Verse 2: For if there come unto your assembly (Gr. synagogue) a man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile raiment…
[If one enter into your assembly] Συναγωγὴ/synagogue signifies every sort of assembly, whether for the worship of God, or in the markets, as in Matthew 6:2, or for judgments, as in Matthew 10:17; 23:34. It designates here, [either, 1.] a judicial assembly, as is suggested by, 1. the language of προσωποληψίας, respect of persons, which especially has regard to tribunals: 2. the footstool, verse 3, which is proper to Princes sitting on a Throne, and Judges in Tribunal: 3. the language of κριταὶ/judges, verse 4: 4. the language of κριτήρια, judgment seats, verse 6, which denotes consistories of such a kind, 1 Corinthians 6:4: 5. a comparison with verse 9, where the seating of a rich man in a better seat than of a poor man is said to be a violation of the Law. For it is a Canon of the Jews, If a rich man and a poor man plead their cause before their Consistory, either let both sit, or let both stand; lest in this way there be a note of discrimination (Hammond). [Or, 2.] An assembly sacred and ecclesiastical (Piscator, thus Gomar, Estius out of Lyra, Hasseltensis, Augustine, etc.), when they come together to hear the word of God (Piscator, similarly Estius). Although latter usage assumed that Synagogue is used of an assembly of Jews, but Church is used of an assembly of Christians; nevertheless, that ἐκκλησίαν/ church is also quite frequently used of an assembly of Jews, we showed on Matthew 16:18; and contrariwise, that Synagogue is also used of an assembly of Christians, Acts 15:21. And the preceding words show that this word is to be taken entirely in this way (Grotius).
For if there come unto your assembly; either church assemblies for worship, Hebrews 10:25; and in these we find some respect of men’s persons, which may here be blamed: see 1 Corinthians 11:20-22. Or their assemblies for disposing church offices, and deciding church controversies, etc.; for he speaks of such respecting men’s persons as is condemned by the law, James 2:9, which was especially in judgment.
[A man] אִישׁ, that is, anyone (Grotius).
[A gold, etc., χρυσοδακτύλιος] Wearing (or, having [Montanus, Arabic]) a gold rind (Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Beza, Piscator, etc.). That is, on his finger (Tirinus, thus Estius). Thus Luke 15:22 (Gataker). Not inelegantly did he make a composite term, after the fashion of those which were received in the Greek [language]. A gold ring, no less among the ancient Hebrews than among other nations, was an adornment of the revered and of the rich, Genesis 38:18, 25; 41:42; Isaiah 3:19 (Grotius); among the Romans, only of Senators and Nobles. Now, here it [χρυσοδακτύλιος] is put for any rich and powerful man (Tirinus). For the use of those was sufficiently common among the Romans, as Fevardentius shows (Estius).
[In radiant clothing, ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ] As in Luke 23:11; Acts 10:30. Which is λευκὴ/white, Acts 1:10; and ἀστράπτουσα/shining, Luke 24:4 (Gataker). In apparel gleaming, or shining (Valla, Erasmus, Vatablus, Piscator, etc.), or, beautiful (Grotius out of the Syriac and Arabic). Clothed splendidly, בִּגְדֵי הַחֲמֻדֹת, goodly raiment, Genesis 27:15. See Luke 16:19; Revelation 15:6, in which is the Hebrew word חותם/pure, which the Arabic uses here, and in Revelation 18:14; 19:8; 22:1, 16. The following opposition also shows this sense (Grotius).
A man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel; the usual ensigns of honourable or rich persons, Genesis 38:18, 25; 41:42; Luke 15:22; 16:19.
[A poor man] Thus the language πτωχῶν, of the poor, is not rarely taken, as in Mark 12:42; Luke 14:13. In the Arabic it is משכן, just as מִסְכֵּן/ misken/poor, Ecclesiastes 4:13. Hence the Italian meschino (Grotius).
And there come in also a poor man; the word signifies one very poor, even to beggarliness.
[In a filthy garment, ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι] In, or, with filthy clothing (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, in garments vile and torn (Laurentius). Thus, wisdom under a filthy cloak, in Cicero; and a filthy cloak hangs in a knot from the shoulder. Thus in Zechariah 3:3, 4, in which בְּגָדִים צוֹאִים, filthy garments, is translated ἱμάτια ῥυπαρὰ. In a garment neither bright, not elegant (Grotius).
In vile raiment; filthy and sordid, Zechariah 3:3, 4, the sign of extreme poverty.
Verse 3: And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here in a good place; and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool…
[And ye, etc., καὶ ἐπιβλέψητε, etc.] And ye have respect (that is, favorably [Menochius], and with affection [Menochius, thus Estius], with reverence and veneration [Piscator]; or rather with care and diligence, so that ye might please him [Gataker]: Those things that are admired and highly valued [Estius], like a man shining in more elegant finery [Menochius], men are wont to gaze upon intently [Estius, similarly Menochius]: Ἐπιβλέπειν in this place is suspicere, to admire, to the Latins [Grotius]) to him, etc. (Beza, Piscator, Estius). Where the article has emphasis, it denotes the cause of admiration, τὴν ἐσθῆτα, etc., that splendid clothing (Estius).
And ye have respect to him; Greek, look upon, viz. with respect and veneration, or a care and concern to please him.
[And ye say to him] Ye, namely, who have the care of those matters, that is, the Deacons. See Clement’s Constitutions 2:57, 58. In a manuscript, αὐτῷ, to him, is wanting here, inasmuch as the σὺ/thou which follows is evidently δεικτικόν, able to show (Grotius).
[Sit thou here well (thus Erasmus, Illyricus, Tigurinus, Beza, Syriac, Æthiopic), καλῶς] Handsomely (Pagnine, Montanus, Castalio, Piscator), suitably (Beza, Piscator), decently (certain interpreters in Estius), splendidly, or, honorably (Grotius out of the Arabic). In an honorable place (Menochius, thus Calvin, Estius). In the Church there were also orders of seats, but according to virtues, not according to wealth. Tertullian’s Apology, Whatever approved elders preside, having obtained that honor, not by price, but by testimony. Thus among the women the first place belonged to the one-husband Widows, the next to the Virgins, then to the Matrons. Indeed, James, when he had understood that custom of giving προεδρίαν, the priviledge of the front seats, on account of wealth, not on account of virtue, was growing in strength, rightly opposes this evil, which would draw many evils after it. Also, in the Republic that was advice was exceptional, whether of Sallust, or of the other that gives counsel to Cæsar, Therefore, he first takes away the authority of money: neither concerning dishonor, nor concerning honor, on account of money would anyone judge more or less: neither is a prætor, nor a consul, appointed on account of wealth, but on account of dignity (Grotius).
Sit thou here in a good place; an honourable place, either contrary to the usual orders of the churches, according to which, (as some say) the elder sat in chairs, the next to them on benches; and the novices on the pavement at their feet; the apostle taxing their carnal partiality in disposing these places to the people as rich, not as Christians; or it may note their disposing church offices to them that were rich, or favouring them in their causes rather than the poor.
[Stand thou there] That is to say, at a distance (Gataker). It belonged to the young to stand, as witness Philo in his Concerning the Contemplative Life and the Clementine Constitutions 2:57 (Grotius). [See the words in Grotius.]
[Under my footstool, ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου] Beneath (or, next to [certain interpreters in Vatablus], in front of [the Syriac in Estius]) my footstool (Beza, Piscator, etc.), that is, a low stool, which is placed under the feet of those sitting (Estius, similarly Piscator), that is to say, in a lower place (Estius). At my feet: which is the place of students. See what things we said on Acts 22:3. That ὧδε/here is wanting in a Manuscript (Grotius).
Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool; the meanest places, and belonging to the youngest disciples: both are expressions of contempt.
 Greek: ἐὰν γὰρ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν ἀνὴρ χρυσοδακτύλιος ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ, εἰσέλθῃ δὲ καὶ πτωχὸς ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι…
 Greek: συναγωγὴν.
 Verse 1.
 1 Corinthians 6:4: “If then ye have judgments (κριτήρια) of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the church.”
 Franciscus Titelmans (1502-1537) was a Flemish Franciscan scholar. He wrote a compendium of natural philosophy, and commentaries on many of the books of Scripture, including the Apostolic epistles (Elucidatio in Omnes Epistolas Apostolicas).
 An adjective, from χρυσός/gold and δακτύλιος/ring.
 Francis Fevardentius of Normandy (1541-1610) was a Franciscan friar and theologian, a bitter opponent of Protestantism. He wrote commentaries on some books of Scripture, and published annotated editions of some works of the Fathers.
 Λαμπρός is related to the verb λάμπω, to shine.
 Luke 23:11: “And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe (ἐσθῆτα λαμπράν), and sent him again to Pilate.”
 Acts 10:30: “And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing (ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ)…”
 Acts 1:10: “And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel (ἐσθῆτι λευκῇ)…”
 Luke 24:4: “And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments (ἐσθήσεσιν ἀστραπτούσαις)…”
 Genesis 27:15: “And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau ( אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֙י עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּנָ֤הּ הַגָּדֹל֙ הַחֲמֻדֹ֔ת; τὴν στολὴν Ησαυ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτῆς τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου τὴν καλήν, in the Septuagint), which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son…”
 Luke 16:19: “There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously (λαμπρῶς) every day…”
 Revelation 15:6: “And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen (λίνον καθαρὸν καὶ λαμπρόν), and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.”
 Revelation 18:14: “And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly (τὰ λαμπρὰ) are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.”
 Revelation 19:8: “And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white (λαμπρόν): for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.”
 Revelation 22:1: “And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear (λαμπρὸν) as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.”
 Revelation 22:16b: “I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright (ὁ λαμπρὸς) and morning star.”
 Greek: πτωχὸς.
 Mark 12:42: “And there came a certain poor (πτωχὴ) widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.”
 Luke 14:13: “But when thou makest a feast, call the poor (πτωχούς), the maimed, the lame, the blind…”
 Tusculanæ Disputationes 3:23:56.
 Æneid 6:296-301.
 Greek: καὶ ἐπιβλέψητε ἐπὶ τὸν φοροῦντα τὴν ἐσθῆτα τὴν λαμπράν, καὶ εἴπητε αὐτῷ, Σὺ κάθου ὧδε καλῶς, καὶ τῷ πτωχῷ εἴπητε, Σὺ στῆθι ἐκεῖ, ἢ κάθου ὧδε ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου·
 The Apostolic Constitutions (late fourth century) is a collection of treatises on the doctrine, government, and worship of the Church. It appears to have been intended as a manual, primarily for the use of the clergy. It claims to be the work of the Apostles, and it was supposed to have been compiled by Clement of Rome (died c. 100), Bishop of Rome.
 Thus Codices Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.
 Apology 39.
 Gaius Sallustius Crispus (86-c. 35 BC) was a Roman historian and politician. He is the oldest Roman historian with works yet extant. Sallust was a political supporter of Julius Cæsar.
 A Roman judicial magistrate.
 Epistola ad Cæsarem 7.
 Thus Codices Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.