Verse 2: (Eph. 1:4; 1 Pet. 2:9) Elect (Rom. 8:29; 11:2) according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, (2 Thess. 2:13) through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and (Heb. 10:22; 12:24) sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: (Rom. 1:7; 2 Pet. 1:2; Jude 2) Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.
[According to, etc., κατὰ πρόγνωσιν—ἐν ἁγιασμῷ—εἰς ὑπακοὴν καὶ ῥαντισμὸν, etc.] This is to be referred, either, 1. to that, Apostle, etc.; that is to say, an Apostle, appointed according to the will of God (Cyril and Œcumenius in Estius); or, 2. to that, elect (Estius out of Bede, Lyra, etc. Menochius, Tirinus, Grotius, Gomar, Gerhard, Beza, Piscator, Vorstius), by Trajection (Grotius, Piscator, etc.), with the result that that, strangers dispersed, etc., is included parenthetically (Gomar); inasmuch as what things here follow compel us to hearken (Estius). Now, those effectually called and separated from the world he here calls elect (Estius, Vorstius), as in John 15:19. Metonomy of the efficient (Piscator). [Thus they render the passage:] Elect (or, chosen [Erasmus, Pagnine]) according to the premeditation, or preconception, or prescience (or, foreknowledge [Castalio]; in accordance with the prescience [Tremellius out of the Syriac]; according to the prescience, or preconception [Tigurinus, Piscator, Montanus, thus the Vulgate]; according as it pertains to the prescience [Arabic]; according to the predetermination [Erasmus]; according to the foreordination [Erasmus, Vatablus]; according to the predilection, or, which comes to the same thing, the providence, or benign ordination [Estius]: Πρόγνωσις here signifies, either, 1. a bare prescience [certain interpreters in Gomar, Gerhard], by which God has chosen, or has decreed to save, those whom He foresaw were going to believe, etc. [Gerhard]; or, 2. a decree preceding [Grotius, Gomar, Tirinus, Hammond, Beza], and eternal [Vatablus, Piscator], concerning the salvation of the elect [Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Gomar]: or, God’s determinate counsel [Erasmus]; providence [Menochius, Tirinus], not barely speculative, but practical, which includes the will of God [Tirinus, similarly Vorstius]: or, predestination [Estius out of Augustine and Lyra, Menochius], by which God chose them unto faith and grace [Menochius, Tirinus], and the fit means [Menochius], by which they are conducted unto righteousness and salvation [Tirinus]: For the prescience of God, when it is posited in the case of good things, is the same as predestination: For God foresees nothing good that He Himself is not going to do [Estius out of Augustine]: Thus this word is used in Romans 8:29; 11:2 [Estius, Vorstius, Piscator]; Acts 2:23 [Grotius]; 1 Peter 1:20 [Vorstius, Estius]: Thus also the simple verb to know is used in the place of to choose, to approve [Estius, thus Gomar], as in Psalm 1:6; Matthew 7:23 [Gomar]: Moreover, among the Latins Decrees are called scita, things known, and Judges are called cognitores, one who knows [Erasmus]: The sense [here] is the same as in Ephesians 1:4 [Grotius]: Another reading has πρόθεσιν, the purpose [Vorstius]) of God the Father (who is the efficient and author of election, not exclusive of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but by a certain excellence, by which unto Him, as the first person in order, from which the remaining two persons have their source, Divine actions are generally wotn to be referred [Gomar]: Others: Here Father is able to be taken both notionally, so that it might signify the first person; and essentially, so that it might signify God, which is common to the three persons: For He is Father with respect to Angels, men, and the rest of the creatures [Menochius]), through the sanctification (ἐν ἁγιασμῷ, in the sanctification, in the place of δι᾽ ἁγιασμοῦ, through the sanctification, according to the Hebraism [Vorstius out of Piscator, similarly Erasmus, Gerhard]; that is, by which the Holy Spirit sanctifies the heart through the preaching of the Gospel, according to John 17:17 [Piscator, similarly Gerhard]: Thus the instrumental cause of salvation is expressed, which is the ministry of the Word and Sacraments, which is the ministry of the Spirit, 2 Corinthians 3:6 [Gerhard]; or the formal cause of our election is denoted, that is, the formal cause of our effectual calling unto Christ [Vorstius out of Beze]; or, in the sanctification, as Bede and certain Latin codices read it, so that there might be a Hypallage here, in the sanctification of the Spirit, in the place of, in the Spirit of sanctification, that is, the sanctifying Spirit [Estius]: unto, or towards, the sanctification [Beza, Zegers, Grotius, Vulgate, Menochius, Tirinus, Vatablus], that is, εἰς ἁγιασμὸν, unto sanctification [Gomar out of Beza], so that they might be sanctified [Vatablus, thus Estius, Menochius]; or, unto separation from the impurity of the world and from common use, and consecration to God or unto divine use and worship [Gomar, similarly Beza]; which consecration is explained by two species, obedience, and sprinkling, etc., that is, regeneration, and justification [Gomar out of Beza]) of the Spirit (either, 1. the human spirit [Estius]; that is to say, that not only the flesh might be sanctified, as in the old Law [Tirinus], but also the spirit, or soul [Tirinus, thus Estius]; or, unto sanctification, not carnal or legal, but spiritual [Zegers]: Or, 2. the Holy Spirit [Estius, Gomar, thus Zegers, Menochius, Gerhard], as in 2 Thessalonians 2:13 [Gomar]; that is to say, that He might sanctify you [Estius, thus Menochius]: He thus chose us and love us, that He might also sanctify us through His Spirit: The Genitive Πνεύματος, of the Spirit, here denotes [Grotius], not the subject [Gomar], but the Cause [Grotius] efficient, or Author, of sanctification [Gomar]: Which sense better agrees with the context [Gerhard], and is agreed upon by most, for thus is completed in this place the mystery of the Trinity [Estius]; even as election is attributed to the Father, redemption to the Son, so also sanctification to the Holy Spirit [Gomar, thus Estius], as in 1 Corinthians 6:11: See 1 Peter 1:22 [Gomar]), unto, or towards, obedience (namely, of Christ [Estius]; either, 1. by which we obey Christ [Estius, similarly Gomar]: Which Spirit brings it to pass that we obey Go with much more excellence than before [Grotius]: This and the following depend upon the word, elect [Estius]: It signifies that they were elected unto this, tha they might obey the divine precepts [Menochius]: Now, by the name of obedience is understood, either, 1. faith in Christ [Gerhard, Piscator, thus Gomar, Vorstius]; that is, by which we obey the Gospel [Vorstius], or, those commandments of God, hear ye Him (respond ye to the Gospel [Piscator]: which is also elsewhere called the obedience of faith, Romans 1:5 [Gerhard, similarly Piscator, Vorstius]; Romans 16:26, and the obedience of the Gospel, Acts 6:7; Romans 10:16, and the obedience of Christ, Hebrews 5:9 [Gerhard], and the obedience of the truth, 1 Peter 1:22 [Piscator]: for true faith cannot be without obedience [Vorstius]: or, 2. also love and a holy life, which, no less than faith, the Gospel requires [Gomar]: or, 3. the obedience with which Christ obeyed all the way unto the death of the cross [certain interpreters in Gomar, Beza]: But we are not rightly said to be elected unto that obedience, but through and because of it [Gerhard out of Estius]: [But learned men do not think that the authors of that opinion take that εἰς/unto otherwise, and thus to nullify that difficulty: for they translate it:] through obedience [Beza, Tirinus], that is, through the merit of the obedience of Christ [Tirinus]: Therefore, it denotes the material of our sanctification, namely, the righteousness of Christ, by the imputation of which we are crowned as righteous: Εἰς/unto here is in the place of διὰ/through, for the Hebrew בsignifies both [Beza]) and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ (Piscator, Beza, etc.), that is, unto expiation and remission of sins (Estius); or, unto imputation (Gomar), and application (Gomar, Gerhard), of the obedience and sacrifice of Christ (Gomar), and of the benefits acquired by the death of Christ (Gerhard). For this he calls sprinkling, etc., because no one is cleansed by the blood of Christ from sins, except he be sprinkled by it, that is, except the merit of Christ be applied to him. Which sprinkling, or application, is indeed made through the obedience of faith, according to Romans 3:25 (Estius, thus Gerhard). It explains what that obedience of Christ is, and how it is to be view by us, namely, not simply and of itself, but with respect to us, inasmuch as it is a sprinkling (Beza). There is also here ἑνδιαδύο, an hendiadys, unto obedience and sprinkling, etc., that is, unto faith through which hearts are sprinkled by the blood of Christ, according to Acts 15:9; Hebrews 9:14, etc.; 1 John 1:7 (Gerhard out of Piscator). He indicates here that the effect of our election is our whole righteousness, which consists partly in faith and the operation of virtues, partly in the remission of sins (Estius). An allusion is made here, both, to that phrase in Psalm 51:7, thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be clean (Gerhard); and, unto the legal sprinklings, or purifications (Estius, Beza, Erasmus, thus Gerhard, Gomar), 1 Peter 1:19; Exodus 12:23; Hebrews 9:13, 20 (Gomar); Exodus 29:21; Leviticus 8:30 (Gerhard), and especially unto that in Exodus 24:8 (Estius, thus Gerhard). And it is a most famous Canon of the Jews that the root, or essence, of the sacrifice is the sprinkling of blood (Bochart’s Sacred Catalogue of Animals 1:2:50:573). It is not treated here of the remission of sins, which precedes the gift of the Holy Spirit; but here it is again a Genitive of Cause. See Romans 3:25; 5:9; Ephesians 1:7; 2:13; Colossians 1:14; Hebrews 9:19; 10:19, 29; 12:24; 13:12. But the language of ῥαντισμοῦ/sprinkling is taken from the Law of Moses, in which both the people and the Priests, before entering into the earthly Sanctuary, were sprinkled with a certain liquid, Exodus 24:8; Numbers 31:23. So also we, so that we might enter into the heavenly Sanctuary, must be sprinkled with the blood of Christ, that is, that is follow His example in enduring sufferings, Hebrews 12:24: the blood of Christ is called αἷμα ῥαντισμοῦ, the blood of sprinkling, by a Genitive of Effect, but here ῥαντισμὸς αἵματος, the sprinkling of blood, by a Genitive of the Efficient; for that sanctification, that is, the right of entering into the heavenly Sanctuary does not come to us except through the blood of Christ, who is set forth to us as an exemplar both of suffering and of glory (Grotius). Ῥαντισμὸς αἵματος, the sprinkling of blood, etc., ought to be taken passively, as the preceding ὑπακοὴ/obedience shows, to which it is conjoined, and hence it is something in us; neither does it denote here the remission of sins, which has regard to God, as the Agent, and the blood of Christ, as the meritorious cause. He has regard here to that action in Exodus 24:7, 8, in which the people is sprinkled with blood, and by that sprinkling the covenant is both signified and sealed, not only on the part of God, but also on the part of the people; as those words show, concerning all those words, among which were, as the promises of God, so also the obedience promised by the people. Therefore, in this place it signifies that Evangelical obedience is the condition to be furnished by us in this new Covenant, which Christ hence signified by His own blood, who gave Himself, so that He might cleanse us, etc., Titus 2:14 (Hammond).
By elect he means, either, 1. Singled out of the world, and separated unto God in their effectual calling, as 1 Corinthians 1:1; those that are said to be called, 1 Corinthians 1:26, are said to be chosen, 1 Corinthians 1:27, 28; and so the word seems to be taken, James 2:5: or, 2. Chosen to salvation, and the means of it, in God’s eternal decree, Ephesians 1:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:13. According to the foreknowledge; either, 1. The Divine preordination, or decree of election, as the word is taken, 1 Peter 1:20, and then we may take elect in the first sense; men are chosen out of the world, or called in time, according as they were chosen from eternity, Romans 8:30: or, 2. Foreknowledge here is as much as approbation or love, Matthew 7:23; Romans 11:2; and so signifies the free favour and good will of God, which is the fountain from whence the decree of election proceeds; and then we are to take elect in the latter sense, and so elect according to the foreknowledge of God, is, eternally designed unto life, according to, or out of, that free grace and love God did from eternity bear to them, which was the only motive he had for his choosing them: or, (which comes to the same,) by foreknowledge we may understand election itself, as it is in God; and by election, the same, as terminated in the creature, and executed in effectual calling. Of God the Father; this doth not exclude the Son or Spirit from their interest in and concurrence to the Divine decree, but only notes the order of working among the three Persons in the affair of man’s salvation; election is ascribed to the Father, reconciliation to the Son, and sanctification to the Spirit. Through sanctification: sanctification seems to be taken in a large sense, for the whole change of our spiritual state, both as to real grace in regeneration, and relative in justification; so that God may then be said to sanctify us, when in our effectual calling he justifies us from our sins, and renews us unto obedience: so it is taken, Hebrews 10:10. Of the Spirit; this is to be understood rather of the Spirit of God, the efficient of sanctification, than the spirit or soul of man, the subject of it. Unto obedience; either, 1. The obedience of Christ to God; and then the sense is, elect, or ordained to be, by the sanctification of the Spirit, made partakers of the benefits of Christ’s obedience: or, 2. The obedience of believers to Christ, and that either in their believing, faith being a giving obedience to the great command of the gospel, John 6:29, and particularly called obedience, Romans 1:5; and then the sense runs thus, elect unto faith, which was to be wrought in you by the sanctification of the Spirit: or else in the exercise of holiness, which is the fruit of faith; and then it signifies the same as Ephesians 1:4, chosen, that you might be made, by the sanctification of the Spirit, holy and unblamable, and might accordingly demean yourselves. And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ; an allusion to the sprinkling of the blood of the sacrifices under the law, Hebrews 9:13, 14, 20, 22; 12:24; it signifies the application of the blood of Christ for the purging of the conscience, (which was typified by those legal sprinklings,) especially from the guilt of sin; which sprinkling, or application of the blood of Christ to our consciences, is performed on our part by faith, on God’s part by his Spirit working that faith in us (as well as enabling us unto obedience) in our effectual calling, as likewise by God’s imputing Christ’s righteousness to us; and so the sense of the whole is: Elect according to the foreknowledge of God, to be by the sanctification of the Spirit brought into the participation of all the benefits of Christ’s redemption; the sum of which consists in the renovation of your natures unto gospel obedience, and the justification of your persons.
[Grace…and peace, etc.] That is, every sort of good, spiritual and temporal (Menochius). And the favor of God, and thence advancing prosperity, increase to you more and more. The same prayer in the same words, 2 Peter 1:2, and in nearly the same words, Jude 2. Often in Paul’s writing also. A similar prayer in Numbers 6:24-26
Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied; there being several kinds of grace, 1 Peter 4:10, and several kinds of peace, outward and inward, he wisheth them all kinds of each; and there being several degrees and measures of both, he prays for an increase of these degrees in them, and so a multiplication of all good, both temporal and spiritual, to them.
 Bede (c. 672-735), known as the Venerable Bede, was an English monk whose fame rests largely on his ecclesiastical history of England (c. 731). He wrote many other works, including commentaries on the Pentateuch, Kings, Esdras, Tobias, the Gospels, Acts, and the Catholic Epistles. His interpretive work is characterized by his commitment to the tradition of the Fathers and by his use of the allegorical method of interpretation.
 That is, the transposition of words.
 John 15:19: “If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen (ἐξελεξάμην) you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.”
 Romans 8:29: “For whom he did foreknow (προέγνω), he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.”
 Romans 11:2a: “God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew (προέγνω).”
 Acts 2:23: “Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge (προγνώσει) of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain…”
 1 Peter 1:20: “Who verily was foreordained (προεγνωσμένου) before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you…”
 Psalm 1:6: “For the Lord knoweth (יוֹדֵעַ; γινώσκει, in the Septuagint) the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly shall perish.”
 Matthew 7:23: “And then will I profess unto them, I never knew (ἔγνων) you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.”
 For example, Livy’s Ab Urbe Condita 1:20:6.
 See, for example, Ovid’s Amores 1:12:24.
 The Hebrew preposition ב/in can also signify agent, instrument, or means.
 See, for example, Matthew 17:5.
 Romans 1:5: “By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith (εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως, or, unto obedience of faith) among all nations, for his name…”
 Acts 6:7: “And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith (ὑπήκουον τῇ πίστει).”
 1 Peter 1:22: “Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth (ἐν τῇ ὑπακοῇ τῆς ἀληθείας, or, in the obedience of the truth) through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently…”
 The Hebrew preposition ב/in can also signify agent, instrument, or means.
 That is, two words used to express one concept.
 Samuel Bochart (1599-1667) was a French pastor and scholar with a wide variety of interests, including philology, theology, geography, and zoology. He was on familiar terms with many of the greatest men of his age.
 Hierozoicon, sive Bipertitum Opus de Animalibus Scripturæ.