Joshua 10:28: The Taking of Makkedah

Verse 28:[1] And that day Joshua took Makkedah, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain: and he did to the king of Makkedah (Josh. 6:21) as he did unto the king of Jericho.

[On the same day also he took Makkedah] Question: On which day? Response: The day on which he killed those Kings (Vatablus). The same day on which the Sun stood still. For in verse 32 is found, on the second day (Bonfrerius, thus Tostatus in Serarius). Others: on the following day, or the day after that (Masius, Serarius). Perhaps the sense is, at the same time (Menochius). For it appears difficult that so many town distant from each other were able to be taken so quickly (Menochius out of Serarius); and that so quickly all were destroyed, the spoil was taken, and garrisons were assigned (Serarius). But this is not strange, with the inhabitants especially terrified, and not being capable of fighting back (Bonfrerius). Joshua invades them suddenly, while they are disquieted with the dire news of the defeat, before they might gather themselves and their strength (Masius).

That day, on which the sun stood still, or on which the five kings were hanged. Nor is it strange that so much work was done, and places so far distant taken, in one day, when the day was so long, and the Canaanites struck with such a terror.

[And he smote it…and killed its king, and…the inhabitants,וַיַּכֶּ֣הָ— וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ֒ הֶחֱרִ֣ם אוֹתָ֗ם וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙] Verbatim: And he smote it, and its king he killed them,[2] and every soul (Montanus). And he rooted out its king together with every living soul (Munster, similarly Tigurinus). And he killed its king with them (Pagnine, Drusius, Jonathan). That אוֹתָם/them is sometimes used in the place of אִתָּם, with them (Malvenda, Drusius). And also the relationship of the words is clearer, if you take it thus. But I prefer to follow the accents and points, which they call pausing, with Segol (֒) found before הֶחֱרִם, he destroyed, and Rebia (֗) on אוֹתָם/them,[3] and to preserve the proper notion of this. Them and every soul ἀπὸ κοινοῦ, by common usage, are able rightly to be referred to the verb הֶחֱרִם, he destroyed (Masius, similarly Malvenda). And he smote it…and its king: he anathematized (or, devoted to slaughter) them and every soul (Malvenda). And the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls (English). Similarly those, and every soul (Dutch). The inhabitants of which he smote (I would prefer, he smote it, that is, its inhabitants [Piscator]), and with the king thereof (I would prefer, king[4] [Piscator]) he devoted to slaughter; them (that is, the King and his subjects), that is, every soul (Junius and Tremellius). Soul, namely, human, that is man (Piscator, Junius, Masius): for there was other spoil. See Joshua 10:40; 11:11 (Junius, Masius). It is also evident from the antithesis, he left no survivor remaining (Piscator).

[Just as he had done to the king of Jericho] Scripture does not declare this, yet from the example of the other kings they gather that he was hanged (Bonfrerius). That he paid such penalties as were suffered by the King of Ai is indicated in verse 1. He touches upon this cursorily, so that by such a hurried narration the swiftness of the matters conducted might be set before our eyes (Masius).

The king of Jericho was hanged, or otherwise killed, as appears from Joshua 6:2.

[1] Hebrew: וְאֶת־מַקֵּדָה֩ לָכַ֙ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא וַיַּכֶּ֣הָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב֮ וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ֒ הֶחֱרִ֣ם אוֹתָ֗ם וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א הִשְׁאִ֖יר שָׂרִ֑יד וַיַּ֙עַשׂ֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מַקֵּדָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְמֶ֥לֶךְ יְרִיחֽוֹ׃

[2] Here, its king and them is a double direct object of killed.

[3] Both the Segol (֒) and the Rebia (֗) are strong disjunctive accents.

[4] Latin: regem/king, in the Accusative case, and serving as the Direct Object of the verb.

1 thought on “Joshua 10:28: The Taking of Makkedah

  1. Matthew Henry: “The great severity Joshua used towards those he conquered. He gave no quarter to man, woman, nor child, put to the sword all the souls (Joshua 10:28, 30, 32, 35, etc.), utterly destroyed all that breathed (Joshua 10:40), and left none remaining. Nothing could justify this military execution but that herein they did as the Lord God of Israel commanded (Joshua 10:40), which was sufficient not only to bear them out, and save them for the imputation of cruelty, but to sanctify what they did, and make it an acceptable piece of service to his justice. God would hereby, (1.) Manifest his hatred of the idolatries and other abominations which the Canaanites had been guilty of, and leave us to judge how great the provocation was which they had given him by the greatness of the destruction which was brought upon them when the measure of their iniquity was full. (2.) He would hereby magnify his love to his people Israel, in giving so many men for them, and people for their life, Isaiah 43:4. When the heathen are to be cast out to make room for this vine (Psalm 80:8) divine justice appears more prodigal than ever of human blood, that the Israelites might find themselves for ever obliged to spend their lives to the glory of that God who had sacrificed so many of the lives of his creatures to their interest. (3.) Hereby was typified the final and eternal destruction of all the impenitent implacable enemies of the Lord Jesus, who, having slighted the riches of his grace, must for ever feel the weight of his wrath, and shall have judgment without mercy. Nations that forget God shall be turned into hell, and no reproach at all to God’s infinite goodness.”

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