Verse 1: And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan, in the hills, and in the valleys, and in all the coasts of (Num. 34:6) the great sea over against Lebanon, (Ex. 3:17; 23:23) the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof…
[With which heard] Namely, that the two cities, Jericho and Ai, were captured and destroyed, which, as it is likely, were esteemed as the bulwarks of all Canaan. And it is to be noted that those do not yet gather troops, but only deliberate, etc., as if the time of waging war be not now pressing. But God sent upon them this stupor and blindness of mind, so that by degrees He might toughen and confirm the spirits of the Israelites, otherwise too much preoccupied with the great opinion of the power of their adversaries, by the very culling and use of the enemy and their places. Indeed, the enemy’s sluggishness appears, not only at the beginning of the war, but all the way to the end. For we shall nowhere see them, with the opportunity seized, which sort of great occasions, it is likely, were often presented, taking the initiative and attacking the Israelites, but everywhere being attacked by them (Masius).
[Which in the mountains] Understanding, were dwelling. Thus, our Father which in heaven, supply, art, or dwellest. Hebrew: in the mountain, that is, in the mountainous region (Drusius); of which sort was Canaan, Deuteronomy 11:11 (Bonfrerius).
[And in the coast, etc. (similarly Jonathan, Arabic, Munster, Pagnine, Tigurinus, Drusius, Vatablus), וּבְכֹל֙ ח֚וֹף] Others translate it port (Junius and Tremellius, Malvenda, Montanus, Drusius, Masius). It is named from concealing: It is a place in which ships are able to lie hidden, safe from the wind (Masius). In the entire tract, which is adjacent to the sea (Vatablus).
[Of the great sea] That is, the Mediterranean. For lakes and lagoons are called seas by the Hebrews (Masius).
[These also that were dwelling near Libanus, אֶל־מ֖וּל הַלְּבָנ֑וֹן] Over against Libanus (Montanus). That were toward Antilibanus (Septuagint). The Septuagint and the Latin supply the and, and maintain that Phœnicia itself is signified, the peculiar seat of Kings, in which Berytus, Sidon, Sarepta, Tyre, and other towns set over against Libanus and Antilibanus, lie near the sea. Others think that it looks to describe further the great sea (Masius). On the coast of the great sea, which is over against Libanus (Jonathan, Syriac). Others: all the way unto the opposite of Libanus (Arabic); all the way unto the region adjacent to Libanus (Junius and Tremellius). Others: next to, or near, Libanus (Drusius). That is to say, those that were dwelling toward the Northern quarter (Masius, Vatablus).
They gathered themselves together; not actually, as the following history shows; but they entered into a league or confederation to do this.
[With one spirit (thus the Syriac, Junius and Tremellius), פֶּ֖ה אֶחָֽד׃] With one mouth (Montanus, Vatablus), that is, with unanimous consent (Vatablus, Arabic, Hebrews in Vatablus, Piscator), all together (Septuagint), in one society (Jonathan).
 Hebrew: וַיְהִ֣י כִשְׁמֹ֣עַ כָּֽל־הַמְּלָכִ֡ים אֲשֶׁר֩ בְּעֵ֙בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֜ן בָּהָ֣ר וּבַשְּׁפֵלָ֗ה וּבְכֹל֙ ח֚וֹף הַיָּ֣ם הַגָּד֔וֹל אֶל־מ֖וּל הַלְּבָנ֑וֹן הַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ הַפְּרִזִּ֔י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי׃
 Hebrew: בָּהָר.
 חוֹף/coast appears to be derived from the verbal root חָפַף, to enclose or cover.
 Hebrew: וַיִּֽתְקַבְּצ֣וּ יַחְדָּ֔ו לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם עִם־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וְעִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל פֶּ֖ה אֶחָֽד׃
 Hebrew: פֶּה.