Joshua 6:20, 21: The Destruction of Jericho

Verse 20:[1] So the people shouted when the priests blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that (Josh. 6:5; Heb. 11:30) the wall fell down flat (Heb. under it[2]), so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city.

[With the people shouting, etc.] Hebrew: and the people shouted, and they sounded with trumpets.[3] It is a hysteron proteron: For the sounding of the trumpets was the signal to the people to shout. Hence Vatablus in his notes, The people shouted after they had sounded with horns (Bonfrerius). The people was howling while they were sounding the trumpets, that is, when they began to sound. Note the faith of the people, who with such a glad acclamation had celebrated the triumph, as having the victory in hand, before they had seen the wall fall (Masius).

 

Verse 21:[4] And they (Deut. 7:2) utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.

[And they killed all, etc.] Or, and they destroyed whatever was, etc. Note the singular restraint of the soldiers, that, although in need of all things, they abstained in such great abundance of all things, having been commanded with one little word, etc. But, that the elderly, children, infants, etc., are killed, it could appear to be cruelty and brutality. Responses: 1. The judgments of God (the reason of which far surpasses our understanding, Job 42:3) ought to be admired by mortals with modesty and submission, and not to be evaluated according to our reasonings perplexed with manifold darkness and error, Job 40:2. 2. Life itself is the gratuitous gift of God; and no one is able to complain whenever He that gave freely recalls it again. 3. All sin is such a foul thing, even that common defect of human origin, that by no sufficiently worthy punishment is it able to be expiated according to the righteousness of God. By that defect, if infants be expurgated, God has not caused them pain to punish, but so that He might bless them with greater glory (Masius). They urge Exodus 20:5. [See the response in the Notes on that place.]

They utterly destroyed all, etc.: Being commanded to do so by the sovereign Lord of every man’s life; and being informed by God before that the Canaanites were abominably wicked, and deserved the severest punishments. As for the infants, they were guilty of original sin, and otherwise at the disposal of their Creator, as the clay is in the hands of the potter; but if they had been wholly innocent, it was a great favour to them to take them away in infancy, rather than reserve them to those dreadful calamities which those who survived them were liable to.

[1] Hebrew: וַיָּ֣רַע הָעָ֔ם וַֽיִּתְקְע֖וּ בַּשֹּֽׁפָר֑וֹת וַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֙עַ הָעָ֜ם אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַשּׁוֹפָ֗ר וַיָּרִ֤יעוּ הָעָם֙ תְּרוּעָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וַתִּפֹּ֙ל הַֽחוֹמָ֜ה תַּחְתֶּ֗יהָ וַיַּ֙עַל הָעָ֤ם הָעִ֙ירָה֙ אִ֣ישׁ נֶגְדּ֔וֹ וַֽיִּלְכְּד֖וּ אֶת־הָעִֽיר׃

[2] Hebrew: תַּחְתֶּיהָ.

[3] Hebrew: וַיָּ֣רַע הָעָ֔ם וַֽיִּתְקְע֖וּ בַּשֹּֽׁפָר֑וֹת.

[4] Hebrew: וַֽיַּחֲרִ֙ימוּ֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּעִ֔יר מֵאִישׁ֙ וְעַד־אִשָּׁ֔ה מִנַּ֖עַר וְעַד־זָקֵ֑ן וְעַ֙ד שׁ֥וֹר וָשֶׂ֛ה וַחֲמ֖וֹר לְפִי־חָֽרֶב׃

Joshua 6:18: Herem-Warfare against Jericho, Part 2

Verse 18:[1] And ye, (Deut. 7:26; 13:17; Josh. 7:1, 11, 12) in any wise keep yourselves from the accursed thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed, when ye take of the accursed thing, and make the camp of Israel a curse, (Josh. 7:25; 1 Kings 18:17, 18; Jonah 1:12) and trouble it.

[But beware, etc. (thus the Syriac), take heed to yourselves (Arabic), וְרַק־אַתֶּם֙ שִׁמְר֣וּ מִן־הַחֵ֔רֶם] And only keep yourselves from the accursed thing (Montanus). Keep, understanding, yourselves, which they more usually express by הִשָּׁמְרוּ[2] (Drusius). Keep yourselves, etc., that is, each of you thyself, and others themselves. See Joshua 7:1 (Junius).

[Lest concerning these things that are prohibited, etc.,פֶּֽן־תַּחֲרִ֖ימוּ וּלְקַחְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַחֵ֑רֶם] Lest ye be accursed, that is, lest ye lay hold of the accursed thing. The ו/and is set down exegetically in וּלְקַחְתֶּם, and, or that is, ye take (Drusius out of Kimchi, Lapide out of Masius). Lest perchance, while laying waste, ye lay hold of the Herem[3] (Tigurinus). Lest perchance ye touch anything of what is accursed, and bear away of what is accursed (Pagnine). Lest ye make yourselves accursed, taking of that accursed thing (Junius and Tremellius, similarly the Dutch, Serarius, Bonfrerius). But yourselves is not in the text (Dieu). The Chaldean renders it best, lest ye devote, and receive of the devoted thing; that is, lest, after ye have devoted, ye receive of the devoted thing: lest at one and the same time ye devote, and yet lay hold of those things; for both were not able to stand together: that is to say, Beware, therefore, lest ye do two contrary things (Dieu).

[And all the camps be under sin, וְשַׂמְתֶּם וגו״] And ye put the camps of Israel for an accursed thing, namely, with the occasion of this thing presented. Sometimes an action is attributed, and an active verb, to one concurring through circumstances with an action or effect, although it be not intended by the agent (Glassius’ “Grammar” 298).

[And it be troubled, וַעֲכַרְתֶּם] And ye trouble (Montanus, Jonathan, Syriac, Junius and Tremellius), ye find fault with (Arabic). In the word עָכַר/achar, there is κατὰ παρονομασίαν, by paronomasia,[4] a prelude, as it were, of that matter which shall be narrated in the next chapter: For that man is called both Achar[5] and Achan (Masius).

Make the camp of Israel a curse, by provoking God to punish them for your sin, in which they may be one way or other involved; or at least upon the occasion of your sin: for, to speak properly God will not (the case of Adam’s sin only excepted) punish one man for the sin of another, as he hath oft declared; but the whole camp having sins of their own, God might take what occasion he saw fit to inflict this punishment.

[1] Hebrew: וְרַק־אַתֶּם֙ שִׁמְר֣וּ מִן־הַחֵ֔רֶם פֶּֽן־תַּחֲרִ֖ימוּ וּלְקַחְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַחֵ֑רֶם וְשַׂמְתֶּ֞ם אֶת־מַחֲנֵ֤ה יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְחֵ֔רֶם וַעֲכַרְתֶּ֖ם אוֹתֽוֹ׃

[2] In the case of שָׁמַר, the Niphal conjugation can convey a reflexive sense.

[3] Hebrew: חֵרֶם/herem, an accursed thing.

[4] That is, a play on words.

[5] 1 Chronicles 2:7:  “And the sons of Carmi; Achar, the troubler of Israelעָכָר֙ עוֹכֵ֣ר) יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל), who transgressed in the thing accursed.”

Joshua 6:16: The Seventh Day’s March, Part 2

Verse 16:[1] And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the LORD hath given you the city.

[And when…they sounded] That is, when they prepared to blow their horns (Masius). This is only the preparation for sounding; the execution and event is in verse 20. For the following instruction could hardly be given and received with the horns sounding (Malvenda). This blast was ordinary, not singular (Masius). [Others otherwise:] The blast was unusual, otherwise it could not be a sign to shout (Bonfrerius).

[And he said to all Israel] Question: How was this possible? Responses: 1. He said it to those near, and these to others, etc. (Lapide, Bonfrerius). 2. He proclaimed it through heralds; or, through the princes and heads of the families (Lapide); or through certain men stationed at certain places (Bonfrerius).

Shout, to testify your faith in God’s promise, and thankfulness for this glorious mercy, and to encourage yourselves and brethren, and to strike a terror into your enemies.

[He has delivered to you] It appears that this was now promulgated for the first time, and that he had led the people in their circuit in hope, but an uncertain one; whereby the obedience of the people shines all the more, who were so eagerly compliant to him (Masius).

[1] Hebrew: וַיְהִי֙ בַּפַּ֣עַם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔ית תָּקְע֥וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים בַּשּׁוֹפָר֑וֹת וַיֹּ֙אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ אֶל־הָעָם֙ הָרִ֔יעוּ כִּֽי־נָתַ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָעִֽיר׃

Joshua 6:15: The Seventh Day’s March, Part 1

Verse 15:[1]  And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times:  only on that day they compassed the city seven times.

[On the seventh day]  They deliver by tradition that it was the Sabbath (Hebrews in Lapide).  But the Rabbis divine in their customary manner.  Nevertheless, one of the seven days undoubtedly was the day of the Sabbath (Bonfrerius).  Hence Marcion[2] charges inconstancy upon God (the God of the Old Testament), who elsewhere commands to rest, here to circle the city.  But Tertullian responds:  On the Sabbath human works are prohibited, not Divine:  but those that God commands are Divine[3] (Masius on verse 4).  He fixed the Law for the Jews, not for Himself (Lapide).  It was dispensed with by God (Bonfrerius).

[Early, כַּעֲל֣וֹת הַשַּׁ֔חַר]  When the dawn was ascending (Junius and Tremellius, Vatablus, similarly Montanus, Malvenda, Arabic).  With Dawn beginning, or otherwise, with Dawn vanishing or departing, after Dawn (Malvenda).  With twilight rising[4] (Masius).  When the present ceremony is chiefly observed in the septenary number (for there are seven priests, seven horns, seven days, seven circuits), it will not be unsuitable to spend a little time looking into the mystery of its number.  Among all the matter is acknowledged, that God, as it were, hallowed this number on the seventh day, on which He abstained from creating things.  And thence there was always a singular veneration of this number among profane writers (who had drawn the doctrine of Divine things from Moses); and Cicero calls it the intersection point of all things;[5] and Linus, a most ancient Poet,[6] calls it the origin of all things.[7]  Therefore, this appears to be the source of this mystery.  The world consists of six parts:  which are, 1.  Angels; 2.  the Elements; 3.  inanimate Bodies, of which sort are metals, stones, etc.; 4.  Φυτὰ/plants, which live, but are without sense and motion; 5.  brute Animals; 6.  Man, who of those parts which we have mentioned is, as it were, the intersection and bond, in whom the very universe of things is comprehended in a most beautiful harmony.  Now, that those six dualities, if I might speak thus, of created things subsist, and do not return to nothing in the same moment, God willed to refer to His origination of them, from which they are to be continually sustained.  Therefore, that group of six, as it proceeds from the first Unity, God, as the source, so it is returned to it again, and ends in it; and into that ought all our counsels, actions, etc., to be referred.  And God appears to will this, in that He sets this number everywhere before our eyes.  Therefore, the Sabbath appears to be the mystery of the Septenary unity, and that Rest, in which God abstained from creating things, and, as it were, returned unto that, His abyss of eternity, as if unto quiet, but in such a way that He was already then leading the things created by Him with Him to that, His quiet in a certain measure, and not sending them away from Himself (Masius).

[As it was appointed]  Hebrew:  according to this judgment[8] (Malvenda, Bonfrerius, Piscator); according to manner, or custom (Pagnine, Tigurinus, the Chaldean in Bonfrerius).

[1] Hebrew: וַיְהִ֣י׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י וַיַּשְׁכִּ֙מוּ֙ כַּעֲל֣וֹת הַשַּׁ֔חַר וַיָּסֹ֧בּוּ אֶת־הָעִ֛יר כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט הַזֶּ֖ה שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֑ים רַ֚ק בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא סָבְב֥וּ אֶת־הָעִ֖יר שֶׁ֥בַע פְּעָמִֽים׃

[2] Marcion (c. 85-160) was a Gnostic heretic from Sinope, Turkey.  He was very influential in the early Church, in spite of being excommunicated.  Marcion asserted that the God of the Old Testament was a lesser demiurge, a God of law, strict justice, and wrath.  The God of the New Testament is a God of love and grace, revealed in Jesus Christ, and purely preached by Paul.  It is not surprising that Marcion rejected all of the Old Testament, and the New Testament books that speak favorably of the God of the Old Testament.  Marcion’s canon consisted of an expurgated edition of Luke and ten of Paul’s epistles.

[3] Against Marcion 4:12.

[4]  שַׁחַרmay be related to the verbal root שָׁחַר, to be black.

[5] Scipio’s Dream 5.

[6] Linus was an ancient Greek poet.  It is said that he was the son of Amphimarus, son of Poseidon, and Ourania, the Muse.

[7] Eusebius’ Preparation of the Gospel 13:12.

[8] Joshua 6:15a:  “And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner (כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט הַזֶּ֖ה) seven times…”

Joshua 6:8, 9: The Procession around Jericho

Verse 8:[1] And it came to pass, when Joshua had spoken unto the people, that the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams’ horns passed on before the LORD, and blew with the trumpets: and the ark of the covenant of the LORD followed them.

 

Verse 9:[2] And the armed men went before the priests that blew with the trumpets, (Num. 10:25) and the rereward (Heb. gathering[3] host) came after the ark, the priests going on, and blowing with the trumpets.

[The remaining common people (thus the Septuagint), וְהַמְאַסֵּף] And the assembling, or gathering (Munster, Vatablus, Pagnine, Montanus, Piscator). Each one gathering, that is, who were, as it were, gathering, that is, concluding, the battle line (Piscator). Who were concluding the procession (Masius out of the Septuagint). They understand the Danites, who are called מְאַסֵּף, the rearward, Numbers 10:25 (Vatablus, Munster, Masius, Junius, Lyra). [See the notes on that place.] The last troop (Tigurinus), the gathered host (Munster), who were gathered by troops (Syriac), mixed multitudes (Arabic). The Elders, and with them the multitude of wives, children, etc. The multitude is elsewhere called אֲסַפְסֻף, Numbers 11:4[4] (Bonfrerius). They maintain that the armed men went before, the unarmed and the common people followed (Masius).

The rereward being opposed to the armed men, may seem to note the unarmed people, who were desirous to be spectators of this wonderful work.

[And all were sounding with horns,הָל֖וֹךְ וְתָק֥וֹעַ ] Going and sounding (Montanus, Drusius, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Bonfrerius), that is, while it went on and was sounding with trumpets. Thus the Hebrews are wont to explain gerunds and infinitives impersonally (Bonfrerius). The sense: by sounding more and more. Thus, the water was going and increasing, that is, were increasing more and more. By proceeding and blowing (Masius). Performing the march, they were sounding (Syriac). Question: Who then was sounding? Response 1: Not the priests only, but also the people. For that the Vulgate and Septuagint are clearly signifying (Lapide). Response 2: The priests only (Jonathan, Junius, Piscator, Masius, Bonfrerius, Drusius). 1. For it belonged to them, not to others, to sound the horns, which were representing the voice of God to the people (Masius, similarly Bonfrerius). 2. The people were commanded to be silent, verse 10 (Masius). But this was a silence of voice and shouting, not of horns and sounding (Lapide).

The priests; which is rightly supplied here from verse 4.

[1] Hebrew: וַיְהִ֗י כֶּאֱמֹ֣ר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֮ אֶל־הָעָם֒ וְשִׁבְעָ֣ה הַכֹּהֲנִ֡ים נֹשְׂאִים֩ שִׁבְעָ֙ה שׁוֹפְר֤וֹת הַיּֽוֹבְלִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה עָבְר֕וּ וְתָקְע֖וּ בַּשּֽׁוֹפָר֑וֹת וַֽאֲרוֹן֙ בְּרִ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה הֹלֵ֖ךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶֽם׃

[2] Hebrew: וְהֶחָל֣וּץ הֹלֵ֔ךְ לִפְנֵי֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים תָּקְעוּ֖ הַשּֽׁוֹפָר֑וֹת וְהַֽמְאַסֵּ֗ף הֹלֵךְ֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הָאָר֔וֹן הָל֖וֹךְ וְתָק֥וֹעַ בַּשּׁוֹפָרֽוֹת׃

[3] Hebrew: וְהַמְאַסֵּף.

[4] Numbers 11:4a:  “And the mixt multitude (וְהָאסַפְסֻף) that was among them fell a lusting…”

Joshua 6:6, 7: Joshua Implements the Captain’s Plan

Verse 6:[1] And Joshua the son of Nun called the priests, and said unto them, Take up the ark of the covenant, and let seven priests bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark of the LORD.

 

Verse 7:[2] And he said unto the people, Pass on, and compass the city, and let him that is armed pass on before the ark of the LORD.

[He said] The Kethib is וַיֹּאמְרוּ, and they said, understanding Joshua and the priests; and the Qere is וַיֹּאמֶר, and he said, understanding Joshua alone (Drusius).

[Armed (thus Jonathan, Syriac, Vatablus), וְהֶחָלוּץ[3]] Light-armed (Montanus, Drusius, Junius and Tremellius, Piscator), everyone that has his loins girded with arms (Drusius); ready for action (Masius); trained (Arabic). Concerning this word, see Joshua 1:14 (Masius). Extracted, or chosen, namely, from the multitude (Malvenda). Centurions (Tigurinus). It is likely that this was an order to soldiers to go around the city, verse 3; permission to the common people (Masius). Question: Why were they armed? Responses: 1. God wills that we cooperate with Him. 2. So that, having entered the city, they might slaughter its citizens (Lapide).

Let him that is armed, etc.: God would have them armed, both for the defence of themselves and the ark, in case the enemies should make a sally upon them, and for the execution of the Lord’s vengeance upon that city.

[1] Hebrew: וַיִּקְרָ֞א יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ בִּן־נוּן֙ אֶל־הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם שְׂא֖וּ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֑ית וְשִׁבְעָ֣ה כֹֽהֲנִ֗ים יִשְׂאוּ֙ שִׁבְעָ֤ה שֽׁוֹפְרוֹת֙ יוֹבְלִ֔ים לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָֽה׃

[2] Hebrew: וַ֙יֹּאמְרוּ֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם עִבְר֖וּ וְסֹ֣בּוּ אֶת־הָעִ֑יר וְהֶ֣חָל֔וּץ יַעֲבֹ֕ר לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָֽה׃

[3] חָלַץ can signify to draw off, or to equip for war.

Chapter 6:5: The Captain’s Battle Plan, Part 4

Verse 5:[1] And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat (Heb. under it[2]), and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him.

[And when the voice of the trumpet will have sounded longer and choppier[3]] This sound is uneven (Bonfrerius). A sound is broken up, when it is cut short by some brief delay and repeated (Menochius).

[בִּמְשֹׁךְ] In prolonging (Montanus); when they shall prolong the sounding (Pagnine); when he, namely, the priest, shall draw out the sound (Piscator); when they shall sound more at greater length (Vatablus, Kimchi in Drusius, similarly Munster); when it shall be sounded in a long and drawn out manner (Junius and Tremellius, Kimchi in Drusius); when they shall blow with a prolonged sound (Masius); when they will have intensified the sound (Tigurinus); when they will have made to ring (Syriac). מָשַׁךְ, to draw, is used in the place of תָּקַע, to blow or sound (Masius).

When they make a long blast, as is usual in the close of musical sounds.

[With a shout, תְּרוּעָה] All the ancients render it a shout, or a cry; a shrieking (Drusius). This cry is ἀλαλαγμὸς, a shouting, to the Greeks; barritus, a battle-cry, to Vegetius (Grotius out of Drusius), which soldiers give out in the coming together of battle lines (Drusius).

[The walls shall fall] Hebrew: the wall shall fall[4] (Montansu, Pagnine, Drusius, Masius, Tigurinus).

[תַּחְתֶּיהָ] Under itself (Montanus, Pagnine, Drusius, Masius, Tigurinus), beneath itself (Munster); it shall fall into a trench (Malvenda), in its place (Arabic, Junius and Tremellius, Masius, Vatablus), upon its place (Syriac). Others: of itself (the Septuagint and Aquila in Masius), that is to say, with no siege engine impelling (Masius). It shall be sucked into the earth (Vatablus out of Jonathan). Hence the Hebrews think that the wall did not fall, but rather sunk down, with the earth gaping. Which is vain (Masius). It shall fall beneath itself, that is, from its foundations, from the bottom (Malvenda). Below themselves, below that place and site which they were previously holding, downward (Bonfrerius). But what happened to Rahab, whose house stood in the wall?[5] Responses: 1. All the walls did not fall (Masius), but only that part which was looking toward the camp of the Israelites. Wall here is put in the place of a part of the wall (Drusius). 2. It is not necessary for apartments, which adhere to unconnected walls, to fall with those (Masius).

The wall of the city; not all of it, which was not only unnecessary, but inconvenient, and might have given the people better opportunity of escaping; but only a considerable part of it, where the Israelites might fitly enter; for Rahab’s house was not overthrown, verse 22. Flat, Hebrew, under it, that is, below the place they stood in; or, in its place: it was not battered down with engines, which would have made part of it fall out of its place; but it fell out without any force, and of its own accord, and therefore in the place it did formerly stand in.

[1] Hebrew: וְהָיָ֞ה בִּמְשֹׁ֣ךְ׀ בְּקֶ֣רֶן הַיּוֹבֵ֗ל בְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַשּׁוֹפָ֔ר יָרִ֥יעוּ כָל־הָעָ֖ם תְּרוּעָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וְנָ֙פְלָ֜ה חוֹמַ֤ת הָעִיר֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יהָ וְעָל֥וּ הָעָ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ נֶגְדּֽוֹ׃

[2] Hebrew: תַּחְתֶּיהָ.

[3] Thus the Vulgate: cumque insonuerit vox tubae longior atque concisior.

[4] Hebrew: וְנָ֙פְלָ֜ה חוֹמַ֤ת.

[5] Joshua 2:15.

Joshua 6:1: Jericho Shut Up by Israelites

Verse 1:[1] Now Jericho was straitly shut up (Heb. did shut up, and was shut up[2]) because of the children of Israel: none went out, and none came in.

[Shut up and fortified (thus the Septuagint, similarly the Chaldean), סֹגֶ֣רֶת וּמְסֻגֶּ֔רֶת] Closing and closed (Vatablus, Junius and Tremellius). It was closing its men or citizens within itself, lest anyone should venture out; and it was closed, lest anyone (that is, of the enemies) enter (Hebrews in Vatablus, Masius, Bonfrerius). Closed and secured (Munster); shut up most diligently (Pagnine, Munster). He doubles the same thing, so that he might indicate that it was completely shut up (Vatablus). The Chaldean thus: It was shut up with iron gates, and secured with bars of copper…. There was no one that went out to fight, nor that entered to bargain for peace. For thus the Complutensian[3] Manuscript exemplar, which is in my hands, has it (Masius). This is inserted to show why Joshua was in need of a new confirmation, since the first city so strongly protects itself. Such vigorous and vigilant watch-keeping marvelously illustrates the miracle (Masius).

Straitly shut up; not only by night, as before, Joshua 2:5, but constantly and diligently.

[For fear, etc.] Before the crossing of Jordan, they were only closing the gates with darkness coming on (Masius).

[1] Hebrew: וִֽירִיחוֹ֙ סֹגֶ֣רֶת וּמְסֻגֶּ֔רֶת מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֥ין יוֹצֵ֖א וְאֵ֥ין בָּֽא׃

[2] Hebrew: סֹגֶ֣רֶת וּמְסֻגֶּ֔רֶת.

[3] The Complutensian Polyglot (taking its name from the university in Alcalá [Complutum, in Latin]; 1514) contained the first printed edition of the Septuagint, Jerome’s Vulgate, the Hebrew Text, Targum Onkelos with a Latin translation, and the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament.  The labor of the scholars was superintended by Cardinal Francisco Ximénez de Cisneros.