Joshua 12:9-24: Kings Conquered by Joshua, Part 3

[1451 BC] Verse 9:[1] (Josh. 6:2) The king of Jericho, one; (Josh. 8:29) the king of Ai, which is beside Beth-el, one…

[Jericho] Concerning these cities either mention has been made above, or they shall be found below (Bonfrerius).

[Ai, which is on the side of Beth-el] He shows it in this way because there was another Ai of the Ammonites, Jeremiah 49:3 (Masius).

Which is beside Beth-el: this is added to distinguish it from Ai of the Ammonites, of which Jeremiah 49:3.


Verse 10:[2] (Josh. 10:23) The king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one…


Verse 11:[3] The king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Lachish, one…


Verse 12:[4] The king of Eglon, one; (Josh. 10:33) the king of Gezer, one…


Verse 13:[5] (Josh. 10:38) The king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, one…


Verse 14:[6] The king of Hormah, one; the king of Arad, one…


Verse 15:[7] (Josh. 10:29) The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one…


Verse 16:[8] (Josh. 10:28) The king of Makkedah, one; (Josh. 8:17; Judg. 1:22) the king of Beth-el, one…


Verse 17:[9] The king of Tappuah, one; (1 Kings 4:10) the king of Hepher, one…


Verse 18:[10] The king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon (or, Sharon, Is. 33:9[11]), one…

[The king of Sharon (thus Tigurinus); the King of the Sharonim, see 1 Chronicles 27:29 (Junius), מֶ֥לֶךְ לַשָּׁר֖וֹן] The Vulgate determined the ל/l to be a sign of the genitive. The name of the place is indeed Sharon (Masius). Indeed, Sharon is twofold, one on this side of Jordan (Jerome in Bonfrerius); and the other across Jordan, 1 Chronicles 5:16. But nowhere else is mention made of Lasharon (Bonfrerius). Nevertheless, others translate it Lasharon (thus Jonathan, Arabic, Munsters, Pagnine, Masius, Drusius). It is the same as Ἀσσαρὼν/ Assaron in the Acts of the Apostles, near Lydda[12] (Masius).


Verse 19:[13] The king of Madon, one; (Josh. 11:10) the king of Hazor, one…


[1450 BC] Verse 20:[14] The king of (Josh. 11:1; 19:15) Shimron-meron, one; the king of Achshaph, one…


Verse 21:[15] The king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo, one…


Verse 22:[16] (Josh. 19:37) The king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam of Carmel, one…

[The King of Jokneam of Carmel, מֶֽלֶךְ־יָקְנֳעָ֥ם לַכַּרְמֶ֖ל] The King of Jokneam[17] (of Jokneam[18] [Junius and Tremellius]) of Carmel[19] (Pagnine), that is, which was near Carmel (Vatablus), of Carmel[20] (Munster, Tigurinus, English), and of Carmel (Syriac), with Carmel (Junius), near Carmel (Jonathan, Dutch).


Verse 23:[21] The king of Dor in the (Josh. 11:2) coast of Dor, one; the king of (Gen. 14:1, 2; Is. 9:1) the nations of Gilgal, one…

[The King of Dor and of the province of Dor, מֶ֥לֶךְ דּ֛וֹר לְנָפַ֥ת דּ֖וֹר] The King of Dor and of Nepheth-dor (Syriac). The King of Dor of Naphath-dor itself (Pagnine). Others: The King of Dor to the tract of Dor (Montanus), or, with the tract of Dor (Junius and Tremellius), or, of the region (or, unto the regions [Jonathan]) of Dor (Munster, Tigurinus), or, of the land, or province, of Dor, that is, which was in the province of Dor (Vatablus). Concerning Dor see Joshua 11:2 (Bonfrerius).

Dor, of which Joshua 11:2.

[The King of the Nations of Gilgal, מֶֽלֶךְ־גּוֹיִ֥ם לְגִלְגָּ֖ל] [They vary.] The King of the nations, or peoples, at, or of, Gilgal (Jonathan, Montanus, Munster). To others, גּוֹיִם/nations/Gentiles/Goyim is a proper name. The King of Goyim (of the Goii [Castalio]) in Gilgal (Tigurinus), or, which was in Gilgal (Pagnine) [as if it were the name of a city]. The King of Gei of Galilee (Septuagint). It is certain that Gilgal here is not the Gilgal where Joshua, with Jordan crossed, fixed camp, for there was no city, no King, in that place. Therefore, Gilgal is the same as Galil (only with the letter ג/Gimel doubled, which is common among the Hebrews), or Galilee (Lapide, Bonfrerius), namely, that which is called the upper (because it moves away into the North), and Galilee of the Nations. Thus it is called, either, because it, being well-provided with harbors and suited for trade, brought in various nations, of which, as it happens, it is likely many men also remained there (Masius): or, because it has Tyre and Sidon as neighbors, and other Nations: or, because in it dwelt various nations of the Canaanites and other peoples mixed together (Tostatus in Lapide): or, because Solomon gave to Hiram, King of Tyre, a Gentile, twenty cities in Galilee[22] (Jerome in Lapide). [This does not satisfy Bonfrerius.] 1. Although the Roman codex of the Septuagint[23] has Γαλιλαίας, of Galilee, yet the other codices has Γέλγελ/Gelgel. But Galilee is not called גִּלְגָּל/Gilgal, as it is found here, but גָּלִיל/Galil. 2. It is said that Galilee was not yet divided, Joshua 13:2.[24] But the King of Gilgal was killed, and the land was occupied. 3. It was not yet called Galilee of the Nations, but afterwards in the time of Solomon, after the twenty cities were given to Hiram (Bonfrerius). But this gift did not originally introduce the name, but rather confirmed the name already introduced (Lapide). See the further discussion on Joshua 13:2 (Lapide, Bonfrerius).

Gilgal; not of that Gilgal where Joshua first lodged after his passage over Jordan; where it doth not appear that there was either king or city; but of another city of the same name, (as was frequent in those parts,) probably in Galilee towards the sea whither divers people might possibly resort for trade and merchandise, over whom this was king, as formerly Tidal seems to have been, Genesis 14:1.


Verse 24:[25] The king of Tirzah, one: all the kings thirty and one.

[Thirty-one] And those were only of the other part, namely, the northern, of the Promised Land (Malvenda). Jerome notes in his Epistle to Dardanus that this land in length, from Dan to Beer-sheba, contains only one hundred and sixty Italian miles, and in breadth, from Joppa to Jordan sixty miles. In which so many Kings and peoples argue that there was formerly a remarkable fertility to that soil (Lapide out of Masius); and show the severe judgment of God, who rendered that land so infertile that instead of milk and honey it could appear to have been sown now with salt (Masius).

All the kings thirty and one: Each being confined to a narrow compass, and being king only of one city, or small province belonging to it, which was by the wise and singular providence of God, that they might be more easily and successively conquered by the Israelites one after another, as they were.

[1] Hebrew: מֶ֥לֶךְ יְרִיח֖וֹ אֶחָ֑ד מֶ֧לֶךְ הָעַ֛י אֲשֶׁר־מִצַּ֥ד בֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל אֶחָֽד׃

[2] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁ֙לִַם֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ חֶבְר֖וֹן אֶחָֽד׃

[3] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ יַרְמוּת֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ לָכִ֖ישׁ אֶחָֽד׃

[4] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ עֶגְלוֹן֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ גֶּ֖זֶר אֶחָֽד׃

[5] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ דְּבִר֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ גֶּ֖דֶר אֶחָֽד׃

[6] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ חָרְמָה֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ עֲרָ֖ד אֶחָֽד׃

[7] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ לִבְנָה֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ עֲדֻלָּ֖ם אֶחָֽד׃

[8] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ מַקֵּדָה֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ בֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל אֶחָֽד׃

[9] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ תַּפּ֙וּחַ֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ חֵ֖פֶר אֶחָֽד׃

[10] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ אֲפֵק֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ לַשָּׁר֖וֹן אֶחָֽד׃

[11] Isaiah 33:9:  “The earth mourneth and languisheth:  Lebanon is ashamed and hewn down:  Sharon (הַשָּׁרוֹן) is like a wilderness; and Bashan and Carmel shake off their fruits.”

[12] Acts 9:35:  “And all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron (Σάρωνα, in the Textus Receptus; Ἀσσάρωνα, in the majority of Byzantine texts) saw him, and turned to the Lord.”  Lydda was of the tribe of Benjamin, about ten miles off of the Mediterranean coast.

[13] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ מָדוֹן֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ חָצ֖וֹר אֶחָֽד׃

[14] Hebrew: מֶ֣לֶךְ שִׁמְר֤וֹן מְראוֹן֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ אַכְשָׁ֖ף אֶחָֽד׃

[15] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ תַּעְנַךְ֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶ֥לֶךְ מְגִדּ֖וֹ אֶחָֽד׃

[16] Hebrew: מֶ֤לֶךְ קֶ֙דֶשׁ֙ אֶחָ֔ד מֶֽלֶךְ־יָקְנֳעָ֥ם לַכַּרְמֶ֖ל אֶחָֽד׃

[17] Latin: Rex Jokneham.

[18] Latin: Rex Joknehami, in an expressly Genitive form.

[19] Latin: Carmeli.

[20] Latin: de Carmel.

[21] Hebrew: מֶ֥לֶךְ דּ֛וֹר לְנָפַ֥ת דּ֖וֹר אֶחָ֑ד מֶֽלֶךְ־גּוֹיִ֥ם לְגִלְגָּ֖ל אֶחָֽד׃

[22] 1 Kings 9:11-13

[23] The Roman or Sixtine Septuagint was published in 1587, under the direction of Cardinal Antonio Carafa and by authority of Pope Sixtus V.  It uses Codex Vaticanus as a base text.

[24] Joshua 13:2:  “This is the land that yet remaineth:  all the borders (גְּלִילוֹת/Geliloth; Galilæa, in the Vulgate) of the Philistines, and all Geshuri…”

[25] Hebrew: מֶ֥לֶךְ תִּרְצָ֖ה אֶחָ֑ד כָּל־מְלָכִ֖ים שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וְאֶחָֽד׃

1 thought on “Joshua 12:9-24: Kings Conquered by Joshua, Part 3

  1. Matthew Henry: ‘A list of the kings that were conquered and subdued by the sword of Israel, some in the field, others in their own cities, thirty-one in all, and very particularly named and counted, it should seem, in the order in which they were conquered; for the catalogue begins with the kings of Jericho and Ai, then takes in the king of Jerusalem and the princes of the south that were in confederacy with him, and then proceeds to those of the northern association. Now, 1. This shows what a very fruitful country Canaan then was, which could support so many kingdoms, and in which so many kings chose to throng together rather than disperse themselves into other countries, which we may suppose not yet inhabited, but where, though they might find more room, they could not expect such plenty and pleasure: this was the land God spied out for Israel; and yet at this day it is one of the most barren, despicable, and unprofitable countries in the world: such is the effect of the curse it lies under, since its possessors rejected Christ and his gospel, as was foretold by Moses, Deuteronomy 29:23. 2. It shows what narrow limits men’s ambition was then confined to. These kings contented themselves with the government, each of them, of one city and the towns and villages that pertained to it; and no one of them, for aught that appears, aimed to make himself master of the rest, but, when there was occasion, all united for the common safety. Yet it should seem that what was wanting in the extent of their territories was made up in the absoluteness of their power, their subjects being all their tenants and vassals, and entirely at their command. 3. It shows how good God was to Israel, in giving them victory over all these kings, and possession of all these kingdoms, and what obligations he hereby laid upon them to observe his statutes and to keep his laws, Psalm 105:44, 45. Here were thirty-one kingdoms, or seigniories, to be divided among nine tribes and a half of Israel. Of these there fell to the lot of Judah the kingdoms of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Debir, Arad, Libnah, and Adullam, eight in all, besides part of the kingdom of Jerusalem and part of Geder. Benjamin had the kingdoms of Jericho, Ai, Jerusalem, Makkedah, Bethel, and the nations of Gilgal, six in all. Simeon had the kingdom of Hormah and part of Geder. Ephraim had the kingdoms of Gezer and Tirzah. Manasseh (that half-tribe) had the kingdoms of Tappuah and Hepher, Taanach and Megiddo. Asher had the kingdoms of Aphek and Achshaph. Zebulun had the kingdoms of Lasharon, Shimron-meron, and Jokneam. Naphtali had the kingdoms of Madon, Hazor, and Kedesh. And Issachar had that of Dor. These were some of the great and famous kings that God smote, for his mercy endureth for ever; and gave their land for a heritage, even a heritage unto Israel his servant, for his mercy endureth for ever, Psalm 136:17, etc.’

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