says (Grotius), so that under a pretense of law they might spoil you (Piscator, Gataker). Christians ought never to litigate, or to go to law, except unwillingly, and, as it were, compelled (Gataker). Now, even on level ground the poor has a hard contest in judgment with the rich, not only because often Judges on account of favor give additional consideration to the rich; but also because the expense both of the litigation and of the time that is expended upon it overburdens the poor. And so in contempt one is wont to say, Go to law, as Donatus[11] noted (Grotius).

Do not rich men? Either those that were unbelieving Jews or heathen; or such as made a profession of Christianity, but were not cordial friends to it; or, both may be included. Oppress you; insolently abuse you, and unrighteously, either usurping a power over you which belongs not to them, or abusing the power they have. And draw you before the judgment-seats; especially before unbelieving judges, 1 Corinthians 6:1, 6: they would colour their oppression with a pretence of law, and therefore drew the poor saints before the judgment-seat.

[1] Greek:  ὑμεῖς δὲ ἠτιμάσατε τὸν πτωχόν.  οὐχ οἱ πλούσιοι καταδυναστεύουσιν ὑμῶν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἕλκουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς κριτήρια;

[2] James 2:4:  “Are ye not then partial (καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε, in the Aorist tense) in yourselves, and are become (ἐγένεσθε, in the Aorist tense) judges of evil thoughts?”

[3] Juvenal’s Satires 3:299.

[4] Titus Maccius Plautus (254-184 BC) was a Roman playwright.  Only twenty-one of his nearly one hundred and thirty comedies survive.

[5] Acts 10:38:  “How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power:  who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed (καταδυναστευομένους) of the devil; for God was with him.”

[6] Wisdom of Solomon 2:10:  “Let us oppress (καταδυναστεύσωμεν) the poor righteous man, let us not spare the widow, nor reverence the ancient gray hairs of the aged.”

[7] Wisdom of Solomon 17:2:  “For when unrighteous men thought to oppress (καταδυναστεύειν) the holy nation; they being shut up in their houses, the prisoners of darkness, and fettered with the bonds of a long night, lay there exiled from the eternal providence.”

[8] Matthew 20:25:  “But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion (κατακυριεύουσιν) over them, and they that are great exercise authority (κατεξουσιάζουσιν) upon them.”

[9] Proverbs 22:7:  “The rich ruleth (יִמְשׁוֹל) over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender.”

[10] Nehemiah 5:15:  “But the former governors that had been before me were chargeable unto the people, and had taken of them bread and wine, beside forty shekels of silver; yea, even their servants bare rule (שָׁלְטוּ) over the people:  but so did not I, because of the fear of God.”

[11] Ælius Donatus was a fourth century, Latin grammarian, who wrote commentaries on Terence and Virgil.  He is remembered largely on account of his most famous pupil, Jerome.

James 2:5: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 4

Verse 5:[1] Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?

[Hear ye[2]] That is, pay attention (Grotius, similarly Estius), as in Matthew 11:15[3] (Grotius); Acts 22:1[4] (Gataker).

[Has not, etc., οὐχ—ἐξελέξατο— πλουσίους ἐν πίστει] Has not God chosen (that is, determined to choose [certain interpreters in Vorsius]; chosen out of mankind for eternal life, as everywhere in Scripture [Piscator]: or, separated to Himself for His own: See Matthew 20:16;[5] 1 Thessalonians 1:4;[6] and what things were said on Ephesians 1:4[7] [Grotius]) the poor (that is, the majority [Grotius, similarly Piscator], according to 1 Corinthians 1:26 [Piscator]) of this world (like the foolish things of the world, 1 Corinthians 1:27, and, conversely, the rich inthis world, 1 Timothy 6:17: Thus Luke 12:21 [Gataker], those poor with respect to this world’s goods [Piscator]: or, who to the world appear to be poor: He said this so that he might better bring in ἀντίθεσιν, the antithesis, that follows [Grotius]) rich in faith (Erasmus, Vorstius), that is, who are rich in faith upon Christ. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:17; 2 Thessalonians 2:13 (Vorstius). Lest anyone should think that all the poor are reserved by God as His possession, he adds, but abounding in faith. For thus the language πλούτου, of riches, and πλουσίου, of the rich, is taken in Romans 2:4; Ephesians 2:4 (Grotius); Colossians 1:27; 2:2; etc. (Gataker). But there are always more such found among the poor than rich in the flock, for reasons which related on Matthew 5:3; 1 Corinthians 1:26 (Grotius): or, that they might be made rich in faith (Beza, Piscator), that is, that He might make them rich in faith, and in the other spiritual gifts (Estius). There is an Ellipsis of εἶναι, to be, or of γένεσθαι, to be or become (Beza, Piscator, Dieu); which sort is found in Romans 8:29, προώρισε συμμόρφους, He did predestinate conformed, that is, εἶναι, to be (Piscator). Thus in John 12:46, φῶς, a light (in the place of εἶναι φῶς, to be a light), ἐλήλυθα, I have come: and in 2 Corinthians 3:6, ἱκάνωσεν ἡμᾶς διακόνους, he has qualified us ministers, that is, εἶναι, to be (Dieu). He shows the perversity of the judgment of the world (Beza). He proves that respect of persons is contrary, both to equity, verses 5-7, because thereupon it happens that they despise those whom God honors, etc.; and to love, verse 8, etc. (Gataker).

[And heirs, etc., καὶ κληρονόμους, etc.] And (but that καὶ/and is more properly wanting in a Manuscript [Grotius]) heirs (this follows from the prior; for believers are heirs [Estius]: or, that they might be heirs [Grotius out of the Syriac]: Thus after ἐξελέξατο, He hath chosen, follows εἶναι, to be, Ephesians 1:4: For such verbs are frequently understood [Grotius]) of the kingdom (heavenly [Estius, Piscator]) which He has promised (which is the foundation of our right to that [Gataker]) to them that love Him? (Piscator, Beza, etc.). See 1 Corinthians 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:8. Add Titus 1:2 (Grotius). He does not say to them that believe, lest anyone should think that faith idle, and devoid of love, is sufficient (Estius).

Hath not God chosen the poor? Not that God hath chosen all the poor in the world, but his choice is chiefly of them, 1 Corinthians 1:26, 28. Poor he means in the things of this world, and in the esteem of worldly men; they are opposed to those that Paul calls rich in this world, 1 Timothy 6:17, 18. Rich: some insert the verb substantive to be between this and the former clause, and read: Hath not God chosen the poor of this world to be rich, etc. So Romans 8:29, predestinate to be conformed: the like defective speeches we find, John 12:46; 2 Corinthians 3:6. And the verb understood here is expressed, Ephesians 1:4, after the same word we have in this text. And yet if we read the words as they stand in our translation, they do not prove that foresight of faith is previous to election, any more than that being heirs of the kingdom is so too. In faith; either in the greatness and abundance of their faith, Matthew 15:28; Romans 4:20; or rather, rich in those privileges and hopes to which by faith they have a title. And heirs of the kingdom; an instance of their being rich, in that they are to inherit a kingdom. Which he hath promised to them that love him: see James 1:12, where the same words occur, only that which is here a kingdom, is there a crown.

[1] Greek:  ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί.  οὐχ ὁ Θεὸς ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πτωχοὺς τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, πλουσίους ἐν πίστει, καὶ κληρονόμους τῆς βασιλείας ἧς ἐπηγγείλατο τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν;

[2] Greek:  ἀκούσατε.

[3] Matthew 11:15:  “He that hath ears to hear (ἀκούειν), let him hear (ἀκουέτω).”

[4] Acts 22:1:  “Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye (ἀκούσατέ) my defence which I make now unto you.”

[5] Matthew 20:16:  “So the last shall be first, and the first last:  for many be called, but few chosen (ἐκλεκτοί).”

[6] 1 Thessalonians 1:4:  “Knowing, brethren beloved, your election (τὴν ἐκλογὴν) of God.”

[7] Ephesians 1:4:  “According as he hath chosen (ἐξελέξατο) us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love…”

James 2:4: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 3

Verse 4:[1] Are ye not then partial in yourselves, and are become judges of evil thoughts?

[Do ye not judge, etc., καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένεσθε κριταὶ διαλογισμῶν πονηρῶν] Καὶ/and here is superfluous in the Hebraic manner (Beza, Piscator), serving to tie on the consequence of the expressed conjunction, which is contained in verses 2-4 (Grotius, thus Beza, Estius, Piscator); or, it makes only for vehemence and warmth, so that and not might mean are ye not? (Erasmus). These are to be read interrogatively, as the Syriac reads it (Grotius, Estius). Διακρίνεσθαι[2] is the same as the active διακρίνειν, Acts 11:2;[3] 15:9;[4] Jude 22[5] (Grotius). [Thus they translate it:] Are ye not (or, and are ye not [Montanus, Erasmus]) judged, or adjudged (that is, does not your own conscience accuse you [Estius, similarly Vorstius]? But I do not remember reading διακρίνεσθαι for to condemn [Beza]: Either, judicastis, judged ye, or dijudicastis, adjudged ye [Illyricus, Vatablus, Syriac, a great many in Estius]; or, judicatis, judged ye, or dijudicatis, adjudged ye [Vulgate, Montanus]; or, determined ye, not accourding to the equal and to the good, but according to your fancy alone [Tirinus]: or, ye made a distinction [Tremellius, Pagnine, Castalio, Estius, Grotius, thus Beza, Piscator], that is, ye had a respect, or discrimination, of persons [Vatablus, Castalio]: Διακρίνεσθαι, in Jude 22, generally signifies to discern and to have discrimination, with the diverse nature of the matters considered: but here by a Synecdoche of genus to discern [Piscator], in such a way that one is preferred to the other [Beza, thus Piscator], which properly is προκρίνεσθαι, to be chosen before others: See 1 Timothy 5:21,[6] just as wisdom is said to be ἀδιάκριτος, without partiality,[7] which does not distinguish men through προσωποληψίαν, respect of persons [Piscator]) in yourselves (or, among yourselves [Beza, Piscator, Estius], that is, between rich and poor [Estius]: among yourselves [Illyricus, Tremellius, Pagnine, Castalio, Grotius], that is, out of carnal affection [Grotius]; or, in the perverse tribunal of your judgment [Tirinus]: [The sense:] Did ye not do wrongly when by your authority ye usurped to yourselves the judgment, which belongs to God, and ye measured the merits of men only be external appearance [Menochius]?), and are made judges (either, interpreters [Tremellius out of the Syriac], or rather, discriminators: For it treated here, not of interpreting in this or that way the evil cogitations, but of the distinction which by evil cogitations they were making between the rich and the poor: Indeed, among the Hebrews פָּרַשׁ is to interpret: But among the Syrians it is rather to separate, to distinguish, to adjudge: See Acts 17:11;[8] 1 Corinthians 12:10[9] [Dieu]: or, and judged ye [the Arabic in Dieu]; and judge ye [Grotius]) of thoughts (or, reasonings [Piscator], disputes [Montanus]) evil, or perverse? (Erasmus, Tigurinus, Tremellius, Montanus, Estius, Piscator), that is, possessed with perverse thoughts (Piscator), imbued with depraved affections, and thence judging perversely concerning them (Estius): or, according to evil thoughts (Grotius, similarly Vatablus); or, with evil opinions (Dieu out of the Arabic), by which ye judge the rich to be superior to the poor (Vatablus, similarly Estius); honoring the worse, and condemning the better (Dieu): ye prefer the perishable to the enduring (Grotius). The Genitive here does not denote the Object (Dieu, thus Grotius), concerning which the κρίσις/judgment is conversant (Dieu); but an Adjunct, or Attribute (Dieu, Grotius, Piscator), τῶν κριτῶν, of the judges. It denotes that with evil thoughts they distinguish and adjudge between the rich and the poor (Dieu). Or, thinking perversely (Illyricus), deliberating perversely (Pagnine, Piscator), reasoning incorrectly (Beza, Menochius), and therefore judging incorrectly (Menochius). But to this interrogative reading there are many objections, 1. that the καὶ/and before οὐ/not is overlooked; 2. that negative particles, οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχι, or μὴ, not posited in the first position, as it is done here, hardly ever are taken interrogatively among good authors; 3. that that signification agrees with the Active verb, διακρίνειν, but never with the Passive, διακρίνεσθαι (Hammond). [Therefore, others read it without the interrogation:] The sense: Ye have corrupted the power of judgment which was among you, not asking which was to be honored according to his own deserving, whether poor or rich; indeed, ye have become unjust judges, honoring this one on account of riches, despising that one on account of poverty (Œcumenius in Estius). Others: Διακρίνεσθαι here and there in the New Testament signifies to hesitate, to doubt (Cappel, Hammond), Matthew 21:21;[10] Mark 11:23; Acts 10:20;[11] 11:12; Romans 4:20;[12] James 1:6:[13] or, to debate, or dispute, which arises from doubt (Hammond). Thus it is taken here also, and the sense is, ye did not doubt among yourselves whether ye sinned in that προσωποληψίᾳ, respect of persons; but indeed ye established with certainty among yourselves that in this ye did not sin, but acted justly and rightly; and so ye have been touched with no sense of your sin, which is the worst: but (so that καὶ/and might be adversative, in the place of ἀλλὰ/but) with these things done ye are judges of depraved thoughts, that is, by your perverse judgment of mind ye demonstrate that your thoughts are evil, and ye are inclined unto the inferior side of deliberation (Cappel). This is connected with ἐὰν/if in verse 2, so that εἰσέλθῃ, one come, and ἐπιβλέψητε, ye have respect, and εἴπητε, ye say, and then καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε, and even ye do not doubt, etc. Even if ye doubt not, or dispute not, among yourselves, that is, either in your hearts, or among yourselves, or some with others; that is, if without any hesitation, or scruple of mind, ye accept persons, it magnifies the sin; or, if ye, who are Judges of the Ecclesiastical Council, do not discuss or lay out the merit of the case, and are judges of evil thoughts, that is, unjust judges, adjudicating the case of the rich, and despising the poor. Objection: But thus the sense hangs. Responses: 1. Perhaps it is completed in the following verse, hear ye, etc.; that is to say, If ye judge so unjustly, I say this to you; or, hear ye this, etc. 2. It could be an Ellipsis, which is thus to be supplied; if ye act thus, ye are unjust toward your brethren (Hammond). We have διαλογισμοὺς πονηροὺς, evil thoughts, also in Matthew 15:19;[14] διαλογισμοὺς κακοὺς, bad thoughts, in Mark 7:21[15] (Grotius).

Are ye not then partial in yourselves? Either, are ye not judged in yourselves, convicted by your own consciences of partiality, and accepting men’s persons? Or, have ye not made a difference? viz. out of a corrupt affection rather than a right judgment; and then it falls in with our translation; Are ye not partial? the Greek word is used in this sense, Acts 15:9; Jude 22. And are become judges of evil thoughts; i.e. judges that have evil thoughts, or are evil affected: q.d. You evidence the corruptness of your affections by your thus perversely judging.

[1] Greek:  καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένεσθε κριταὶ διαλογισμῶν πονηρῶν;

[2] In the Middle or Passive Voice.

[3] Acts 11:2:  “And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the circumcision contended (διεκρίνοντο, in the Middle voice) with him…”

[4] Acts 15:9:  “And put no difference (οὐδὲν διέκρινε, in the Active voice) between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.”

[5] Jude 22:  “And of some have compassion, making a difference (διακρινόμενοι, in the Middle voice)…”

[6] 1 Timothy 5:21:  “I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another (χωρὶς προκρίματος), doing nothing by partiality.”

[7] James 3:17.

[8] Acts 17:11:  “These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched (ἀνακρίνοντες) the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.”

[9] 1 Corinthians 12:10:  “To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning (διακρίσεις) of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues…”

[10] Matthew 21:21b:  “Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not (καὶ μὴ διακριθῆτε), ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done.”  Similarly in Mark 11:23.

[11] Acts 10:20:  “Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing (μηδὲν διακρινόμενος):  for I have sent them.”  Similarly in Acts 11:12.

[12] Romans 4:20:  “He staggered not (οὐ διεκρίθη) at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God…”

[13] James 1:6:  “But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering.  For he that wavereth (μηδὲν διακρινόμενος·  ὁ γὰρ διακρινόμενος) is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed.”

[14] Matthew 15:19:  “For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts (διαλογισμοὶ πονηροί), murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies…”

[15] Mark 7:21:  “For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts (οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ), adulteries, fornications, murders…”

James 2:2, 3: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 2

Verse 2:[1] For if there come unto your assembly (Gr. synagogue[2]) a man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile raiment…

[If one enter into your assembly] Συναγωγὴ/synagogue signifies every sort of assembly, whether for the worship of God, or in the markets, as in Matthew 6:2, or for judgments, as in Matthew 10:17; 23:34. It designates here, [either, 1.] a judicial assembly, as is suggested by, 1. the language of προσωποληψίας, respect of persons,[3] which especially has regard to tribunals: 2. the footstool, verse 3, which is proper to Princes sitting on a Throne, and Judges in Tribunal: 3. the language of κριταὶ/judges, verse 4: 4. the language of κριτήρια, judgment seats, verse 6, which denotes consistories of such a kind, 1 Corinthians 6:4:[4] 5. a comparison with verse 9, where the seating of a rich man in a better seat than of a poor man is said to be a violation of the Law. For it is a Canon of the Jews, If a rich man and a poor man plead their cause before their Consistory, either let both sit, or let both stand; lest in this way there be a note of discrimination (Hammond). [Or, 2.] An assembly sacred and ecclesiastical (Piscator, thus Gomar, Estius out of Lyra, Hasseltensis,[5] Augustine, etc.), when they come together to hear the word of God (Piscator, similarly Estius). Although latter usage assumed that Synagogue is used of an assembly of Jews, but Church is used of an assembly of Christians; nevertheless, that ἐκκλησίαν/ church is also quite frequently used of an assembly of Jews, we showed on Matthew 16:18; and contrariwise, that Synagogue is also used of an assembly of Christians, Acts 15:21. And the preceding words show that this word is to be taken entirely in this way (Grotius).

For if there come unto your assembly; either church assemblies for worship, Hebrews 10:25; and in these we find some respect of men’s persons, which may here be blamed: see 1 Corinthians 11:20-22. Or their assemblies for disposing church offices, and deciding church controversies, etc.; for he speaks of such respecting men’s persons as is condemned by the law, James 2:9, which was especially in judgment.

[A man] אִישׁ, that is, anyone (Grotius).

[A gold, etc., χρυσοδακτύλιος[6]] Wearing (or, having [Montanus, Arabic]) a gold rind (Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Beza, Piscator, etc.). That is, on his finger (Tirinus, thus Estius). Thus Luke 15:22 (Gataker). Not inelegantly did he make a composite term, after the fashion of those which were received in the Greek [language]. A gold ring, no less among the ancient Hebrews than among other nations, was an adornment of the revered and of the rich, Genesis 38:18, 25; 41:42; Isaiah 3:19 (Grotius); among the Romans, only of Senators and Nobles. Now, here it [χρυσοδακτύλιος] is put for any rich and powerful man (Tirinus). For the use of those was sufficiently common among the Romans, as Fevardentius[7] shows (Estius).

[In radiant clothing, ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ[8]] As in Luke 23:11;[9] Acts 10:30.[10] Which is λευκὴ/white, Acts 1:10;[11] and ἀστράπτουσα/shining, Luke 24:4[12] (Gataker). In apparel gleaming, or shining (Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus, Piscator, etc.), or, beautiful (Grotius out of the Syriac and Arabic). Clothed splendidly, בִּגְדֵי הַחֲמֻדֹת, goodly raiment, Genesis 27:15.[13] See Luke 16:19;[14] Revelation 15:6,[15] in which is the Hebrew word חותם/pure, which the Arabic uses here, and in Revelation 18:14;[16] 19:8;[17] 22:1,[18] 16.[19] The following opposition also shows this sense (Grotius).

A man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel; the usual ensigns of honourable or rich persons, Genesis 38:18, 25; 41:42; Luke 15:22; 16:19.

[A poor man[20]] Thus the language πτωχῶν, of the poor, is not rarely taken, as in Mark 12:42;[21] Luke 14:13.[22] In the Arabic it is משכן, just as מִסְכֵּן/ misken/poor, Ecclesiastes 4:13. Hence the Italian meschino (Grotius).

And there come in also a poor man; the word signifies one very poor, even to beggarliness.

[In a filthy garment, ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι] In, or, with filthy clothing (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, in garments vile and torn (Laurentius). Thus, wisdom under a filthy cloak, in Cicero;[23] and a filthy cloak hangs in a knot from the shoulder.[24] Thus in Zechariah 3:3, 4, in which בְּגָדִים צוֹאִים, filthy garments, is translated ἱμάτια ῥυπαρὰ. In a garment neither bright, not elegant (Grotius).

In vile raiment; filthy and sordid, Zechariah 3:3, 4, the sign of extreme poverty.

 

Verse 3:[25] And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here in a good place; and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool…

[And ye, etc., καὶ ἐπιβλέψητε, etc.] And ye have respect (that is, favorably [Menochius], and with affection [Menochius, thus Estius], with reverence and veneration [Piscator]; or rather with care and diligence, so that ye might please him [Gataker]: Those things that are admired and highly valued [Estius], like a man shining in more elegant finery [Menochius], men are wont to gaze upon intently [Estius, similarly Menochius]: Ἐπιβλέπειν in this place is suspicere, to admire, to the Latins [Grotius]) to him, etc. (Beza, Piscator, Estius). Where the article has emphasis, it denotes the cause of admiration, τὴν ἐσθῆτα, etc., that splendid clothing (Estius).

And ye have respect to him; Greek, look upon, viz. with respect and veneration, or a care and concern to please him.

[And ye say to him] Ye, namely, who have the care of those matters, that is, the Deacons. See Clement’s Constitutions 2:57, 58.[26] In a manuscript, αὐτῷ, to him, is wanting here,[27] inasmuch as the σὺ/thou which follows is evidently δεικτικόν, able to show (Grotius).

[Sit thou here well (thus Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Beza, Syriac, Æthiopic), καλῶς] Handsomely (Pagnine, Montanus, Castalio, Piscator), suitably (Beza, Piscator), decently (certain interpreters in Estius), splendidly, or, honorably (Grotius out of the Arabic). In an honorable place (Menochius, thus Calvin, Estius). In the Church there were also orders of seats, but according to virtues, not according to wealth. Tertullian’s Apology, Whatever approved elders preside, having obtained that honor, not by price, but by testimony.[28] Thus among the women the first place belonged to the one-husband Widows, the next to the Virgins, then to the Matrons. Indeed, James, when he had understood that custom of giving προεδρίαν, the priviledge of the front seats, on account of wealth, not on account of virtue, was growing in strength, rightly opposes this evil, which would draw many evils after it. Also, in the Republic that was advice was exceptional, whether of Sallust,[29] or of the other that gives counsel to Cæsar, Therefore, he first takes away the authority of money: neither concerning dishonor, nor concerning honor, on account of money would anyone judge more or less: neither is a prætor,[30] nor a consul, appointed on account of wealth, but on account of dignity[31] (Grotius).

Sit thou here in a good place; an honourable place, either contrary to the usual orders of the churches, according to which, (as some say) the elder sat in chairs, the next to them on benches; and the novices on the pavement at their feet; the apostle taxing their carnal partiality in disposing these places to the people as rich, not as Christians; or it may note their disposing church offices to them that were rich, or favouring them in their causes rather than the poor.

[Stand thou there] That is to say, at a distance (Gataker). It belonged to the young to stand, as witness Philo in his Concerning the Contemplative Life and the Clementine Constitutions 2:57 (Grotius). [See the words in Grotius.]

[Under my footstool, ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου] Beneath (or, next to [certain interpreters in Vatablus], in front of [the Syriac in Estius]) my footstool (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, a low stool, which is placed under the feet of those sitting (Estius, similarly Piscator), that is to say, in a lower place (Estius). At my feet: which is the place of students. See what things we said on Acts 22:3. That ὧδε/here is wanting in a Manuscript[32] (Grotius).

Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool; the meanest places, and belonging to the youngest disciples: both are expressions of contempt.

[1] Greek: ἐὰν γὰρ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν ἀνὴρ χρυσοδακτύλιος ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ, εἰσέλθῃ δὲ καὶ πτωχὸς ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι…

[2] Greek: συναγωγὴν.

[3] Verse 1.

[4] 1 Corinthians 6:4: “If then ye have judgments (κριτήρια) of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the church.”

[5] Franciscus Titelmans (1502-1537) was a Flemish Franciscan scholar. He wrote a compendium of natural philosophy, and commentaries on many of the books of Scripture, including the Apostolic epistles (Elucidatio in Omnes Epistolas Apostolicas).

[6] An adjective, from χρυσός/gold and δακτύλιος/ring.

[7] Francis Fevardentius of Normandy (1541-1610) was a Franciscan friar and theologian, a bitter opponent of Protestantism. He wrote commentaries on some books of Scripture, and published annotated editions of some works of the Fathers.

[8] Λαμπρός is related to the verb λάμπω, to shine.

[9] Luke 23:11: “And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe (ἐσθῆτα λαμπράν), and sent him again to Pilate.”

[10] Acts 10:30: “And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing (ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ)…”

[11] Acts 1:10: “And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel (ἐσθῆτι λευκῇ)…”

[12] Luke 24:4: “And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments (ἐσθήσεσιν ἀστραπτούσαις)…”

[13] Genesis 27:15: “And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau ( אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֙י עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּנָ֤הּ הַגָּדֹל֙ הַחֲמֻדֹ֔ת; τὴν στολὴν Ησαυ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτῆς τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου τὴν καλήν, in the Septuagint), which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son…”

[14] Luke 16:19: “There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously (λαμπρῶς) every day…”

[15] Revelation 15:6: “And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen (λίνον καθαρὸν καὶ λαμπρόν), and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.”

[16] Revelation 18:14: “And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly (τὰ λαμπρὰ) are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.”

[17] Revelation 19:8: “And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white (λαμπρόν): for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.”

[18] Revelation 22:1: “And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear (λαμπρὸν) as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.”

[19] Revelation 22:16b: “I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright (ὁ λαμπρὸς) and morning star.”

[20] Greek: πτωχὸς.

[21] Mark 12:42: “And there came a certain poor (πτωχὴ) widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.”

[22] Luke 14:13: “But when thou makest a feast, call the poor (πτωχούς), the maimed, the lame, the blind…”

[23] Tusculanæ Disputationes 3:23:56.

[24] Æneid 6:296-301.

[25] Greek: καὶ ἐπιβλέψητε ἐπὶ τὸν φοροῦντα τὴν ἐσθῆτα τὴν λαμπράν, καὶ εἴπητε αὐτῷ, Σὺ κάθου ὧδε καλῶς, καὶ τῷ πτωχῷ εἴπητε, Σὺ στῆθι ἐκεῖ, ἢ κάθου ὧδε ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου·

[26] The Apostolic Constitutions (late fourth century) is a collection of treatises on the doctrine, government, and worship of the Church. It appears to have been intended as a manual, primarily for the use of the clergy. It claims to be the work of the Apostles, and it was supposed to have been compiled by Clement of Rome (died c. 100), Bishop of Rome.

[27] Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.

[28] Apology 39.

[29] Gaius Sallustius Crispus (86-c. 35 BC) was a Roman historian and politician. He is the oldest Roman historian with works yet extant. Sallust was a political supporter of Julius Cæsar.

[30] A Roman judicial magistrate.

[31] Epistola ad Cæsarem 7.

[32] Thus Codices Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.

James 2:1: Regarding the Rich and the Poor, Part 1

Verse 1:[1] My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, (1 Cor. 2:8) the Lord of glory, with (Lev. 19:15; Deut. 1:17; 16:19; Prov. 24:23; 28:21; Matt. 22:16; Jam. 2:9; Jude 16) respect of persons.

[My brethren] As in James 1:2, 16 (Grotius). The language of brethren indicates equality and love, and is against Respect of Persons (Gomar).

[Have not, etc., μὴ ἐν προσωποληψίαις ἔχετε τὴν πίστιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης] What the Apostle delivered in James 1:26, 27, he here resumes and treats more fully in chapters 2 and 3, but in inverse order; the prior in the prior part of this chapter, and the latter in the latter part of this chapter and in chapter 3 (Gataker). You will not easily find προσωποληψίας, respect of persons, in the plural number, among the more elegant Greek Writers. But our Writers often make unusual Plurals out of words usually Singular (Grotius). Πρόσωπον properly denotes face, or countenance (Gomar, Gataker), as in Matthew 6:16, 17;[2] James 1:23[3] (Gataker); and thence, by Synecdoche (Gomar), man (Gomar, Gataker), as in 2 Corinthians 1:11;[4] then, a man’s parts or qualities, external or internal, which, no less than the face, do we see on a man; τὰ κατὰ πρόσωπον, things after the face or outward appearance. Hence προσωποληψία, as in Romans 2:11;[5] Ephesians 6:9;[6] Colossians 3:25;[7] and πρόσωπον λαμβάνειν, Luke 20:21;[8] Galatians 2:6;[9] and εἰς πρόσωπον βλέπειν, Matthew 22:16[10] (Gataker). Now, this is said, 1. in a good sense, as in Genesis 19:21;[11] 1 Samuel 25:35;[12] 2 Kings 3:14[13] (Gomar, Gataker); 2. in a bad sense, as when the person is set over against the cause (Gataker), as in Leviticus 19:15;[14] Deuteronomy 1:17;[15] etc. (Gomar); Proverbs 18:5;[16] 24:23;[17] or, when it is conjoined with the injury, or contempt, of the other, as it is here (Gataker). There is προσωποληψία in Judges, when the Judge regards things other than what are in the merits of the case, as we mentioned on Matthew 22:16; in the matter of the Gospel it is to prefer some to others on account of those things that pertain not at all to the Gospel (Grotius). [Thus they render the words:] Not in (or, with [Erasmus, Beza, etc.]) the acceptation of persons (or, of a face [Beza, Piscator]) have ye (or, hold ye fast [Tremellius out of the Syriac]) the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory (Montanus, thus the Vulgate), or, glorious (Beza, Piscator, etc.), or, on account of esteem (Calvin). The language of δόξης/glory is to be connected, either, 1. with προσωποληψία, respect of persons; it does not mean glory, but opinion, so that the sense might be, Have not the faith of the Lord…in discrimination of persons, so that according to his own estimation each might esteem any other, as he is great, or humble, or related, etc. (Erasmus). But this is forced, and too far separates the Gentivie from its governing noun, contrary to the custom of the Greeks (Estius). Indeed, δόξα sometimes signifies opinion (Beza, Estius), yet not, as I suppose, in the Apostolic writings (Estius). Or, 2. with Κυρίου/Lord (Beza, Vorstius, a great many in Estius). To whom this epithet is attributed in 1 Corinthians 2:8 (Estius, Piscator). This agrees with the intention (Estius, similarly Beza). For, if Christ is the Lord of glory, he that is nearer to Christ is to be more honored by us (Estius). And hence it is προσωποληψία, respect of persons, because we do not consider what the glory of Christ may be (Beza). But to this relation of government is opposed the Pronoun ἡμῶν/our, depending upon the Noun Κυρίου/Lord (Piscator). Or, 3. with πίστιν/faith (Piscator, Vorstius, Grotius, Gataker). There is a Trajection in the syntax (Vorstius, thus Piscator), which was common enough in these writers, by which those Genitives, τοῦ Κυρίου, etc., are governed by the Noun πίστιν/ faith (Piscator). Thus the Syriac also rightly construes it, τὴν πίστιν τῆς δόξης τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, the faith of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ (Grotius, thus Hammond). Πίστις δόξης, The faith of glory, is used just as the faith of Jesus Christ, Galatians 3:22; Philippians 3:9, the faith of the Son of God, Galatians 2:20, which elsewhere is faith in Christ, as in 1 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 3:15 (Grotius). Faith of the glory of Christ he here calls (Piscator), faith concerning the glory of Christ, or concerning Christ exalted unto the highest renown (Grotius, similarly Piscator, Hammond), namely, because of obedience (Grotius); and, through a Synecdoche of member, all the other things to be believed concerning Christ, since they are presupposed by that heavenly glory, as the extreme end of the work of redemption (Piscator); or, Christian faith, or the profession it it, whereby we accept as true the incarnation of Christ, and all things that follow upon it, all which are signified by the phrase, the glory of Christ, to which we said that the Shekinah also pertains (Hammond). Why could you not also take it in this way, the glorious faith of our Lord Jesus Christ? Thus His faith and glory are aptly set over against the mean and impoverished condition of the brethren (Gataker). Ἔχετε, have ye, here is the same as κατέχετε, detain ye. Therefore, this means, That faith, which ye have concerning the glory of Christ, detain ye not as if captive and inoperative, because of that respect of qualities, which pertain not at all to the substance of Christ (Grotius). Others: Ἔχειν here means to profess, as in 1 Timothy 1:19;[18] 3:9;[19] 2 Timothy 1:13;[20] 3:5[21] (Gataker). To have this faith with respect of persons is to esteem professors of the faith, not as they are Christians, but as they are rich or poor (Hammond). Either, in those things which are characteristic of Christians, or in Christian gatherings and affairs (Grotius); or, in the places and assemblies of Judgment (for συναγωγὴ/ synagogue/assembly[22] signifies an assembly of Judgment, whether civil, or Ecclesiastical [Hammond]), to act with respect of persons (Estius, thus Hammond). [The sense:] Since ye are Christians, have not a discrimination of persons (Vatablus). With the acceptation of persons conjoin ye not the faith of Christ (Menochius), neither suppose ye that the latter is able to consist with the former (Menochius, similarly Calvin). Esteem ye not anyone according to worldly matters, but only according to spiritual goods (Zegers).

Have not; profess not yourselves, and regard not, or esteem not in others. The faith of our Lord Jesus Christ; i.e. faith in our Lord Jesus Christ; not the author but the object of faith is meant, as Galatians 2:20; 3:22; Philippians 3:9. The Lord of glory; Lord not being in the Greek, glory may be joined with faith, (admitting only a trajection in the words, so frequent in the sacred writers,) and then the words will run thus, the faith of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, i.e. the faith of his being glorified, which by a synecdoche may be put for the whole work of redemption wrought by him, which was completed by his glorification, as the last part of it; or, by a Hebraism, the faith of the glory, may be for the glorious faith. But the plainest way of reading the words is (as our translators do) by supplying the word Lord just before mentioned; Lord of glory, (Christ being elsewhere so called, 1 Corinthians 2:8,) i.e. the glorious Lord; as the Father is called the Father of glory, Ephesians 1:17, i.e. the glorious Father: and then it may be an argument to second what the apostle is speaking of; Christ being the Lord of glory, a relation to him by faith puts an honour upon believers, though poor and despicable in the world; and therefore they are not to be contemned. With respect of persons; the word rendered persons signifies the face or countenance, and synecdochically the whole person; and, by consequence, all those parts or qualities we take notice of in the person. To respect a person is sometimes taken in a good sense, Genesis 19:21; 1 Samuel 25:35. Mostly in an evil, when either the person is opposed to the cause, we give more or less to a man upon the account of something we see in him which is altogether foreign to his cause, Leviticus 19:15, or when we accept one with injury to or contempt of another. To have, then, the faith of Christ with respect of persons, is to esteem the professors of religion, not for their faith, or relation to Christ, but according to their worldly condition, their being great or mean, rich or poor; this the apostle taxeth in the Hebrews to whom he wrote, that whereas in the things of God all believers are equal, they respected the greater and richer sort of professors, because great or rich; so as to despise those that were poor or low. The Greek hath the word plurally, respects, which may intimate the several ways of respecting persons, in judgment or out of judgment. This doth not exclude the civil respect we owe to magistrates and superiors upon the account of their places or gifts; but only a respecting men in the things of religion upon such accounts as are extrinsical to religion; or, with prejudice to others as considerable in religion as themselves, though inferior to them in the world.

[1] Greek:  ἀδελφοί μου, μὴ ἐν προσωποληψίαις ἔχετε τὴν πίστιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης.

[2] Matthew 6:16, 17:  “Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance:  for they disfigure their faces (τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν), that they may appear unto men to fast.  Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.  But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face (τὸ πρόσωπόν σου)…”

[3] James 1:23:  “For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face (τὸ πρόσωπον τῆς γενέσεως αὐτοῦ) in a glass…”

[4] 2 Corinthians 1:11:  “Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons (προσώπων) thanks may be given by many on our behalf.”

[5] Romans 2:11:  “For there is no respect of persons (προσωποληψία) with God.”

[6] Ephesians 6:9:  “And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening:  knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons (προσωποληψία) with him.”

[7] Colossians 3:25:  “But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done:  and there is no respect of persons (προσωποληψία).”

[8] Luke 20:21:  “And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person (λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον) of any, but teachest the way of God truly…”

[9] Galatians 2:6:  “But of these who seemed to be somewhat, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me:  God accepteth no man’s person [πρόσωπον θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει]:)  for they who seemed to be somewhat in conference added nothing to me…”

[10] Matthew 22:16b:  “Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man:  for thou regardest not the person (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον) of men.”

[11] Genesis 19:21:  “And he said unto him, See, I have accepted thee (נָשָׂ֣אתִי פָנֶ֔יךָ; ἐθαύμασά σου τὸ πρόσωπον, in the Septuagint) concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken.”

[12] 1 Samuel 25:35b:  “Go up in peace to thine house; see, I have hearkened to thy voice, and have accepted thy person (וָאֶשָּׂ֖א פָּנָֽיִךְ׃; καὶ ᾑρέτισα τὸ πρόσωπόν σου, in the Septuagint).”

[13] 2 Kings 3:14:  “And Elisha said, As the Lord of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah (כִּ֗י לוּלֵ֛י פְּנֵ֛י יְהוֹשָׁפָ֥ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֖ה אֲנִ֣י נֹשֵׂ֑א; ὅτι εἰ μὴ πρόσωπον Ιωσαφατ βασιλέως Ιουδα ἐγὼ λαμβάνω, in the Septuagint), I would not look toward thee, nor see thee.”

[14] Leviticus 19:15:  “Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment:  thou shalt not respect the person of the poor (לֹא־תִשָּׂ֣א פְנֵי־דָ֔ל; οὐ λήμψῃ πρόσωπον πτωχοῦ, in the Septuagint), nor honour the person of the mighty (וְלֹ֥א תֶהְדַּ֖ר פְּנֵ֣י גָד֑וֹל; οὐδὲ θαυμάσεις πρόσωπον δυνάστου, in the Septuagint):  but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.”

[15] Deuteronomy 1:17a:  “Ye shall not respect persons in judgment (לֹֽא־תַכִּ֙ירוּ פָנִ֜ים בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֗ט; οὐκ ἐπιγνώσῃ πρόσωπον ἐν κρίσει, in the Septuagint); but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man…”

[16] Proverbs 18:5:  “It is not good to accept the person of the wicked ( שְׂאֵ֣ת פְּנֵי־רָשָׁ֣ע; θαυμάσαι πρόσωπον ἀσεβοῦς, in the Septuagint), to overthrow the righteous in judgment.”

[17] Proverbs 24:23:  “These things also belong to the wise.  It is not good to have respect of persons (הַכֵּר־פָּנִים; αἰδεῖσθαι πρόσωπον, in the Septuagint) in judgment.”

[18] 1 Timothy 1:18, 19:  “This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare; holding (ἔχων) faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck…”

[19] 1 Timothy 3:8, 9:  “Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; holding (ἔχοντας) the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.”

[20] 2 Timothy 1:13:  “Hold fast (ἔχε) the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.”

[21] 2 Timothy 3:2a, 5:  “For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters…having (ἔχοντες) a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.”

[22] James 2:2:  “For if there come unto your assembly (συναγωγὴν) a man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile raiment…”

James 2 Outline

It is not agreeable to the Christian profession to regard the rich, and despise the poor, 1-9. The guilt of any one breach of the law, 10-12. The obligation to mercy, 13. Faith without works is dead, 14-19. We are justified, as Abraham and Rahab were, by works, and not by faith only, 20-26.