Verse 15: And (Josh. 10:38; Judg. 1:11) he went up thence to the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir before was Kirjath-sepher.
[He came to the inhabitants of Debir] Some maintain that this is the same expedition as that of Joshua in Joshua 10:38 (Malvenda): which appears to be attributed to Caleb, either, because it is undertaken on Caleb’s behalf; therefore he sets forth a reward to the first one capturing it (Junius): or, because he was the general of the troop or battle line that first assailed Debir (certain interpreters in Malvenda). Others maintain that these were altogether diverse expeditions; which is also closer to the truth (Malvenda, thus Bonfrerius, Masius, Menochius, Vatablus). It is likely that the Canaanites first expelled by Joshua occupied it again (Malvenda), while the Israelites either lingering in Gilgal, or were detained by other battles (Menochius).
[Which was formerly called Kirjath-Sepher, קִרְיַת־סֵפֶר] Kirjath-Sepher (Munster, Pagnine, Tigurinus, Masius, Grotius). Others: the city of Sepher (Syriac, Arabic). The city of letters (Masius, Grotius), or, of books (Masius). Thus it was called, either, 1. because it was the academy of the Canaanites, in which they were taught letters and books (Lapide, Bonfrerius on verse 49). The Gymnasium of the Phœnicians, to Xenophon (Grotius). Hence it was called Debir, an oracle of wisdom, as it were, from דָּבָר, to speak, because eloquence was taught in it. Hence it is also called קִרְיַת־סַנָּה/Kirjath-sannah, that is, city of acumen, that is, in which there was acute discussion; for שָׁנַן is to sharpen (Lapide, Bonfrerius on verse 49). Or, 2. because it was an archive of the ancient Fathers, as it were, in which they stored many monuments of antiquity after the flood, since those first men dwelt in nearby Hebron. To this the name דְּבִיר/Debir agrees, which signifies a place altogether secret, and sacrosanct, as it were, and the innermost part of the innermost shrine; which sort are certainly held as τὰ ἀρχεῖα, the archives, and library. Perhaps the Chaldean meant this, when it rendered it קִרְיַת אַרְכִּי, City of Arki. It appears that by the word אַרְכִּי/Arki he meant to represent the ἀρχεῖον/archeion/archive of the Greeks (Masius). Thus Bochart translates it, the city of archives (Bochart’s Sacred Geography “Phaleg” 2:17:855). [But Grotius thus: The Chaldean translates it, the city of libraries.] The Jews feign that it was so called because Othniel here restored the doctrine of the Law, already waxing old at that time, after the death of Moses: but who does not know that the city had this name before Othniel (Masius)?
Debir; the same mentioned above, verse 7. The name of Debir before was Kirjath-sepher: this clause seems to be added to distinguish this from the other Debir subdued by Joshua, Joshua 10:38, 39.
Verse 16: (Judg. 1:12) And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.
[To him will I give Achsah] Question: Why does he promise this? Response: Not that because of faintheartedness and unbelief he would suspend his hope upon the might of another man; especially now with the greatest difficulty of the war having been overcome: but rather, with the giants defeated, since he himself from that victory had obtained sufficient glory, he willed to charge his companions with this expedition of lighter work, as it were, so that he might share with them the glory of the campaign; and thereby he would clear himself of envy, and would reward the services of each rendered to himself. In addition, there was in this a secret instinct of God, so that the courage of Othniel might be made known publicly, who after Joshua was going to be the protector of the republic: And for this reason, both in this place and in Judges 1, it is so precisely put on record (Masius). The paternal power in the marriages of daughters among those nations (was) very great. See Judges 1:13; 1 Samuel 17:25. You have similar things in the histories of the Greeks concerning Oenomaus, Schœneus, and others (Grotius). This is understood with the law and liberty of marriage preserved. For a daughter was not able to be compelled to be marriage to whomever her father may wish, but it is presupposed that the girl freely acquiesces in the will of her father, as well-born virgins are wont (Estius).
To him will I give Achsah…to wife: Which is to be understood with some conditions, as, if he were one who could marry her by God’s law; for every promise contrary to that is void; and if she were willing; for though parents had a great power over their children, they could not force them to marry any person against their own wills. He might otherwise be an unfit and unworthy person: but this was no ordinary motion propounded to the imitation of others, but a Divine impulse, that Othniel’s valour might be more manifest, and so the way prepared for his future government of the people, Judges 3:9.
 Hebrew: וַיַּ֣עַל מִשָּׁ֔ם אֶל־יֹשְׁבֵ֖י דְּבִ֑ר וְשֵׁם־דְּבִ֥ר לְפָנִ֖ים קִרְיַת־סֵֽפֶר׃
 Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר כָּלֵ֔ב אֲשֶׁר־יַכֶּ֥ה אֶת־קִרְיַת־סֵ֖פֶר וּלְכָדָ֑הּ וְנָתַ֥תִּי ל֛וֹ אֶת־עַכְסָ֥ה בִתִּ֖י לְאִשָּֽׁה׃
 In Greek mythology, Oenomaus, son of Ares, was King of Pisa. Fearing a prophecy that he would be killed by his son-in-law, Oenomaus killed eighteen suitors of his daughter Hippodamia in a chariot race, but is himself eventually killed in a chariot race by Pelops.
 In Greek mythology, Schœneus abandoned his daughter, Atalanta in the wild. However, she survived, being nursed by a she-bear and raised by hunters; Atalanta grew to be a great warrior in her own right. When she is reunited with her father, Schœneus insisted that she be wed. She conceded, but required that a suitor must defeat her in a foot-race, or be put to death. Hippomenes succeeded by casting golden apples before Atalanta, slowing her in the race.