[circa 1427 BC] Verse 1: And it came to pass a long time after that the LORD (Josh. 21:44; 22:4) had given rest unto Israel from all their enemies round about, that Joshua (Josh. 13:1) waxed old and stricken in age (Heb. come into days).
[With much time having passed] That is, thirteen years after the wars, and the time of the distribution of the land (Junius). It appears that these words were spoken in the last year of Joshua (Bonfrerius). While the people, wearied with war, were embracing a retired life, rather than willing to claim their inheritance (Masius). [What things Masius adds here will more opportunely be met in their own places.] This is a different assembly than that in chapter 24, although it is able to appear the same to some. Evidently pious Joshua at every opportunity often exhorted his own to piety, etc., although those two admonitions alone have been consigned to letters (Masius).
A long time; about fourteen years after it.
Verse 2: And Joshua (Deut. 31:28; Josh. 24:1; 1 Chron. 28:1) called for all Israel, and for their elders, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers, and said unto them, I am old and stricken in age…
[He called] Question: To what place? Response: Either, 1. to Joshua’s city, Timnath-serah (Serarius, Menochius, Masius); or, 2. to Shiloh (Masius, Lapide, Bonfrerius). We see everywhere in Sacred Scripture the assemblies of the people held in the more sacred place (Bonfrerius).
Joshua called; either to his own city, or rather to Shiloh, the usual place of such assemblies, where his words being uttered before the Lord, were likely to have the more effect upon them.
[All Israel] Now, this universality is applied to those that were representing all the people (Masius). He explains himself, when he says, their elders, etc. (Drusius). Some from the individual tribes and cities, as they were able with convenience (Bonfrerius).
[And those older with respect to birth, etc.] Elders that were furnished with prudence, even if they were not discharging any public office at that time (Bonfrerius). Others otherwise: There were four degrees of offices in each city (Dieu) [which all come together here]. 1. זְקֵנִים, Elders, or the Senate/ Eldership, or the Judges of the Sanhedrin (Masius, Drusius, Dieu). Whether this was only the primary Senate, or each municipal Senate as well, is not sufficiently demonstrated (Masius). 2. Princes, רָאשָׁיו: its Nobles (Junius and Tremellius). Who were in charge of the individual tribes (Masius, Drusius): who are also called the heads of thousands, or Chiliarchs (Drusius); and the heads of the people (Masius). Its heads (Malvenda, Bonfrerius), namely, the most honorable in each tribe and family (Bonfrerius). רָאשֵׁי אָבוֹת, heads of the fathers, or of the families (Dieu). 3. Leaders, שֺׁפְטָיו, Judges, who were pronouncing the law (Dieu): not only those that adjudicate lawsuits, but who hold a principal magistracy among the people (Masius). 4. Magistrates, שֺׁטְרָיו: Attendants on a magistrate (Masius, Dieu). Who were executing the matters decided in judgment, and were driving the people to their duties with staff and whip (Dieu). [Concerning these see what things were said on Joshua 1:10 and elsewhere.]
For all Israel; not all the people in their own persons, who could not either come thither, or hear him there; but in their representatives, by their elders, heads, judges, and officers, which are here added for the restriction and explication of that general expression. And for, or, even for, etc.
[And he said, I have grown old, etc.] This is the exordium of the oration, by which he makes them attentive, etc. Nearly all by an instinct of nature revere the elderly, especially those distinguished with glory and authority (Masius).
 Hebrew: וַֽיְהִי֙ מִיָּמִ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵנִ֙יחַ יְהוָ֧ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מִכָּל־אֹיְבֵיהֶ֖ם מִסָּבִ֑יב וִיהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ זָקֵ֔ן בָּ֖א בַּיָּמִֽים׃
 Hebrew: בָּ֖א בַּיָּמִֽים׃.
 Hebrew: וַיִּקְרָ֤א יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִזְקֵנָיו֙ וּלְרָאשָׁ֔יו וּלְשֹׁפְטָ֖יו וּלְשֹֽׁטְרָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אֲנִ֣י זָקַ֔נְתִּי בָּ֖אתִי בַּיָּמִֽים׃
 See Exodus 6:25; Joshua 14:1; 19:51; 21:1.