Verse 12: Now therefore give me this mountain, whereof the LORD spake in that day; for thou heardest in that day how (Num. 13:28, 33) the Anakims were there, and that the cities were great and fenced: (Ps. 18:32, 34; 60:12; Rom. 8:31) if so be the LORD will be with me, then (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:20) I shall be able to drive them out, as the LORD said.
[Give to me that mountain] In which were situated the cities of Hebron, Debir, and Anab (Lapide). Hebron was on a mountain, Joshua 11:21; 20:7 (Bonfrerius). Others: the mountain, that is, the mountainous country of Judah, as often elsewhere (Malvenda out of Junius).
This mountain, that is, this mountainous country, in which was Hebron, Joshua 11:21; 20:7, and Debir, and Anab. He names the country rather than the cities, either, 1. Because the giants here following were already driven out of their cities, but yet abode in their caves or holds in the mountains, whence they much molested the Israelites. Or, 2. Because the cities were given to the Levites, Joshua 21:11, 13.
[Which He promised, אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר] As He spoke (Pagnine). Others: which (namely, mountain) He mentioned (Jonathan, Syriac, Montanus); or, of which, etc. (Arabic, Munster, Tigurinus), or, with respect to which He spoke (Septuagint); that which Jehovah had declared (Junius and Tremellius).
[With thee hearing also, etc.] Hebrew: for thou thyself heardest, or, that thou heardest, that in that day the Anakim were there (Junius and Tremellius, similarly all interpreters). He agains summons the conscience of Joshua, as Judge, to appear as a witness. Question: But how does he speak so to Joshua, as if he had not been there? Responses: 1. Either to hear is here put in the place of to understand. 2. Or he spoke those words to the twelve men of the distribution about to be made, of whom none besides Joshua had seen the Anakim (Masius). 3. Some elicit hence that Joshua did not go up to Hebrown with the other spies, or at least with Caleb, nor see the giants there; wherefore Caleb, because he approached alone, asks it now for himself. See Numbers 13:22, 23 (Malvenda).
Thou heardest, that is, didst understand, both by the reports of others, and by thy own observation, as I also did. Hearing, the sense by which we get knowledge, is off put for knowing or understanding, as Genesis 11:7; 42:23; 2 Kings 18:26.
[In which are Anakim] Objections: But they were expelled, Joshua 11:21. Response: Now, some had escaped that defeat, and had fled to the Philistines, whence they, with their strength revived, returned to Hebron, and occupied it as the seat of their forefathers; and thence Caleb expelled them again (Lapide, Bonfrerius).
[If so be, etc., אוּלַי] It is not the expression of one doubting, but he spoke for the sake of modesty, arrogating nothing to himself (Vatablus). Not that Caleb doubts of the promises of God, but that he thinks modestly of himself, and fears lest he should turn the promised help of God away from himself by his guilt and negligence (Lapide). He was able to suppose that that promise was not absolute, but was able to be revoked on account of his own or others’ sins (Bonfrerius). He spoke of the victory of the people of God universally with confidence; but he thinks modestly of himself, not unaware the each man often turns the grace of God toward him away by his own sins (Masius). Adverbs of doubting, אוּלַי/perhaps, etc., do not always directly import uncertainty (Glassius’ “Grammar” 494). אוּלַי/perhaps here only signifies the difficulty of the matter (Junius, Masius, Glassius), and supports hope in the souls of those hearing. Thus 1 Samuel 14:6. See Numbers 21:23 (Junius). It contains hope mixed with difficulty: and the difficulty did indeed lessen the estimation of the gift (that is to say, I ask nothing except what is conjoined with dangers and toil); but hope of the thing to be given rouses desire (Masius).
[The Lord with me] Hebrew: Jehovah with me, supply, will be (Junius and Tremellius, Piscator). The verb יִהְיֶה, will be, appears to have been dropped by the carelessness of the scribes (Piscator): And אוֹתִי/me is here put in the place of אִתִּי, with me (Drusius).
If so be the Lord will be with me; a modest, and humble, and pious expression, signifying both the absolute necessity of God’s help, and his godly fear, lest God for his sins should deny his assistance to him, as he might justly do; for although he was well assured in general that God would crown his people with success in this war, yet he might doubt of his particular success in this or that enterprise.
[And I shall be able to destroy] He desires by public authority, but with private strength, to undertake war, like the Fabii of the Romans. However, Joshua thought it fair that the public obligation be dischared with public resources. For here is ἐπάνοδος, a recapitulation, of that which is said above. As Caleb, so Joshua, had a ἐξαίρετον/select city, Joshua 19:50 (Grotius).
To drive them out; out of their fastnesses, where they yet remain. Caleb desires this difficult work as a testimony of his own faith, and as a motive to quicken and encourage his brethren to thee like attempts.
 Hebrew: וְעַתָּ֗ה תְּנָה־לִּי֙ אֶת־הָהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֣י אַתָּֽה־שָׁמַעְתָּ֩ בַיּ֙וֹם הַה֜וּא כִּֽי־עֲנָקִ֣ים שָׁ֗ם וְעָרִים֙ גְּדֹל֣וֹת בְּצֻר֔וֹת אוּלַ֙י יְהוָ֤ה אוֹתִי֙ וְה֣וֹרַשְׁתִּ֔ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃
 Genesis 11:7: “Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand (לֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּ, they may not hear) one another’s speech.”
 Genesis 42:23: “And they knew not that Joseph understood (שֹׁמֵעַ/heard) them; for he spake unto them by an interpreter.”
 2 Kings 18:26b: “…Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand (שֹׁמְעִים/hear) it: and talk not with us in the Jews’ language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.”
 1 Samuel 14:6: “And Jonathan said to the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over unto the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be (אוּלַי) that the Lord will work for us: for there is no restraint to the Lord to save by many or by few.”
 Numbers 23:3 may be intended.
 Hebrew: יְהוָ֤ה אוֹתִי֙.
 In the form of a Direct Object Pronoun.
 In the early fifth century BC, hostilities erupted between the Roman Republic and the Etruscans. The Roman patrician family of the Fabii took the responsibility of the war upon themselves. At the Battle of Cremara (477 BC), almost the entire family of the Fabii was killed.