Verse 12: (Dan. 9:24; 12:9, 13) Unto whom it was revealed, that (Heb. 11:13, 39, 40) not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with (Acts 2:4) the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; (Ex. 25:20; Dan. 8:13; 12:5, 6; Eph. 3:10) which things the angels desire to look into.
[To whom, etc., οἷς ἀπεκαλύφθη ὅτι—διηκόνουν αὐτά] In a manuscript, it is οἷς ἀπεκαλύφθη αὐτὰ οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς, ὑμῖν δὲ διηκόνουν, to whom it was revealed that these things, not to themselves, but to you, they ministered. But I prefer that which the Latin here follows (Grotius). That οἷς, to whom/ which, is able to be referred, either, 1. to the preceding παθήματα/sufferings; that is to say, Testifying to those of Christ’s sufferings and glories by which the Spirit revealed, namely, to the Prophets. Or, 2. which appears simpler, to Christians, who saw that which the Spirit in the Prophets predicted; that is to say, the sufferings and glories through which Christ was revealed to the world, who previously was unknown (Erasmus). Or, 3. to the Prophets (Erasmus, Estius, Gerhard). [They render the words thus:] To whom (understanding, that [Pagnine]) was revealed (namely, by the Holy Spirit [Menochius]) that they, not to themselves, but (or, on the contrary [Erasmus]) to us (or, to you [Erasmus, Vatablus, Gerhard, Vulgate]: Certain Greek codices and Didymus Latinus read ἡμῖν, to us: But other Codices, more approved and ancient, more correctly read ὑμῖν, to you, because ἀνηγγέλη ὑμῖν, which things are reported to you, immediately follows, that the person might not change, as Œcumenius and all the Latin codices read [Gerhard]), ministered these things (Beza, Piscator); that is, that those things did not pertain to the time in which they themselves were living, but were to be fulfilled a great time afterwards (Menochius, similarly Estius, Gerhard, Erasmus); and that what things they had predicted as future were to be announced to you under the New Testament as things fulfilled (Gerhard). The sense: Those revelations were given, not so much for their sake as for yours, who were going to read their books, so that, by the comparison and agreement of those things which were predicted by the Prophets with those things that we [Apostles] announced to you, your faith might be confirmed (Estius). The entire matter was not revealed to them, but they understood this, that they ministered, that is, they foretold (for every announcement of the Divine word is διακονία, a ministry, Acts 6:4; Romans 11:13; 2 Corinthians 4:1; 5:18; 1 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 4:5) those things which were going to happen, not in their time, but in yours. It is certainly a great honor that the Prophets served, not their own interests, but ours. They saw through a lattice-work those things which we observe clearly (Grotius).
[Which, etc., ἃ νῦν ἀνηγγέλη, etc.] Which are now reported (that is, as fulfilled with precision [Tirinus, similarly Estius, Gerhard]: Those great things are fully exhibited: Ἀναγγέλλειν/anangellein, to make known, is a word quite suitable for this matter, Acts 14:27; 15:4; 20:20, 27; Romans 15:21; 1 John 1:5; חוה, to announce [Grotius]) to you, through those who preached the Gospel to you (that is, through the Apostles and their helpers [Grotius, thus Estius, Gerhard]: Εὐαγγελίζειν, or εὐαγγελίζεσθαι, to preach the gospel, with an active sense among our Writers governs an Accusative of Person instead of a Dative of Person, Acts 8:25, 40; 14:15, 21; and elsewhere [Grotius]) through the Holy Spirit sent from heaven (Beza, thus Pagnine, Piscator, etc.). Namely, on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2 (Estius, similarly Piscator, Vorstius, Gerhard), by whom they were most thoroughly informed concerning those things which they were obliged to teach others; and by whose virtue (Estius, thus Gerhard), and impulse, but not by the human will (Gerhard), they began to preach the Gospel (Estius, Gerhard). This is to be referred to they preached the Gospel (Estius). Now, he says this so that he might show that by the same Spirit the Gospel is announced through the Apostles, by whom it had been foretold through the Prophets; and that therefore it was most worthy of faith (Estius, similarly Menochius). [The sense:] through the heavenly gifts given by the Holy Spirit, that is, gifts greater than the very Prophets had; and concerning which the Prophets themselves spoke, as in Joel 2:28. The Spirit is said to be sent, as in Luke 24:49; John 14:26; 15:26; 16:7 (Grotius).
Unto whom; unto which prophets. It was revealed; viz. by the Spirit of Christ that was in them. That not unto themselves; who lived before Christ’s coming in the flesh. But unto us; not only apostles, but believers, who live since Christ came. They did minister; declare and foretell. The preaching of the word is called a ministry, Acts 6:4; 2 Corinthians 4:1; 5:18. The things; the whole doctrine of the gospel concerning Christ’s person, offices, benefits, kingdom, and the whole New Testament state. Which are now reported unto you; viz. as fulfilled, and actually exhibited now, which were only foretold by the prophets. By them that have preached the gospel unto you; the apostles, and other gospel ministers assistant to them: the sense is, The prophets under the Old Testament did, by the Spirit, foresee and foretell Christ’s passion, resurrection, ascension, the effusion of the Spirit, the enlargement of the church by the calling of the Gentiles, etc.; but did not live to see their own prophecies, and God’s promises, fulfilled, Hebrews 11:13, as you now do. They did spread the table that you might feed at it; they had but a taste by faith, and at a distance, of those things you feast upon in their accomplishment; yet they did not grudge to declare these things, being instructed by the Spirit, that what they spake of should not be fulfilled in their time, but in the generations to come; that so ye, by comparing what they said should come to pass with what you have now been assured is come to pass, may be confirmed and established in the belief of the truth, being the same held forth by the prophets formerly, and gospel ministers at present. With the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven: Christ promised to send the Spirit, Luke 24:49; John 14:26; 15:26; 16:7; and actually sent him, Acts 2: the apostles, not of themselves, but acted by this Spirit, have declared unto you the fulfilling of those things, which the former prophets, by the instinct and power of the same Spirit, (the Spirit of Christ, which was in them,) did foretell would in their proper season come to pass.
[Into which things, etc., εἰς ἃ ἐπιθυμοῦσιν—παρακύψαι] Into which things (namely, all those things concerning which he had treated [Grotius], which were predicted by the Prophets [Estius, thus Erasmus, Vatablus, Gerhard], concerning Christ [Erasmus, Vatablus, Valla], and now announced by the Apostles [Estius, thus Erasmus, Vatablus, Gerhard out of Irenæus], of whom mention just not preceded [Gerhard]; that is, into the mysteries of the salvation and redemption of man [Estius, similarly Menochius], that is, so that they might see those things fulfilled: or, he refers to the sufferings and glories of Christ previously mentioned [Menochius]: But these are more remote in the context [Gerhard]: Others: unto whom (Vulgate), that is, either Christ, or the Holy Spirit [Bede in Estius, the Glossa Ordinaria in Gerhard]: Some read εἰς ὃν, unto whom [Gerhard]: But the Greek manuscripts consistently have εἰς ἃ, into which things: Thus also the Syriac and some Latin codices [Estius]) desire (אבו, that is, they love, as in Psalm 119:20, 40, and often elsewhere [Grotius]) the Angels to look (Piscator, thus Beza, etc.). Παρακύπτειν here is taken as in James 1:25 (Grotius) [in which place see what things were said]. Now, there is again an allusion in these words to the cherubims, whose eyes were looking towards the Mercy-seat (Grotius, similarly Estius, Vorstius, Piscator, Beza), Exodus 25 (Estius, Piscator). It indicates a deeper contemplation of a thing (Vorstius, thus Gerhard), as in Luke 24:12; John 20:5, 11 (Gerhard). [The sense:] Which things, not thoroughly known beforehand, the very Angels with consummate joy now behold. Thus also Irenæus, in his Against Heresies 4:67, takes it. That Angels make progress through men is the ancient opinion of the Hebrews, in Rabbi Israel’s Concerning the Soul 1 (Grotius). Although the Angels be not ignorant of these mysteries, as those things were revealed to the Prophets through them, yet they desire to know them more fully and perfectly; both because they recognize the admirable wisdom of God therein, and because they rejoice unspeakably over the salvation of men (Estius). Therefore, he commends the dignity of the Gospel (Estius, Gerhard), as previously by the study of the Prophets, so now by the Angels’ desire of inquiry (Estius).
Which things; the things before said to be reported by them that preached the gospel. The angels desire to look into: it seems to be an allusion to the cherubims that stood above the ark, with their faces toward the mercy-seat, which was a type of Christ. The word signifies a bowing down the head, and stooping to look into a thing, Luke 24:12; John 20:5; and implies a prying, or looking narrowly into it; which argues an earnest desire to know it. The angels thus look into the mysteries of the gospel, as desirous to see the accomplishment of them, admiring the manifold grace and wisdom of God in them, Ephesians 3:10, and rejoicing in the salvation of sinners, which is the end and effect of God’s revealing them.
 Thus the Textus Receptus.
 Didymus the Blind (c. 313-398) was head of the famous Catechetical School in Alexandria. Although blinded in early childhood, his varied academic pursuits were unhindered. He was a disciple of Origen, and appears to have attempted to reconcile Origen’s teaching to the later orthodox formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. Didymus is thought to have written commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, but these commentaries survive only in fragments. The portion on the Catholic Epistles survies in a Latin translation.
 Thus the overwhelming majority of Byzantine texts, as well as Codices Siniaticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Ephræmi Rescriptus.
 Acts 6:4: “But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry (τῇ διακονία) of the word.”
 Romans 11:13: “For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office (τὴν διακονίαν μου)…”
 2 Corinthians 4:1: “Therefore seeing we have this ministry (τὴν διακονίαν ταύτην), as we have received mercy, we faint not…”
 2 Corinthians 5:18: “And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry (τὴν διακονίαν) of reconciliation…”
 1 Timothy 1:12: “And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry (διακονίαν)…”
 2 Timothy 4:5: “But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry (τὴν διακονίαν σου).”
 Acts 14:27: “And when they were come, and had gathered the church together, they rehearsed (ἀνήγγειλαν) all that God had done with them, and how he had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles.”
 Acts 15:4: “And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared (ἀνήγγειλάν) all things that God had done with them.”
 Acts 20:20: “And how I kept back nothing that was profitable unto you, but have shewed (ἀναγγεῖλαι) you, and have taught you publickly, and from house to house…”
 Acts 20:27: “For I have not shunned to declare (ἀναγγεῖλαι) unto you all the counsel of God.”
 Romans 15:21: “But as it is written, To whom he was not spoken of (οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ), they shall see: and they that have not heard shall understand.”
 1 John 1:5: “This then is the message (ἡ ἀγγελία) which we have heard of him, and declare (ἀναγγέλλομεν) unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.”
 In Chaldean.
 Εὐαγγελίζειν is rarely found in the active voice, more frequently in the deponent middle.
 1 Peter 1:12b: “…which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you (διὰ τῶν εὐαγγελισαμένων ὑμᾶς) with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven…”
 Acts 8:25: “And they, when they had testified and preached the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many villages (πολλάς τε κώμας—εὐηγγελίσαντο) of the Samaritans.”
 Acts 8:40: “But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached to all the cities (εὐηγγελίζετο τὰς πόλεις πάσας), till he came to Caesarea.”
 Acts 14:15a: “And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you (εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ὑμᾶς) that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God…”
 Acts 14:21: “And when they had preached the gospel to that city (εὐαγγελισάμενοί τε τὴν πόλιν ἐκείνην), and had taught many, they returned again to Lystra, and to Iconium, and Antioch…”
 Laurentius Valla (1406-1457) was one of the great Latin scholars of his age. He was Professor of Eloquence at Parvia, then at Milan. Later he served as Canon of St. John the Lateran. He wrote In Novum Testamentum Annotationes and De Collationibus Novi Testamenti.
 Irenæus was a second century Church Father, born near Smyrna, but serving as Bishop in Lyon. He was a disciple of Polycarp, who was in turn a disciple of the Apostle John.
 The Glossa Ordinaria (The Ordinary Interpretation) was a collection of glosses drawn from the Church Fathers and printed in the margins of the Vulgate. It was compiled by Anselm of Laon (d. 1117), a French theologian, and his students after him.
 The root may also be תָּאֵב, or אָבָה.
 Psalm 119:20: “My soul breaketh for the longing (לְתַאֲבָה) that it hath unto thy judgments at all times.”
 Psalm 119:40: “Behold, I have longed (תָּאַבְתִּי) after thy precepts: quicken me in thy righteousness.”
 James 1:25: “But whoso looketh (παρακύψας) into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.”
 Verse 20.
 Luke 24:12: “Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld (καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει) the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.”
 John 20:5: “And he stooping down, saw (καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει) the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.”
 John 20:11: “But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down to look (παρέκυψεν) into the sepulchre…”