Verse 11: And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, (Ps. 18:13, 14; 77:17; Is. 30:30; Ecclus. 46:6; Rev. 16:21) that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.
[Great stones] Namely, hail, as the word בָּרָד shows (and thus the Septuagint and Arabic translate it, stones of hail), but more powerfully compacted with greater force of cold. Now, that with so certain a blow God cast down upon enemies, that the victors mixed with these, or at least following hard upon them, this calamity did not touch, is more marvelous than what was done in Exodus 9:25, 26. Moreover, that thunder and lightning came down with the hail appears from Habakkuk 3:11, and is affirmed by Josephus in Antiquities 5:2 (Masius). It rains stones often in the histories (Grotius). Livy is a witness, History of Rome 1:1; 3:10. But those rains eutger were produced by a certain intemperance of air, or were generated by Satan, the ape of God in a great many matters (Masius, Bonfrerius).
Great stones, that is, hailstones of extraordinary greatness and hardness, cast down with that certainty as to hit the Canaanites, and not their pursuers the Israelites, and with that force as to kill them. Josephus affirms that thunder and lightning were mixed with the hail, which may seem probable from Habakkuk 3:11.
[From heaven] Either because they came down from God; or because they were from the middle region of atmosphere (Masius). That similar helps of lightning were sent to the Christian legion under Marcus Aurelius is related by Eusebius, Church History 5:5, and Tertullian, Apology 5: and also by Claudian in The Consulship of Honorius 6, and Dio on Marcus Aurelius; although they ascribe this matter to Magic, or to the probity of the Emperor (Bonfrerius).
 Hebrew: וַיְהִ֞י בְּנֻסָ֣ם׀ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הֵ֞ם בְּמוֹרַ֤ד בֵּית־חוֹרֹן֙ וַֽיהוָ֡ה הִשְׁלִ֣יךְ עֲלֵיהֶם֩ אֲבָנִ֙ים גְּדֹל֧וֹת מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם עַד־עֲזֵקָ֖ה וַיָּמֻ֑תוּ רַבִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁר־מֵ֙תוּ֙ בְּאַבְנֵ֣י הַבָּרָ֔ד מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרְג֛וּ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֶּחָֽרֶב׃
 Ecclesiasticus 46:6: “And with hailstones of mighty power he made the battle to fall violently upon the nations, and in the descent of Beth-horon he destroyed them that resisted, that the nations might know all their strength, because he fought in the sight of the Lord, and he followed the Mighty One.”
 Joshua 10:11: “And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, that the Lord cast down great stones (אֲבָנִ֙ים גְּדֹל֧וֹת) from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones (בְּאַבְנֵ֣י הַבָּרָ֔ד, with stones of hail) than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.”
 Marcus Aurelius was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180.
 Claudian (late fourth-early fifth century AD) was a Roman poet from Alexandria.
 Dio Cassius was a Roman historian of the third century AD. His Historiæ Romanæ is an important sourse of information concerning that period.