Verse 12: Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, (Is. 28:21; Hab. 3:11; Ecclus. 46:4) Sun, stand thou still (Heb. be silent) upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of (Judg. 12:12) Ajalon.
[Then Joshua spoke to the Lord (similarly Montanus, Septuagint, Arabic, Pagnine, Tigurinus, Junius and Tremellius), אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה] Then he spoke before the Lord (Syriac, Munster), understanding, a song (Vatablus). He praised (the Chaldean in Vatablus), that is, in song; that is, he gave thanks (Vatablus, Lyra). He sang (Drusius out of Kimchi). Thus, David spoke the words of this song (Drusius). But he had not yet secured the victory (Bonfrerius). Others: he spoke, namely, in prayers (Junius, Piscator, Bonfrerius, Masius). He chanted a song after praying (Kimchi in Drusius). Or, to speak to God is able to be taken in the place of to speak in the name of God, or in trust of God (Masius).
[He delivered up the Amorite in the sight of the children of Israel,לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל] In front of the children of Israel (Jonathan, Syriac); into the hand (or power [Vatablus]) of the children of Israel (Arabic); He exposed to the children of Israel; Hebrew, He posited before the children of Israel (Junius).
[And he said in their presence, וַיֹּ֣אמֶר׀ לְעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל] And he said in the eyes of Israel (Montanus, Munster, Pagnine, Jonathan), before the eyes (Junius and Tremellius), with Israel present (Syriac, Tigurinus, similarly the Arabic), with them seeing and hearing (Piscator). But one is not aptly enough said to speak in the eyes. Therefore, I prefer to refer this to stand still (Masius), or, rest: In the eyes of Israel, O Sun, in Gibeon be silent, that is, rest. Which division the accent appears to confirm. Nevertheless, to see is sometimes put in the place of to hear; and, in the eyes, in the place of, in the ears (Drusius).
Joshua spake to the Lord, to wit, in way of petition for this miracle; being moved to beg it out of zeal to destroy God’s enemies, and directed to it by the motion of God’s Spirit; and receiving a gracious answer, and being filled with holy confidence of the success, he speaks the following words before the people, that they might be witnesses of it. In the sight of Israel, that is, in the presence and audience of Israel; seeing being sometimes put for hearing, as Genesis 42:1, compared with Acts 7:12; although these words may seem rather to be joined with the following, thus, In the sight of Israel stand still, O sun, etc., which sense the Hebrew accents favour.
[O Sun…move not, שֶׁמֶשׁ—דּוֹם] O Sun, be silent (Montanus, Malvenda), that is, rest (Drusius, Bonfrerius, Munster). Thus to be silent is taken in Psalm 4:4, and be ye silent, that is, rest ye; in Jonah 1:12, and the sea was silent, that is, rested. A silent sea, that is, tranquil, where is no murmur (Drusius). Neither is it strange that rest is indicated by silence, to which is conjoined the cessation of the tongue and lips from motion (Bonfrerius). Others render it, stop, or, halt, or, stand (thus the Arabic, Vatablus, Junius and Tremellius, Masius). Fix position (Tigurinus, Vatablus, Syriac); draw out a delay (Munster, Masius). Others: wait (Pagnine, Munster). Thus it is taken in 1 Samuel 14:9, and in that דּ֤וֹם׀ לַיהוָה֮, wait for the Lord (Drusius). That דּוּם signifies stand is evident from the verb עָמָד, it stood, which is attributed to the Moon in the like case (Masius).
[And moon] This he names, not that it was necessary to furnish light, but because with poetic fullness he writes on the Sun and the Moon, just as on Gibeon and Ajalon: This verse and the following are Hebrew measures (Lapide out of Masius). It is likely that Joshua saw both stars (Bonfrerius); for the Moon was new at that time, and it did not travel far from the Sun (Masius out of Rabbi Isaiah). Now, these two stars are put in the place of their spheres; and perhaps for the entire machine of heaven (Masius). The rest of the stars and the mobile heavens appear to have been altogether at rest (Bonfrerius): and, so that he might indicate this, he named the Sun and the Moon, which are the principal stars (Lapide). The sense: O Lord, allow that the Sun and Moon would not leave us with their light, until we have entirely subdued our enemies (Vatablus).
[Sun, against Gibeon, etc.] That is, over against, or, opposite to, Gibeon. Joshua was able to say this, either, if, positioned between Gibeon and the Sun, he discerned the latter on the opposite hand; or, if, regarding Gibeon from a distance, he saw the Sun standing over it, as it were; and thus here it ought to be taken (Bonfrerius): that is to say, To thee, O Sun, in the name of God I command that thou stop opposite to Gibeon (Lapide). Let the Sun stand in the presence of (or above [Vatablus]) Gibeon (the Septuagint in Lapide). But in what circumstances does he say this, while he and the army of Israel were near Gibeon? Response: This fight happened at the summer solstice, when the Sun overhangs the heads of men, especially in that land (Hebrews in Munster). The sense: O Sun, decline not upon us fighting in Gibeon, etc. (Junius).
[Moon, against the valley of Ajalon] בְּעֵמֶק they translate here, in the valley (Montanus, Junius and Tremellius, Masius), over the valley (Septuagint), on the plain (Jonathan, Syriac), over the field (Arabic). But where is Ajalon? and how was it situated with respect to Gibeon? Response 1: Some maintain that these cities were neighbors (Masius, Drusius, Lapide). There was a middle valley between them, where the battle was conducted (Lapide). It is altogether certain that there was a plain beneath Gibeon and Ajalon, unto which there is a descent from Beth-horon (Masius). And that plain, as it is here called of Ajalon, so in Isaiah 28:21 it is called of Gibeon, where, alluding to this battle, he says, as in the valley of Gibeon the Lord shall be angry (Masius, Drusius). [This opinion is not satisfying to Bonfrerius:] For, if these two cities had been close neighbors, he observed the Sun and the Moon in almost the same place; which is not able to happen, because proximity of the Sun snatches away the sight of the Moon; but it is likely that he saw both stars (Bonfrerius). Response 2: To others these cities are more removed from each other: Gibeon was on mount Silo, as testify Brochardus and Adrichomius, in the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:25; 21:17 (Bonfrerius on Joshua 9:3). Ajalon was either in the tribe of Zebulon, Judges 12:12, toward the other boundry of the Promised Land toward the North (for this Ajalon was different than that in Joshua 19:42 [Junius]), or in the tribe of Dan (Kimchi in Drusius, Bonfrerius, Adrichomius in Bonfrerius); to which support is given in Joshua 19:42 (Drusius) and Judges 1:35. It was further West than Gibeon, perhaps also further South (Bonfrerius).
Upon Gibeon, that is, over and above or against Gibeon, that is, in that place and posture in which now it stands towards and looks upon Gibeon. Let it not go down lower, and by degrees, out of the sight of Gibeon. It may seem that the sun was declining; and Joshua perceiving that his work was great and long, and his time but short, begs of God the lengthening out of the day, and that the sun and moon might stop their course, and keep the place in which they now were. In the valley, or, upon the valley; as before, upon Gibeon; the preposition being the same there and here. Ajalon; either, 1. That Ajalon which was in the tribe of Zebulun, Judges 12:12, northward from Gibeon. Or rather, 2. That Ajalon which was in the tribe of Dan, Joshua 19:42; Judges 1:35, westward from Gibeon. For, 1. This was nearer Gibeon than the other. 2. This was most agreeable to the course of the sun and moon, which is from east to west. 3. This way the battle went, from Gibeon westward to Ajalon, and so further westward, even to Lachish, Joshua 10:31. And he mentions two places, Gibeon and Ajalon, not as if the sun stood over the one, and the moon over the other, which is absurd and ridiculous to affirm, especially these places being so near the one to the other; but partly to vary the phrase, as is common in poetical passages; partly because he was in his march in the pursuit of his enemies to pass from Gibeon to Ajalon; and he begs that he may have the help and benefit of longer light to pursue them, and to that end that the sun might stand still, and the moon also; not that he needed the moon’s light when he had the sun’s, but because it was fit, either that both the sun and moon should go, or that both should stand still, to prevent disorder and confusion in the heavenly bodies.
 Hebrew: אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּי֗וֹם תֵּ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר׀ לְעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ בְּגִבְע֣וֹן דּ֔וֹם וְיָרֵ֖חַ בְּעֵ֥מֶק אַיָּלֽוֹן׃
 Ecclesiasticus 46:4: “Did not the sun go back by his means? and was not one day as long as two?”
 Hebrew: דּוֹם.
 2 Samuel 22:1: “And David spake unto the Lord the words of this songוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר דָּוִד֙) לַֽיהוָ֔ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את) in the day that the Lord had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul…”
 Joshua 10:12a: “Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel (בְּי֗וֹם תֵּ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל)…”
 Joshua 10:12b: “…and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon (וַיֹּ֣אמֶר׀ לְעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ בְּגִבְע֣וֹן דּ֔וֹם)…”
 Psalm 4:4: “Stand in awe, and sin not: commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still (וְדֹמּוּ). Selah.”
 Jonah 1:12, 15: “And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be silent unto you (וְיִשְׁתֹּ֥ק הַיָּ֖ם מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֑ם): for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you…. So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the sea: and the sea ceased from her raging (וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד הַיָּ֖ם מִזַּעְפּֽוֹ׃).”
 1 Samuel 14:9: “If they say thus unto us, Tarry until we come to you (דֹּ֕מּוּ עַד־הַגִּיעֵ֖נוּ); then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up unto them.”
 Psalm 37:7: “Rest in the Lord (דּ֤וֹם׀ לַיהוָה֮), and wait patiently for him: fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass.”
 Verse 13.
 עֵמֶק, from the verbal root עָמֹק, to be deep, signifies a valley, or a plain.