Verse 4: (Gen. 15:18; Ex. 23:31; Num. 34:3-12) From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.
[From the wilderness, etc.] He defines the land by three regions of heaven: The Wilderness in the South; Libanus, and far beyond that the Euphrates, in the North; The Great Sea in the West. Jordan is omitted, which was in the East, because from it those borders are shown by God to Joshua (Masius), who was not standing far from it (Lapide). To others, Euphrates is here set forth as the eastern boundary (Drusius, Malvenda). See Genesis 15:18 and Deuteronomy 11:24 (Malvenda).
[From the wilderness] Namely, Sin and Kadesh (Masius, Serarius, Vatablus, Drusius), which is called the wilderness by antonomasia, because from recent experience it was in the memory of all (Serarius). From the Arabian desert (Lapide).
[And Libanus (thus Targum Jonathan, Syriac, Munster, Pagnine, Tigurinus, Junius and Tremellius, Malvenda)] But the Septuagint has Anti-libanus. This is not strange: For Libanus and Anti-libanus are actually one mountain, but divided by a valley lying between, as Pliny testifies in his Natural History 5:20 (Masius). Now, Libanus is the tallest, largest, and most pleasant of all the mountains of Syria: so called, either from לָבָן/laban/white, because it is always white with snow at its peak (Lapide); or, from frankincense, because it was fruitful with cedars and other resinous trees, from which at least a certain sort of frankincense was extracted (Masius). Hebrew: from that Libanus,וְהַלְּבָנ֙וֹן הַזֶּ֜ה; either, because from that place it was able to be discerned, and it was pointed out be God, who was speaking; or, on account of eminence. I translate it, all the way unto Libanus. To the noun הַלְּבָנוֹן, the Libanus, I applied ἀπὸ κοινοῦ, from common usage, the עַד/unto, which immediately follows; and the ה, set before the names of places, often means unto. A twin construction is clearly found in 1 Kings 4:21 (Masius).
This Lebanon; this emphatically, as being the most eminent mountain in Syria, and the northern border of the land: or this which is within my view; as if the Lord appeared to him in the form of a man, and pointed to it.
[Unto the great river] Thus Lucan calls the Euphrates in Pharsalia 3, …with Tigris, the great Euphrates (Malvenda). [Concerning this river and its name, see what things are on Genesis 2 concerning Paradise.] Or, it is called great with respect to the rivers that are in the Holy Land (Vatablus).
[All the land of the Hethites, הַחִתִּים] Either it is a Synecdoche; from the one nation he understands the remaining six (Vatablus, Lapide, Tostatus in Bonfrerius, a great many interpreters in Malvenda); just as elsewhere he calls the same nations Amorites: thus Heth in Genesis 27:46 is explained by Canaan in Genesis 28:1 (Lapide). Or he names the Hethites, 1. Because they dwelt in the West. The more learned find satisfaction in this (Vatablus). They join it to what follows, the land of the Hitties, unto the great sea, toward the setting of the sun (Malvenda). [Others otherwise.] These were evidently inhabiting the eastern tract (Junius), and therefore are joined to the description of the eastern border; whence they translate it, unto…Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites (Malvenda). 2. Because these were more formidable than the others, He rouses Josua against them. See Numbers 13:33 and 14:1 (Masius, Bonfrerius, Lapide). For these were the most bellicose of all, as it is evident from 2 Kings 7:6 (Masius). Uriah was a Hittite, 2 Samuel 12:9. And they were called חִתִּים, that is to say, those striking fear (Lapide). In this place, they were the Anakim: for, that the Hethites inhabited the places around Beersheba and around Hebron, is evident from Genesis 23; 25:9, 10; 26:34; 27:46 (Masius).
Of the Hittites, that is, of the Canaanites, who elsewhere are all called Amorites, as Genesis 15:16, and here Hittites, by a synecdoche; the Hittites being the most considerable and formidable of all, as may appear from Numbers 13:33; 14:1; 2 Kings 7:6; and many of them being of the race of the giants, dwelling about Hebron. See Genesis 25:9, 10; 26:34; 27:46.
[Unto the great sea] That is, the Mediterranean (Masius, Vatablus, Malvenda); which is called Great with respect to the other seas of the Holy Land, namely, the salt sea and the lake of Gennesaret (Vatablus).
The great sea; the midland sea, great in itself, and especially compared with those lesser collections of waters, which the Jews called seas.
[Toward the setting of the sun (thus Munster, Tigurinus), מְב֣וֹא הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ] From the setting of the sun (Septuagint, Pagnine, similarly the Arabic, Junius and Tremellius). Unto the great sea of the setting of the sun (Jonathan).
[Your border] That is, your region, which, as is apparent, which shall be marked by those boundaries (Vatablus). Question: But how was this land given to the Israelites? Response 1: This entire land was delivered to them, that it might be subject to taxation and tribute, although not as inheritance (Augustine in Masius). [This does not satisfy:] For the entire land is promised to them for an inheritance, as it is evident from Deuteronomy 19:8-10 (Masius, Serarius). That external empire of David and Solomon, which they were holding even beyond Euphrates, was only furnishing security for the Israelites, but not larger properties. It is not able to be proven that the Hebrews got possession of any of these provinces as their own possessions, nor that they sent colonies of their own nation there, nor that (which God had commanded in Deuteronomy 19) they had established new cites of refuge in them. Even in the time of Solomon the borders are set from Dan unto Beersheba, 1 Kings 4:25, and from the entering of of Hamath unto the river of Egypt. And of those twelve prefectures, 1 Kings 4:7, none were established outside of Canaan (Masius). Response 2: God promised and determined two different borders for His Israel; one narrower, the other broader, all the way to Euphrates: and indeed with those narrower borders He will that they live content at first, right until they, growing more and more, had need of a larger space; for then all the places unto Euphrates, with the original possessors driven out, they were able to claim for themselves, if in the meantime by their piety they present themselves worthy of God’s greater liberality. The truth of the Divine promises is not thus endangered in any way: for it is not absurd, if what things are promised under a condition, if I might make use of forensic language, with the condition never appearing, they are never fulfilled (Masius). Those spacious tracts the Hebrews did not obtain on account of their faintheartedness and other sins, as it is proven out of Judges 2:20 (Lapide). From a compact and agreement God treated with the Israelites, as it is evident from Deuteronomy 11:22-25, which these words in verse 3, as I said to Moses, also indicate (Masius on verse 3). Add that in the kingdom of Christ these promises have been fulfilled lavishly and abundantly to true Israelites, even the seed of Abraham by faith (Masius).
Your coast: Objection. The Israelites never possessed all this land. Answer 1. That was from their own sloth and cowardice, and disobedience to God, and breach of those conditions upon which this promise was suspended. See Judges 2:20, 21. 2. This land was not all to be possessed by them at once, but by degrees, as their numbers and necessities increased; but Canaan being fully sufficient for them, and many of the Israelites being from time to time either cut off or carried captive for their sins, there was never any need of enlarging their possessions. 3. Though their possessions extended not to Euphrates, yet their dominion did, and all those lands were tributary to them in David’s and Solomon’s time.
 Hebrew: כָּל־מָק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֙ר תִּדְרֹ֧ךְ כַּֽף־רַגְלְכֶ֛ם בּ֖וֹ לָכֶ֣ם נְתַתִּ֑יו כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־מֹשֶֽׁה׃
 Hebrew: מֵהַמִּדְבָּר֩ וְהַלְּבָנ֙וֹן הַזֶּ֜ה וְֽעַד־הַנָּהָ֧ר הַגָּד֣וֹל נְהַר־פְּרָ֗ת כֹּ֚ל אֶ֣רֶץ הַֽחִתִּ֔ים וְעַד־הַיָּ֥ם הַגָּד֖וֹל מְב֣וֹא הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה גְּבוּלְכֶֽם׃
 The Libanus and Antilibanus are parallel mountain ranges, running north-south through Syria.
 John Drusius (1550-1616) was a Protestant scholar; he excelled in Oriental studies, Biblical exegesis, and critical interpretation, as is evident from his Annotationes in Pentateuchum, Josuam, Judices, Ruth, Samuelem, Estheram, Jobum, Coheleth, seu Ecclesiasten, Prophetas Minores, Ecclesiasticum, Tobit, 1 Librum Machabæorum and Notæ Majores in Genesin, Exodum, Leviticum, et Priora 18 Capita Numerorum. He served as Professor of Oriental Languages at Oxford (1572), at Louvain (1577), and at Franeker (1585).
 The Desert of Sin and Kadesh-Barnea are roughly fifty miles southwest of the Dead Sea. See Exodus 16:1 and Numbers 13:26.
 Antonomasia is a kind of metonymy; an epithet or appellative takes the place of a proper name.
 Jonathan ben Uzziel (first century) was one of the great pupils of Hillel. It is a matter of some doubt whether Jonathan ben Uzziel is actually responsible for the translation of this portion of the Chaldean Version. For the most part, Targum Jonathan tends to be more paraphrastic and expansive than Targum Onkelos.
 Sebastian Munster (1489-1552) was a German scholar of great talent in the fields of mathematics, Oriental studies, and divinity. He joined the Lutherans, became Professor of Hebrew at Basil, and produced important early Reformation commentaries on the Old Testament (Annotationes in Vetus Testamentum).
 Pagnine (1466-1541) was an Italian Dominican. He was a gifted Hebraist, exegete, and preacher. He was commissioned by Pope Leo X to produce a new Latin translation of the Scripture.
 Leo Jud (1482-1542) was a co-laborer of Ulrich Zwingli during the time of the Swiss Reformation. His translation work might be his most important contribution to the reformation of Zurich. He labored with other divines to produce a vernacular version for the Swiss people, and he produced a Latin version of the Old Testament, usually known as “Tigurinus”, which would be translated, “of Zurich”.
 Hebrew: לְבֹנָה.
 Joshua 1:4a: “From the wilderness and this Lebanon (וְהַלְּבָנ֙וֹן הַזֶּ֜ה) even unto (וְעַד) the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites…”
 1 Kings 4:21: “And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt (מִן־הַנָּהָר֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְעַ֖ד גְּב֣וּל מִצְרָ֑יִם): they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.” In the translation, the עַד/unto is borrowed from what follows, and applied to the land of the Philistines.
 Marcus Annæus Lucanus (39-65) was a Roman poet.
 Here, חִתִּים is being related to the verbal root חָתַת, to be broken or dismayed.
 Hebron is about seventeen miles west of the Dead Sea. Beersheba is about twenty-six miles south-west of Hebron.
 That is, the Dead Sea.
 That is, the Sea of Galilee.
 Dan is twenty-four miles north of the Sea of Galilee.
 Hamath itself is one hundred and sixty-seven miles north of the Sea of Galilee.
 The River of Egypt is forty-six miles south of the old Philistine city Gaza.
 See Galatians 3.