Verse 9: Joshua therefore came unto them suddenly, and went up from Gilgal all night.
[He rushed upon them suddenly] Unforeseen evils strike more grievously. But why this caution, since God had promised certain victory? Response: It is not to be supposed that the benignity of God looks to the fostering of our idleness. Suddenly: That was noted of Cæsar that, Μηδὲν ἀναβαλλόμενος, he put off nothing; and of Themistocles, that he was patient with friends, swift with enemies, when each was asked concerning his victories (Masius).
[All night] Question: Since the distance from Gilgal to Gibeon was twenty-six miles, how did he traverse this in one night? Response: By the words of Holy Scripture to the night it is permissible to add as much of the preceding day as you wish. They only signify that no part of the night was given to rest, but that the whole was taken up in making the journey (Masius).
Joshua therefore came unto them suddently, etc.: Though assured by God of the victory, yet he useth all prudent means, and surpriseth them. It is not said that he went from Gilgal to Gibeon in a night’s space, but only that he travelled all night; unto which you may add part either of the foregoing or of the following day.
Verse 10: And the LORD (Judg. 4:15; 1 Sam. 7:10, 12; Ps. 18:14; Isa. 28:21) discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up (Josh. 16:3, 5) to Beth-horon, and smote them to (Josh. 15:35) Azekah, and unto Makkedah.
[And He discomfited, וַיְהֻמֵּם] And He wore them out (Hebrews in Munster, the Chaldean in Masius); He destroyed (Arabic); He routed (Junius and Tremellius); He agitated them in mind (the Septuagint in Masius). הָמָה does indeed signify that, to which הָמָם is related; neither is it absurd that the one word is used in the place of the other. He threw into confusion. God here brings to pass what He had promised, Exodus 23:27, וְהַמֹּתִי, and I will discomfit, etc.; and there is an allusion here to those words (Masius). He terrified (Piscator).
[And he slew] Who? Either, the Lord, both with the sword of the Israelites, and with stones (Junius). Or, Israel: I translate it, and so he struck them (Piscator). Or, both God and Israel, who accommodated themselves to the counsel of God (Masius).
Slew them, or, he slew them; either God or Israel; for God’s work is described verse 11.
At Gibeon: Hebrew: in Gibeon; not in the city, but in the territory belonging to it; as Joshua is said to be in Jericho, Joshua 5:13.
[By the way of the ascent of Beth-horon] Beth-horon was twofold, an upper and a nether. Mention is made of both in 1 Chronicles 7:24; 2 Chronicles 8:5 (Masius). I think that both were in the tribe of Ephraim, because they were built by a woman of the tribe of Ephraim, 1 Chronicles 7:20, 24. It is treated here of the nether. But that city was not yet built (for it was not possible, whether because of the [yet] brief stay in Canaan, or because of enemies, especially in this place, gathered on every side). And so the sense shall be, by the way in which in this time one ascends to Beth-horon (Bonfrerius).
[And he smote unto Azekah and Makkedah] These were two cities of the tribe of Judah, as it is evident out of Joshua 15:20, 35, 41. Neither is it strange that they went from Gibeon, which was in the tribe of Benjamin, into the tribe of Ephraim (that is, that part of it which was bordering on the Tribe of Benjamin), and soon into the tribe of Judah (Bonfrerius). For, either they followed the curves and windings of the way; or, being in great perplexity, they seized upon a most uncertain way there, and did not flee directly toward their cities, but retreaed first toward the North, then, as if with their error discerned, toward the West and South (Masius). Moreover, since mention is made here of the ascent, and in the following verse of the declivity, of Beth-horon, it was able to be one place that was sometimes called the ascent, sometimes the descent (Masius). Something is to be understood here: He smote them (supply, in pursuing) unto Azekah (Vatablus).
 Hebrew: וַיָּבֹ֧א אֲלֵיהֶ֛ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ פִּתְאֹ֑ם כָּל־הַלַּ֕יְלָה עָלָ֖ה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּֽל׃
 Themistocles (c. 524-459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general, and instrumental in defending Greece in the First and Second Persian Invasions.
 Hebrew: וַיְהֻמֵּ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּכֵּ֥ם מַכָּֽה־גְדוֹלָ֖ה בְּגִבְע֑וֹן וַֽיִּרְדְּפֵ֗ם דֶּ֚רֶךְ מַעֲלֵ֣ה בֵית־חוֹרֹ֔ן וַיַּכֵּ֥ם עַד־עֲזֵקָ֖ה וְעַד־מַקֵּדָֽה׃
 הָמַם signifies to confuse, or to discomfit.
 Exodus 23:27: “I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy (וְהַמֹּתִי) all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee.”
 Joshua 5:13a: “And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho (בִּירִיחוֹ, in Jericho), that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand…”
 Joshua 6:1.