Judges 3:1-11

The nations left to prove Israel mentioned, 1-4. The Israelites marrying their daughters, and serving their gods, they are delivered up to the king of Mesopotamia; are rescued by Othniel, 5-11. Continuing to do evil, they are again punished and oppressed by the king of the Moabites; are rescued by Ehud: ten thousand Moabites are slain, 12-30. They are afterwards delivered from the Philistines by Shamgar, 31.

 

Verse 1:[1] Now these are (Judg. 2:21, 22) the nations which the LORD left, to prove Israel by them, even as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan…

[So that He might instruct] So that He might teach them, 1. to handle arms, 2. to serve God (Lapide). The same reason for the remaining nations is assigned in view of the sin of the Israelites, Judges 2:22 (Bonfrerius).

[That had not known the wars of the Canaanites] That is, That had taken no part in those wars (Bonfrerius): that had not known in what manner those battles against the Canaanites had been conducted (Vatablus): that had not been tested (Menochius). They retained the history in part, but were not attending to the singular judgments of God in those things (Junius).

As many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan: that is, Such who had no experience of those wars, nor of God’s extraordinary power and providence manifested in them.

 

Verse 2:[2] Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew nothing thereof…

[So that they might learn, etc.,רַ֗ק לְמַ֙עַן֙ דַּ֚עַת—לְלַמְּדָ֖ם מִלְחָמָ֑ה] [They render it variously.] Only that (or, that at least [Munster]) the generation of the children of Israel might know, and that He might teach them war (Pagnine, similarly Tigurinus, Munster). Only that they might know, to teach them war (English, similarly Jonathan, Junius and Tremellius). Only that they might know those (that is, the wars of Canaan), that He (that is, the Lord) might teach them war (Dutch). Only that they might become acquainted with…the wars, as He was teaching them war (Pisctor). Only, understand, Jehovah left those nations, that He might teach, etc., that is, so that they might learn in what manner wars were to be conducted (Vatablus); so that in this way they might be exercised in the military art (Menochius); so that the arts of war might be taught, which were previously unknown to them. For their fathers had routed the enemy, not by arms, and bows, etc., but only by the help, counsel, and command of God. But thereafter they set for themselves the business of learning military discipline, and from what preceptors it is immediately declared. And I think that this verse is to be read κατὰ σαρκασμὸν, in a manner in keeping with sarcasm (Montanus’ Commentary). So that they might become acquainted with how evil war is, as He was leaving them without His help (Piscator). So that they might learn what it is to do battle with the Canaanites, that is, how noxious wars are (Rabbis in Lapide). While they were undertaking the wars by their own military prowess, they were learning what it is to do battle, of which they were previously ignorant, since God did battle for them (Kimchi, Rabbi Salomon and Rabbi Levi[3] in Martyr). Thus Adam by eating learned good and evil (Lapide). Now ye shall feel what it is to fight with those that are stronger (Martyr). God willed that they learn by their disadvantage, how perilously they that have God as an enemy wage war, since the wars of their fathers were waged by Divine, not human, power (Munster).

Might know, to teach them war; that by the neighbourhood of such warlike potent enemies, they might be purged from sloth and security, and obliged to inure themselves to martial exercises, and to stand continually upon their guard, and consequently to keep close to that God whose assistance they had so great and constant need of.

[רַ֥ק אֲשֶׁר־לְפָנִ֖ים לֹ֥א יְדָעֽוּם׃] Only those that previously had not known them (Pagnine, Montanus, Piscator, similarly Drusius); at least those that previously knew nothing of them (Dutch, English, similarly Junius and Tremellius); since their ancestors (those that were before them [Munster]) had not known (Arabic, similarly Munster, Syriac). Truly those that, understanding, had been, previously, had not learned them, that is, had not known that art of war, because [thus it is to be read, not whereby, which begets an unsuitable sense] the Lord was fighting for them (Vatablus).

 

Verse 3:[4] Namely, (Josh. 13:3) five lords of the Philistines, and all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath.

[Five satraps[5]] See Joshua 13:3 (Grotius). Five satrapies (Septuagint), prefectures (Castalio), over which Satraps were put in charge (Martyr).

Five lords of the Philistines; whereof three had been in some sort subdued, Judges 1:18, but afterwards rescued themselves, and recovered their former strength. See on Judges 1:18.

[And every Canaanite] That is, scattered and remaining here and there (Bonfrerius). Joshua had destroyed a great many of the Canaanites (Lapide). These Canaanites, as they designate a particular/specific people, appear to have been more numerous than the others, and more widely dispersed, so that hence the remaining Canaanites might be named after these (Bonfrerius). The Canaanites here are the Phœnicians, who are often called Canaanites, as I said, in Joshua,[6] and Proverbs 31:24,[7] whence the Canaanite woman in Matthew 15:22 is called a Syrophenician by Mark.[8] For the Phœnicians were never conquered by the Hebrews; whence by way of explanation he subjoins, and the Sidonian. For Sidon was the capital of Phœnicia, so called after Sidon, son of Canaan, Genesis 10:15 (Lapide).

The Canaanites; properly so called, who were very numerous, and dispersed through several parts of the land whence they gave denomination to all the rest of the people. The Sidonians; the people living near Sidon, and subject to its jurisdiction.

[The Hivite…in Libanus[9]] The seat of the Hivites was in that place, as I said on Joshua 11:3 (Bonfrerius).

[From mount Baal-hermon] This region is described in a similar manner in Joshua 13:5 (Bonfrerius).

Mount Baal-hermon was the eastern part of Mount Lebanon: see Deuteronomy 3:8, 9.

 

Verse 4:[10] (Judg. 2:22) And they were to prove Israel by them, to know whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the LORD, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses.

[So that in them He might try Israel] So that, if the Israelites would not imitate their manners, the uprightness of the Israelites might appear; but if they should imitate them, their wickedness (Grotius).

To know, that is, that they and others might know by experience.

 

Verse 5:[11] (Ps. 106:35) And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites, Hittites, and Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites…

 

Verse 6:[12] And (Ex. 34:16; Deut. 7:3) they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods.

And served their gods: Were drawn to idolatry by the persuasions and examples of their yoke-fellows, through the just judgment of God, punishing their sinful marriages by giving them up to idolatry.

 

[circa 1406 BC] Verse 7:[13] (Judg. 2:11) And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their God, (Judg. 2:13) and served Baalim and (Ex. 34:13; Deut. 16:21; Judg. 6:25) the groves.

[Serving the Baalim and Ashtaroth (thus Jonathan, Syriac, Castalio), הָאֲשֵׁרוֹת] It is the proper name Ashtaroth (Munster, Tigurinus). Others translate it, the Groves (Pagnine, Osiander, Piscator, Septuagint, Montanus). It signifies the trees that are worshipped, or are planted unto the honor of an idol (Menochius). The Groves, that is, the idols of the groves, by Metonymy (Lapide, Piscator, Vatablus). The Pagans were wont to worship their gods in forests; Jove in oak forests (whence the oak of Dodona[14]); Apollo among the laurel trees (thence the temple of Apollo in Daphne[15]) (Martyr). Hence God commanded that the groves be destroyed[16] (Bonfrerius).

The groves; that is, In the groves, in which the heathens usually worshipped their Baalims or idols. Or, the groves are here put metonymically for the idols of the groves, which are distinguished here from their Baalim, which seem to have been worshipped in other places, as the prophets of Baal are distinguished from the prophets of the groves, 1 Kings 18:19.

 

[circa 1402 BC] Verse 8:[17] Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he (Judg. 2:14) sold them into the hand of (Hab. 3:7) Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia (Heb. Aram-naharaim[18]): and the children of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim eight years.

[King of Mesopotamia] The same is called the king of Syria in verse 10,[19] that is, Aram-Naharaim, that is, Syria of the two rivers,[20] or Mesopotamia[21] (Bonfrerius).

[And they served him] They were compelled to buy peace with oppressive tribute; yet not so that they might receive protection from that King. A similar thing soon in verses 12-14. And so it was an easy thing for them, with their courage recovered, to cast off such a burden, as the following things show (Grotius). It is likely that he first made an assault upon the Trans-jordanian Israelites, as closer to his own territory, and finally he penetrated beyond Jordan. The first oppressor was a Mesopotamian, which recalls Laban’s injustices toward Jacob into mind[22] (Lightfoot).

Served Chushan-rishathaim: that is, Were made subject and tributary to him.

 

[circa 1394 BC] Verse 9:[23] And when the children of Israel (Judg. 3:15; 4:3; 6:7; 10:10; 1 Sam. 12:10; Neh. 9:27; Ps. 22:5; 106:44; 107:13, 19) cried unto the LORD, the LORD (Judg. 2:16) raised up a deliverer (Heb. saviour[24]) to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even (Judg. 1:13) Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother.

Cried unto the Lord, that is, prayed fervently for deliverance.

[Caleb’s younger brother] Concerning which see on Judges 1:13 (Bonfrerius).

Caleb’s younger brother; of which see on Judges 1:13.

 

Verse 10:[25] And (see Num. 27:18; Judg. 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 1 Sam. 11:6; 2 Chron. 15:1) the Spirit of the LORD came (Heb. was[26]) upon him, and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the LORD delivered Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia (Heb. Aram[27]) into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushan-rishathaim.

[And the Spirit of the Lord was on him] That is, he began to be urged by the Lord’s spirit of valor (Vatablus, Munster). Strength, prudence, etc., were instilled in him by the Lord. That a manifest revelation was made to him by God, that he should undertake this war, Josephus[28] and the Chaldean maintain: but I rather think that it was an internal inspiration (Bonfrerius).

The Spirit of the Lord came upon him, with extraordinary influences, endowing him with singular wisdom, and courage, and resolution; and stirring him up to this great undertaking. Compare Judges 6:34; 11:29. He judged Israel, that is, pleaded and avenged the cause of Israel against their oppressors; as that phrase is oft used, as Deuteronomy 32:36; Psalm 10:18; 43:1.

 

Verse 11:[29] And the land had rest forty years. And Othniel the son of Kenaz died.

[And the land rested forty years] Question: How are these years to be reckoned? It is to be said by way of prefact that from the exodus out of Egypt to the beginning of the building of the Temple only four hundred and eighty years are numbered, which is affirmed by 1 Kings 6:1 (Bonfrerius, Tostatus, Ussher[30]). Those that affirm this with Scripture are compelled to assert that within the times of quiet mentioned here, and in verse 30, and in Judges 5:31, and in Judges 8:28, are included the years of war and servitude. Thus nearly all whom I have read (Bonfererius, thus Lightfoot). Objection: But how is the land able to be said to rest in the midst of such grievous calamities? Response: 1. It is no new thing, that to some whole number is ascribed what only agrees with part (especially if it is the greater part). Thus the sons of Jacob are said to have been born in Mesopotamia, Genesis 35:26, although Benjamin was born in Canaan.[31] Thus seventy came out of the loins of Jacob, Exodus 1:5, in which number Jacob himself is included. Thus there are seventy souls, Genesis 46:27, and seventy-five, Acts 7:14, which are said to have entered into Egypt with Jacob: yet in which number is comprehended Joseph with his sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. Thus, in Judges 8:30, Gideon had seventy sons, and, in Judges 9:5, these seventy are said to have been killed; yet from this number Jotham is to be removed. Thus, in Exodus 12:40, the dwelling of Israel in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years: but it is certain that they were in Egypt only for two hundred and ten or two hundred and fifteen years. [Concerning which see wht things we have noted on Exodus 12.] Therefore, it is not strange, if Scripture in this place should include within the forty years, thirty-two of which were characterized by quiet, which partly preceded the servitude, under the Elders [who are said to have survived Joshua, Judges 2] and the time of idolatry, and partly followed, with the King of Mesopotamia decisively defeated, the eight year of servitude in the midst; neither is it strange, if within the eighty year mentioned in verse 30, sixty-two of which were characterized by quiet, the eighteen years of servitude are inserted (Bonfrerius). In the same sense it is said in Numbers 14:33, your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and there bear your iniquities; not indeed in such a way that they might fulfill these forty years from the time when He spoke these things, but from the time of the exodus from Egypt. Thus in this passage the years of oppression are included in the forty years of quiet. It is indeed true that Paul reckons the years of the Judges in such a way that he distinguishes the years of oppression from the rest, Acts 13:20, where he speaks of the Judges through four hundred and fifty years unto Samuel; but he expresses himself with the particle ὡς/as/about, or a loose manner of reckoning, but not strictly and properly (Lightfoot). 2. That quiet, of which mention is made here, is not necessarily to be reckoned a quiet from servitude and battles, but it is able to signify a cessation from acting, that is, from new scandals, and the perpetration of idolatry, which would furnish for God occasion for a new calamity. The שָׁקַט often signifies whatever cessation and quiet from acting, as it is manifestly taken in Ruth 3:18;[32] Isaiah 18:4;[33] 62:1;[34] Jeremiah 47:6;[35] 48:11;[36] Ezekiel 16:42[37] (Bonfrerius). [But the Most Illustrious Ussher evades this inconvenience differently.] Willingly (says he) do we acknowledge that the times of war and servitude are to be distinguished from the time of quiet, but, with the notation of the years applied to the quiet of the land, we think that the beginning of that quiet, but not the duration either of that quiet or of the prefecture of the Judges, is designated. And so that וַתִּשְׁקֹט, and it rested, I translate, it began to rest; just as וַיּוֹלֶד, and he begat, in Genesis 5:32 and 11:26, is to be translated, he began to beget; and וַיִּבֶן, and he built, in 1 Kings 6:1,[38] is, he began to build: but when so many time in Scripture some King is said to be of so many or so many years בְמָלְכוֹ, in his reign, no one is able to doubt that that signifies when he began to reign.[39] And while in the notation of times this is the explanation of the numbers, that sometimes he indicates when some matter happened, sometimes how long it lasted; which two things the Greeks and the Latins often distinguish by varying the cases (which the Hebrews lack): in the years of oppression I accept the latter explanation, in the years of quiet the former; so that under Othniel, for example, the land rested, not for forty years, but in forty years, that is, in the fortieth year from some preceding epoch. Now, this epoch was that most celebrated rest established by Joshua, with the Canaanites subdued, etc., and mentioned in Joshua 11:23 and 14:15. Therefore, with the Mesopotamians conquered (in forty years after the beginning of that former quiet), quiet began to be restored, after the victory of Othniel unto his death (Ussher’s Sacred Chronology 197). The first forty years following the death of Joshua are ascribed here to the principate of Othniel: not because Othniel was the sole Ruler or Monarch in the land, for the Sanhedrin ruled in their places, and inferior Magistrates in theirs; but because Othniel was a powerful and successfor General in war (Lightfoot).

The land had rest; either, first, It rested about forty years, or the greatest part of forty years; it being most frequent in Scripture to use numbers in such a latitude. Thus the Israelites are said to bear their iniquities forty years in the wilderness, Numbers 14:34, when there wanted near two years of that number; and to dwell in Egypt four hundred and thirty years, when there wanted many years of that number.[40] Thus Joseph’s kindred, sent for and called by him into Egypt, are numbered seventy-five souls, Acts 7:14, although they were but seventy, as is affirmed, Genesis 46:27; Exodus 1:5. So here the land is said to rest forty years, although they were in servitude eight of those years, Judges 3:8. And in like manner the land is said to have rest eighty years, though eighteen of them they served the king of Moab, Judges 3:14. And so in some other instances. Nor is it strange and unusual, either in Scripture or in other authors, for things to be denominated from the greater part, as here it was; especially when they did enjoy some degrees of rest and peace, even in their times of slavery, which here they did. Or, secondly, It rested, that is, began to rest, or recovered its interrupted rest, in the fortieth year, either after Joshua’s death, or after the first and famous rest procured for them by Joshua, as is noted, Hebrews 4:9, when he destroyed and subdued the Canaanites, and gave them quiet possession of the land; and the land had rest from war, as is said, Joshua 11:23; 14:15. So there is this difference between the years of servitude and oppression, and those of rest, that in the former he tells us how long it lasted; in the latter, when it began; by which, compared with the other years, it was easy also to know how long the rest lasted. To strengthen this interpretation, two things must be noted. 1. That resting is here put for beginning to rest, as to beget is put for beginning to beget, Genesis 5:32; 11:26; and to reign, for to begin to reign, 2 Samuel 2:10; and to build, 1 Kings 6:15, 36, for to begin to build, 2 Chronicles 3:1. 2. That forty years is put for the fortieth year; the cardinal number for the ordinal, which is common both in the Holy Scripture, as Genesis 1:5; 2:11; Exodus 12:2; Haggai 1:1; Mark 16:2, and in other authors.

[1] Hebrew: וְאֵ֤לֶּה הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִנִּ֣יחַ יְהוָ֔ה לְנַסּ֥וֹת בָּ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֚ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יָדְע֔וּ אֵ֖ת כָּל־מִלְחֲמ֥וֹת כְּנָֽעַן׃

[2] Hebrew: רַ֗ק לְמַ֙עַן֙ דַּ֚עַת דֹּר֣וֹת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְלַמְּדָ֖ם מִלְחָמָ֑ה רַ֥ק אֲשֶׁר־לְפָנִ֖ים לֹ֥א יְדָעֽוּם׃

[3] Although little is known about the life of Levi ben Gershon, also known as Gersonides and Ralbag (1288-1344), his interests included, not only Biblical and Talmudic interpretation, but also philosophy, science, and mathematics.  His commentary on Judges is extant.

[4] Hebrew: חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת׀ סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וְכָל־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ וְהַצִּ֣ידֹנִ֔י וְהַ֣חִוִּ֔י יֹשֵׁ֖ב הַ֣ר הַלְּבָנ֑וֹן מֵהַר֙ בַּ֣עַל חֶרְמ֔וֹן עַ֖ד לְב֥וֹא חֲמָֽת׃

[5] That is, provincial governors.

[6] See, for example, Joshua 5:1.

[7] Proverbs 31:24:  “She maketh fine linen, and selleth it; and delivereth girdles unto the merchant (לַכְּנַעֲנִי, to the Canaanite).”  The Phœnicians were famous the world over for trade.

[8] Mark 7:26.

[9] The Libanus and Antilibanus are parallel mountain ranges, running north-south through Syria.

[10] Hebrew: וַֽיִּהְי֕וּ לְנַסּ֥וֹת בָּ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לָדַ֗עַת הֲיִשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֶת־מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה אֶת־אֲבוֹתָ֖ם בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה׃

[11] Hebrew: וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יָשְׁב֖וּ בְּקֶ֣רֶב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י הַחִתִּ֤י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי׃

[12] Hebrew: וַיִּקְח֙וּ אֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶ֤ם לָהֶם֙ לְנָשִׁ֔ים וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶ֖ם נָתְנ֣וּ לִבְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיַּעַבְד֖וּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃

[13] Hebrew: וַיַּעֲשׂ֙וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל אֶת־הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַֽיִּשְׁכְּח֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וַיַּעַבְד֥וּ אֶת־הַבְּעָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרֽוֹת׃

[14] The oak of Dodona was a sacred site dedicated to Zeus.  The priests of that place, even before the establishment of a sanctuary, would interpret the voice of the deity in the rustling of the branches and leaves.  It is said that a black dove landed upon the tree and spoke to the locals in human speech, declaring that an oracle should be established in that place.

[15] According to myth, Apollo became enamored with Daphne, a beautiful water-nymph.  She appealed to her father, the river-god Ladon, and to Gaia for help, and they transformed her into a laurel tree.  The laurel has ever been sacred in the worship of Apollo.  It is said that the first temple of Apollo in Delphi was made of Daphne/ laurel.

[16] Exodus 34:13; Deuteronomy 7:5; 12:3.

[17] Hebrew: וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֤ף יְהוָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיִּמְכְּרֵ֗ם בְּיַד֙ כּוּשַׁ֣ן רִשְׁעָתַ֔יִם מֶ֖לֶךְ אֲרַ֣ם נַהֲרָ֑יִם וַיַּעַבְד֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־כּוּשַׁ֥ן רִשְׁעָתַ֖יִם שְׁמֹנֶ֥ה שָׁנִֽים׃

[18] Hebrew: אֲרַ֣ם נַהֲרָ֑יִם.

[19] Judges 3:10b:  “…and the Lord delivered Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia (מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם, King of Aram; regem Syriæ, in the Vulgate) into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushan-rishathaim.”

[20] נָהָר signifies river; נַהֲרָיִם has the dual termination.

[21] Mesopotamia is a compound of μέσος/mesos/between and ποταμὸς/potamos/river.

[22] See Genesis 29-31.

[23] Hebrew: וַיִּזְעֲק֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּ֙קֶם יְהוָ֥ה מוֹשִׁ֛יעַ לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיּֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֑ם אֵ֚ת עָתְנִיאֵ֣ל בֶּן־קְנַ֔ז אֲחִ֥י כָלֵ֖ב הַקָּטֹ֥ן מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃

[24] Hebrew: מוֹשִׁיעַ.

[25] Hebrew: וַתְּהִ֙י עָלָ֥יו רֽוּחַ־יְהוָה֮ וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֣ט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיֵּצֵא֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ אֶת־כּוּשַׁ֥ן רִשְׁעָתַ֖יִם מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם וַתָּ֣עָז יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל כּוּשַׁ֥ן רִשְׁעָתָֽיִם׃

[26] Hebrew: וַתְּהִי.

[27] Hebrew: אֲרָם.

[28] Antiquities 5:3.

[29] Hebrew: וַתִּשְׁקֹ֥ט הָאָ֖רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּ֖מָת עָתְנִיאֵ֥ל בֶּן־קְנַֽז׃

[30] James Ussher (1580-1655) was an Irish churchman and scholar of the first rank, who eventually rose to the office of Archbishop of Ireland.  He is most remembered for his Annals of the World.

[31] Genesis 35:16-19.

[32] Ruth 3:18:  “Then said she, Sit still, my daughter, until thou know how the matter will fall:  for the man will not be in rest (לֹ֤א יִשְׁקֹט֙), until he have finished the thing this day.”

[33] Isaiah 18:4:  “For so the Lord said unto me, I will take my rest (אֶשְׁקוֹטָה), and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs, and like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest.”

[34] Isaiah 62:1:  “For Zion’s sake will I not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest (לֹ֣א אֶשְׁק֑וֹט), until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.”

[35] Jeremiah 47:6:  “O thou sword of the Lord, how long will it be ere thou be quiet (תִשְׁקֹטִי)? put up thyself into thy scabbard, rest, and be still.”

[36] Jeremiah 48:11:  “Moab hath been at ease from his youth, and he hath settled (וְשֹׁקֵט) on his lees, and hath not been emptied from vessel to vessel, neither hath he gone into captivity:  therefore his taste remained in him, and his scent is not changed.”

[37] Ezekiel 16:42:  “So will I make my fury toward thee to rest, and my jealousy shall depart from thee, and I will be quiet (וְשָׁקַטְתִּי), and will be no more angry.”

[38] 1 Kings 6:1:  “And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he built (וַיִּבֶן) the house of the Lord.”

[39] For example, 2 Kings 8:17:  “Thirty and two years old was he when he began to reign (בְמָלְכוֹ); and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.”

[40] See Exodus 12:40, 41; Galatians 3:17.

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