Joshua 11:7: Joshua’s Surprise Attack upon the Confederacy

Verse 7:[1] So Joshua came, and all the people of war with him, against them by the waters of Merom suddenly; and they fell upon them.

[Suddenly] So that he might unexpectedly overwhelm the enemy, free from all fear, as it is likely, and occupied with counsels of bringing war, not of warding it off; or perhaps given especially to the care of the body, fatigued from the journey, and excessive in indulgences (Masius).

Suddenly: When they least expected them, intending there to refresh, and prepare, and order themselves for the offensive war which they designed.

[1] Hebrew: וַיָּבֹ֣א יְהוֹשֻׁ֡עַ וְכָל־עַם֩ הַמִּלְחָמָ֙ה עִמּ֧וֹ עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם עַל־מֵ֥י מֵר֖וֹם פִּתְאֹ֑ם וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ בָּהֶֽם׃

Joshua 11:6: God Encourages Joshua to Engage the Confederacy of Kings

Verse 6:[1] And the LORD said unto Joshua, (Josh. 10:8) Be not afraid because of them: for to morrow about this time will I deliver them up all slain before Israel: thou shalt (2 Sam. 8:4) hough their horses, and burn their chariots with fire.

[Be not afraid] It appears that Joshua was afraid; this is not strange: for cavalry and chariots armed with scythes were for good reason terrifying to infantry, especially unprotected infantry. This ought to suggest to us just how little firm confidence we all have in God, unless His continual answers prop us up (Masius).

[For tomorrow at this very hour (thus the Septuagint), כִּֽי־מָחָ֞ר כָּעֵ֣ת הַזֹּ֗את] Tomorrow close to, or about, this time (Munster, Pagnine, Tigurinus, Montanus, similarly Junius and Tremellius, Jonathan), at the like time (Arabic). When God interposes the delay of only one day to fight and to conquer, hence it appears to be gathered that the place where the Kings had assembled to fight with Israel was not far from the camp of the Israelites. But it could easily be responded that that to fight, etc., is to be taken of their counsels for the management of the war; but that God said this to Joshua, not with the camp at Gilgal, but with the enemy even then having already advanced far in the way. And thus Josephus thinks, who writes that Joshua came upon the enemy at last on the fifth day from Gilgal.[2] But he does not relate enough to make a determination (Masius).

[I] There is great force in this pronoun: that is to say, There is no reason why thou oughtest to weigh the burden of the imminent war with thy strength: I will provide for that matter, etc. (Masius).

[I will deliver] Hebrew: giving[3] (Malvenda); or, I render. The verb of the present tense places the very matter in the sight of the Commander-in-Chief, as if it were in his hands (Masius).

[Those to be wounded, חֲלָלִים[4]] Pierced (Syriac, Junius and Tremellius); striken down (Arabic); wounded (Tigurinus, Drusius), that is, dead from wounds. From that which precedes, that which follows. But the sense requires slain (thus Munster, Pagnine, Montanus, Masius, the Chaldean and Symmachus in Masius).

[And thou shalt hamstring the horses (thus Pagnine, Montanus, Septuagint, Jonathan), or, thou shalt cut the sinews (Vatablus, Drusius), תְּעַקֵּר] Thou shalt cut from below (Munster); thou shalt cut the sinews (Tigurinus), that is, of the shanks and of the hooves (Menochius, Bonfrerius). Thou shalt cut from below their hocks (Arabic, Junius and Tremellius, Lapide, Vatablus). עִקֵּר signifies to remove the foundation, or root (Masius). It signifies to pluck up and to root out, Ecclesiastes 3:2;[5] Daniel 7:8[6] (Bochart’s A Sacred Catalogue of Animals). Now, the feet of horses are their foundation and root, otherwise than in man (who is an inverted tree, and has his roots above): for this reason the cutting of the shanks of a beast is called a rooting out, as if it were a plucking out of a plant by its root. Thus Kimchi in Bochart’s A Sacred Catalogue of Animals. What if עָקַר by metathesis[7] is used in the place of ערק, which denotes a sinew? then it is properly to hamstring (Bochart’s A Sacred Catalogue of Animals 1:2:11:178). God willed this, lest afterwards they might make use of them in war, and put confidence in them (Vatablus, Estius, Tirinus). Hence also the King was forbidden to multiply horses, Deuteronomy 17:16. For helps of this sort were easily able to lessen the opinion of Divine aid, in which alone is it right completely to put confidence. See Psalm 147:10 (Masius, similarly Bonfrerius, Lapide).

Hough their horses, that is, cut their hamstrings, that they may be unfit for war. For God forbade them to have or keep many horses, Deuteronomy 17:16, now especially, that they might not trust to their horses, as men are apt to do, nor distrust God for want of so necessary a help in battle; nor ascribe the conquest of the land to their own strength, but wholly to God, by whose power alone a company of raw and unexperienced footmen were able to subdue so potent a people, which besides their great numbers, and giants, and walled cities, had the advantage of many thousands of horses and chariots.

[1] Hebrew: וַיֹּ֙אמֶר יְהוָ֣ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֮ אַל־תִּירָ֣א מִפְּנֵיהֶם֒ כִּֽי־מָחָ֞ר כָּעֵ֣ת הַזֹּ֗את אָנֹכִ֞י נֹתֵ֧ן אֶת־כֻּלָּ֛ם חֲלָלִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֶת־סוּסֵיהֶ֣ם תְּעַקֵּ֔ר וְאֶת־מַרְכְּבֹתֵיהֶ֖ם תִּשְׂרֹ֥ף בָּאֵֽשׁ׃

[2] Antiquities 5:1:18.

[3] Hebrew: אָנֹכִ֞י נֹתֵ֧ן.

[4] חָלָל, pierced through or fatally wounded, appears to be related to the verbal root חָלַל, to pierce.

[5] Ecclesiastes 3:2:  “A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up (לַעֲקוֹר) that which is planted…”

[6] Daniel 7:8a:  “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots (אֶתְעֲקַרוּ)…”

[7] That is, a transposition of letters.

Joshua 11:5: The Confederacy of the Northern Kings against Israel, Part 5

Verse 5:[1] And when all these kings were met together (Heb. assembled by appointment[2]), they came and pitched together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.

[And they assembled (thus Pagnine, Montanus, Septuagint, similarly Munster, Tigurinus), וַיִּוָּעֲדוּ[3]] By appointment, or agreement, they assembled (Masius, Junius and Tremellius). It could be translated, by pacts, or solemn engagements, they were bound to one another. For יָעַד also signifies to enter into an agreement, and both Aquila and Symmachus render it, ὡμολόγησαν, they entered into an agreement. With the Chaldean, I translate it, they gathered at the appointed time (Masius). And agreeing upon a place (they encamped) (Syriac). And, conspiring, they came (Arabic).

[Near the waters of Merom, מֵ֣י מֵר֔וֹם] Thus they are called, either, 1. because they were in the upper tract of the Israelites toward Tabor,[4] where the King of Shimron-Meron had dominion: for which reason the elevated places are called the Merom of the field by Deborah[5] (Junius). Or, 2. because here the lake was above the other of Gennesaret (Serarius). But where the waters of Merom might have been, I do not yet quite understand (Masius). [Therefore others rush to help at this point.] It is a lacus/lake (thus read, not locus/place) of Jordan, that which lies between its spring and the lake of Gennesaret, and the lake is called Semechonitis (Serarius, Bonfrerius); concerning which see Josephus’ Jewish Wars 4:1. Which, when the melted snow flows down from Libanus, is full; but in summer is nearly dries up. Here they assembled, because near this lake was situated Hazor, the King of which was governing the other kings (Bonfrerius).

The waters of Merom; a lake made by the river Jordan in the northern part of it, which was in the territory of the king of Shimron, or Shimron-meron, and near Hazor, Jabin’s royal city, and almost in the middle of these confederate kings.

[1] Hebrew: וַיִּוָּ֣עֲד֔וּ כֹּ֖ל הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ וַיַּחֲנ֤וּ יַחְדָּו֙ אֶל־מֵ֣י מֵר֔וֹם לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

[2] Hebrew: וַיִּוָּעֲדוּ.

[3] יָעַד, to appoint, in the Niphal signifies to gather by appointment.

[4] מֵרוֹם/Merom may be related to the verb, רוּם, to be high.  Mount Tabor was just south-west of the Sea of Galilee.

[5] Judges 5:18:  “Zebulun and Naphtali were a people that jeoparded their lives unto the death in the high places of the field (מְרוֹמֵ֥י שָׂדֶֽה׃).”

Joshua 11:4: The Confederacy of the Northern Kings against Israel, Part 4

Verse 4:[1] And they went out, they and all their hosts with them, much people, (Gen. 22:17; 32:12; Judg. 7:12; 1 Sam. 13:5) even as the sand that is upon the sea shore in multitude, with horses and chariots very many.

[Even as the sand] It signifies an innumerable multitude (Masius). They were, according to Josephus, three hundred thousand infantrymen, ten thousand horsemen, two thousand chariots.[2] (But Zonaras,[3] who plagiarized Josephus, reads thirty thousand chariots.) This commends to our attention the fruitfulness of the land. While an impious nation was so prolificly increased there, who would fear that those boundaries would be too narrow for the innumerable offspring promised to Abraham (Masius)?

[And chariots] Namely, armed with scythes, or made of iron (Masius, Serarius, Drusius).

[1] Hebrew: וַיֵּצְא֣וּ הֵ֗ם וְכָל־מַֽחֲנֵיהֶם֙ עִמָּ֔ם עַם־רָ֕ב כַּח֛וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־שְׂפַת־הַיָּ֖ם לָרֹ֑ב וְס֥וּס וָרֶ֖כֶב רַב־מְאֹֽד׃

[2] Antiquities 5:1.

[3] John Zonaras (twelfth century), native of Constantinople, was a statesman, historian, and theologian.  His most important work, Extracts of History, extends from the creation of the world to the death of Alexios (1118).  The early sections are largely lifted from Josephus.

Joshua 11:3: The Confederacy of the Northern Kings against Israel, Part 3

Verse 3:[1] And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, (Judg. 3:3) and to the Hivite under (Josh. 13:11) Hermon (Gen. 31:49) in the land of Mizpeh.

[The Canaanites also on the east and west (similarly all interpreters)] (Supply, who were dwelling) on the east, etc. (Vatablus). They that were dwelling near Jordan (that is, on the East) and near the Sea (which denotes the West) were properly called Canaanites: Numbers 13:29 (Masius, Drusius).

The Canaanites properly so called lived part of them on the east near Jordan, and part on the west near the sea, and both are here united.

[The Hivite also that was dwelling near the foot of Hermon] He adds this, lest one should think that the Gibeonites (who also were Hivites[2]) had joined themselves with those enemies (Masius). That Hivites were dwelling on mount Hermon is evident from Judges 3:3 (Masius, Serarius). Now, Hermon is twofold: one is on this side of Jordan, near mount Gilboa; the other is on the other side of Jordan, over against mount Libanus toward the West, which elsewhere is called Baal-Hermon,[3] and Sirion,[4] and Senir.[5] He speaks here of the latter (Bonfrerius, Masius, Serarius). The Hivites are called Kadmonim, or Kadmonites, that is, Easterners,[6] because they occupied mount Hermon, which was the eastern most part of the land of Canaan; whence Hermon is held as the East, and Tabor as the West, Psalm 89:12. And hence the wife of Cadmus is called Harmonia, or Hermione.[7] It is no longer obscure why the Kadmonites are pretended to have been changed into serpents; for they were Hivites, and חויא[8] is serpent to the Syrians (Bochart’s Sacred Geography “Canaan” 1:19:487).

The Hivite under Hermon; that dwelt under Mount Hermon in the north of Canaan, whereby they are differenced from those Hivites who lived in Gibeon; of which before.

[In the land of Maspha, בְּאֶ֖רֶץ הַמִּצְפָּֽה׃] In the land of Mizpeh (Munster, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Montanus, Jonathan, similarly Junius and Tremellius). Now, Mizpeh was fourfold: 1. in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:38; 2. in the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:26; 3. that of the Moabites, 1 Samuel 22:3; 4. that which is conjoined with Gilead, concerning which Genesis 31:49; Judges 10:17 (or Judges 11:29 [Serarius]). And he speaks of that one (Junius). In the region of Mizpeh, that is, a watch-tower:[9] for it is a region situated at the entry of Libanus above Jordan, where scouts were located (Junius). In the land of watch-towers (Syriac); in a more elevated region (Arabic).

Mizpeh; that Mizpeh which was in the northern part of Gilead; of which Genesis 31:49; Judges 11:29. But there were other cities called by that name, which signifying a watching-place, might be easily applied to several places of good prospect. Besides this, there is one Mizpeh of Judah, Joshua 15:38; another of Benjamin, Joshua 18:26; a third in Moab, 1 Samuel 22:3.

[1] Hebrew: הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ מִמִּזְרָ֣ח וּמִיָּ֔ם וְהָאֱמֹרִ֧י וְהַחִתִּ֛י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֥י וְהַיְבוּסִ֖י בָּהָ֑ר וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ תַּ֣חַת חֶרְמ֔וֹן בְּאֶ֖רֶץ הַמִּצְפָּֽה׃

[2] See Joshua 9:3, 7.

[3] See Judges 3:3.

[4] See Deuteronomy 3:9; Psalm 29:6.

[5] See 1 Chronicles 5:23; Song of Solomon 4:8; Ezekiel 27:5.

[6] Genesis 15:19:  “The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (הַקַּדְמֹנִי)…” קַדְמֹנִי/Kamonite is related to קֶדֶם/east.

[7] Cadmus, in Greek mythology, was from Phœnicia.  Upon the counsel of Athena, Cadmus killed a dragon and sowed its teeth into the earth, which brought forth the Spartes, a fierce people, who killed one another until only five remained.  These five survivors helped Cadmus to build Thebes; but the dragon was sacred to the gods, and they cursed Cadmus for its death.  With the establishment of the government of Thebes, Zeus gave Harmonia to be Cadmus’ bride, but misfortune clung to them.  Cadmus, lamenting the attachment of the gods to the serpent, wished for the life of a serpent, and he and his wife were changed.

[8] חויא has a phonetic similarity to חִוִּי/Hivite.

[9] מִצְפָּה/Mizpeh is related to the verbal root צָפָה, to look out.

Joshua 11:2: The Confederacy of the Northern King against Israel, Part 2

Verse 2:[1] And to the kings that were on the north of the mountains, and of the plains south of (Num. 34:11) Chinneroth, and in the valley, and in the borders (Josh. 17:11; Judg. 1:27; 1 Kings 4:11) of Dor on the west…

[Also to the kings of the North, that were dwelling in the mountains, וְֽאֶל־הַמְּלָכִ֞ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר מִצְּפ֗וֹן בָּהָ֧ר] And unto the kings (supply either that were [Munster, Tirinus], or, that were dwelling [Pagnine with the Vulgate], or, neighboring one another [Syriac]) on the North in the mountain (Montanus), or, mountains (Vatablus) [similarly almost all interpreters]. מִצְּפ֗וֹן בָּהָ֧ר, on the North in the mountain, means, on the North of the mountain; as the valley in Gibeon, that is, the Gibeonite valley.[2] חוֹסֵי בוֹ, they that trust in Him, is similar;[3] it is the same as חוֹסָיו, those trusting of Him. For particles do not hinder construction (Drusius). That, in the mountain, has regard to those Kings that were reigning in Libanus, or unto Libanus; which Josephus also appears to think[4] (Masius).

On the north of the mountains; Hebrew, on the north (which may be the general designation of all the particular places following, that they were in the northern parts of Canaan, as those mentioned Joshua 10, were in the southern parts) in the mountain; either in or near the famous mountain of Lebanon, called the mountain by way of eminency; or in the mountainous country.

[And in the plain toward the south of Chinneroth, וּבָעֲרָבָ֛ה נֶ֥גֶב כִּֽנֲר֖וֹת] Verbatim: and in the plain south of Chinneroth (Montanus); in the plain of the south of Ginnesar (Jonathan); in the fields toward the south of Chinneroth (Munster, Tigurinus). Those that were dwelling in that plain that was south of the sea of Gennesaret. And it appears that that pleasant valley was called the valley of Jezreel,[5] situated between the two mountains of Hermon[6] and Gilboa[7] (Bonfrerius). That, in the mountain, appears to have regard to the Kings in Libanus [as already mentioned], but that, in the plain, to the Lords of upper Galilee. Or, if you prefer, this signifies all the flat places: and those are now divided, 1. into those that were looking toward the south, or Gennesaret (for Gennesaret is South of Libanus); 2. those that were pertaining to the illustrious valley, or royal valley; for this was lower, extending along the bank of the Jordan; 3. those that were lying in the region of Dor, at the foot of Carmel and toward Cæsarea of Palestine (Masius). Others translate it: in the South, and in the plain of Chinneroth (Syriac); and in the fields, in the southern parts of Chinneroth (Junius and Tremellius). In the South of Chinneroth’s, that is, regions situated on both banks of Gennesaret, on both sides of Jordan (Junius). Here is כִּנֲרוֹת/ Chinneroth: The plural termination (־וֹת) is not without emphasis (Drusius). He spoke in the plural, either because of bays, or because of the places adjacent to it (Vatablus): inasmuch as he indicates, not only the plains neighboring and adjacent to the lake of Gennesaret, but also the more remote, abundant in like goodness (Malvenda, Masius out of Kimchi). For that is the language of abundance (Masius). This region was very rich. The plural indicates that there were several and various places of this sort. Genesar means Garden of Princes[8] (Drusius). But the Septuagint translates it, ἀπέναντι Κενερὼθ, over against Keneroth, that is, נֶגֶד, opposite to, instead of נֶגֶב/south (Drusius out of Masius). Now, נֶגֶב/south is set down in the place of מִנֶּגֶב, opposite to, as a little afterwards it is written בְנָפוֹת, in the borders/heights (Masius).

South of Chinneroth; Hebrew, in the plain lying southward from Chinneroth,[9] or the lake of Gennesaret. See Deuteronomy 3:17; Luke 5:1.

[In the fields also (thus Vatablus), וּבַשְּׁפֵלָה[10]] And in the plain (Montanus, Junius and Tremellius, Pagnine, Munster); in the depression (Jonathan); in the flat places, or, in the lower-lying region (Vatablus). [But the Syriac refers it to what precedes, in the plain of Chinneroth, and its fields.]

[And in the regions of Dor near the sea[11] (thus Tigurinus)] מִיָּם, by the sea (Masius), or, westward. Now, they translate בְנָפוֹת as in the tracts (Masius, Drusius, Montanus, Arabic, Junius and Tremellius). Thus Psalm 48:2, יְפֵ֥ה נוֹף֮, beautiful for situation, or, positioned in a pleasant tract of land. And tracts of land, which the Greeks call κλίματα/regions/ascents, the commonality of the Jews calls נוֹפוֹת/tracts. Symmachus translates it, ἀκτὴν, etc., the coast of the sea of Dor, and this is not a poor rendering (Masius). In the borders (Munster). To others it is a proper name, Napheth Dor (thus the Septuagint, Pagnine, Syriac, Arabic). Now, Dor lies westward from Gennesaret, toward the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, between the promontory of Carmel and Palestinian Cæsarea (Masius).

Dor; a place upon the coast of the midland sea.

[1] Hebrew: וְֽאֶל־הַמְּלָכִ֞ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר מִצְּפ֗וֹן בָּהָ֧ר וּבָעֲרָבָ֛ה נֶ֥גֶב כִּֽנֲר֖וֹת וּבַשְּׁפֵלָ֑ה וּבְנָפ֥וֹת דּ֖וֹר מִיָּֽם׃

[2] Isaiah 28:21:  “For the Lord shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon (כְּעֵ֖מֶק בְּגִבְע֣וֹן), that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act.”

[3] Psalm 2:12b:  “…Blessed are all they that put their trust in him (כָּל־ח֥וֹסֵי בֽוֹ׃).”

[4] Antiquities 5:1:18.

[5] Jezreel was in the Tribe of Issachar.

[6] Hermon is the great mountain of the southern portion of the Anti-Libanus.  It marks the northern border of Israel.

[7] Gilboa is a mountain-ridge at the south-eastern end of the valley of Jezreel.

[8] גִּינֵיסַר/Ginesar sounds like גני שרים, Garden of Princes.

[9] Hebrew: וּבָעֲרָבָ֛ה נֶ֥גֶב כִּֽנֲר֖וֹת.

[10] שְׁפֵלָה/lowland is related to the verbal root שָׁפֵל, to be low.

[11] Hebrew: וּבְנָפ֥וֹת דּ֖וֹר מִיָּֽם׃.

Joshua 11:1: The Confederacy of the Northern King against Israel, Part 1

[1450 BC] Verse 1:[1] And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things, that he (Josh. 10:3) sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king (Josh. 19:15) of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph…

[When Jabin had heard] Jabin called them to arms, because he obtained the supremacy in those regions, as it will be said in verse 10 (Masius, Bonfrerius). Hazor was the chief city of all Canaan (Lapide). Consider here the goodness of God, by which the affairs of His Church are guided; and thus He leads human weakness by the hand, as it were. He does not suffer new enemies to mobilize themselves until they have properly renewed their strength and courage in the camp (Masius).

[King of Azor, חָצוֹר] Hazor. A city in upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles, not far from Kadesh[2] (Drusius out of Masius). In the place of which Nasor is read in 1 Maccabees 11:67;[3] but, that it is to be read Ἀζὼρ/Azor, Josephus teaches us, when he recounts this history[4] (Drusius). It was in the tribe of Naphtali, as one may gather from Joshua 19:36 (Bonfrerius).

Hazor, the chief city of all those parts, Joshua 11:10. Had heard those things: this was a remarkable instance of the wisdom and goodness of Divine Providence, which so governed the minds and hearts of the Canaanites, that they were not at all united under one king, but divided amongst many petty kings; and next, that these did not all unanimously join their counsels and forces together to oppose the Israelites at their first entrance, which their own wisdom and interest obliged them to do; but quietly suffered the destruction of their brethren, thereby preparing the way for their own.

[King of Shimron] All understand Samaria (Malvenda, thus Masius, Drusius). But see 1 Kings 16:24. For, if it was thus named after Shemer at that time, how is it here called Shimron, since Shemer was not yet born (Drusius, Bonfrerius)? Moreover, Samaria was in the tribe of Ephraim; but this Shimron was in the tribe of Zebulon, as it is indicated in Joshua 19:15. Therefore, this was the other city (Bonfrerius, Serarius); which afterwards is called Shimron-meron, Joshua 12:20 (Junius, Bonfrerius).

Shimron, called Shimron-meron, Joshua 12:20.

[To the king of Achshaph] It was the border of the Asherites toward the North, or rather the North-west, above Hazor. Some locate this near Ptolemais:[5] but that is called Achzib,[6] not Achshaph (Masius).

Achshaph, a place in the tribe of Asher, the furthest part of the land toward the north and west.

[1] Hebrew: וַיְהִ֕י כִּשְׁמֹ֖עַ יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־חָצ֑וֹר וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֶל־יוֹבָב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מָד֔וֹן וְאֶל־מֶ֥לֶךְ שִׁמְר֖וֹן וְאֶל־מֶ֥לֶךְ אַכְשָֽׁף׃

[2] There was a Kadesh about seventeen miles north of the Sea of Galilee in Naphtali, and another immediately south of that same Sea in Issachar.

[3] 1 Maccabees 11:67:  “As for Jonathan and his host, they pitched at the water of Gennesar, from whence betimes in the morning they gat them to the plain of Nasor.”

[4] Antiquities of the Jews 5:6.

[5] In Phœnicia.

[6] Achzib was in the Tribe of Asher, just south of Tyre.

Joshua 11 Outline

The other kings and cities of Canaan gather themselves together to fight against Israel, 1-5. God encourages Joshua, promising him victory, 6. The Canaanites destroyed; their cities taken; Hazor burnt; the Anakims cut off, 7-21; those in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod excepted, 22, 23.